It really seemed out of place to venture into this vast Pacific Ocean, the largest, 166 million square kilometres, the deepest 10 000 meters in the Mariana Islands, Kuril and the Philippines, the most shaken, about 800 tsunamis a century nearly 17% of Japan, and the current El Nino, near the coastal Peru and Ecuador in global secondary consequences. Yet when I started to visit Japan, I did not expect to continue my quest prehistoric as you will read.
It is therefore established that the Pacific was populated from Taiwan (Formosa). Linguistic research give common Austronesian origins to Polynesia as in Madagascar. According to the countries visited, the authors seem quite agree. I take three examples of authors: In Sumatra, in 3000 BC it raises the movement of the South China to Taiwan. Then in 2000 BC Taiwan to the Philippines, and finally to Indonesia and Sumatra. Map Date fairly migration. We note that in 1706 Reland had raised a linguistic concordance between Malay, Malagasy and Futuna. In Bali, the South China starting to Taiwan is noted there 4,000 years, roughly 2000 BC and 1500 BC Taiwan to the Philippines and Indonesia. It also falls to the similarity of the Austronesian languages whose birthplace is Taiwan. Asia is finally notes the great departure of modern Man to Australia between 40 and 70 000 years. In Indonesia, there are the same great departure to Australia and New Guinea. Then in 2000 BC modern man since Taiwan to the Philippines and 1500 BC Austronesian migration to Indonesia and the Pacific. On the map, there are even the movement to Easter Island and Hawaii. Everyone seems to agree on the origin of Taiwan. But then, what about the stand of Taiwan? We will see in the chapter that the island in question
was populated from the continent, that is to say, the South China, and that legitimate settlement from West to East from Europe.
I took the card presented to the chapter on Madagascar to clarify that I am not the author, the latter having studied the migration with a great opportunity. I thank him. To fill this vastness, there must be ultra populated island of Taiwan. Where are these candidates for migration?
Oceania is a vast region encompassing the territories located in the Pacific Ocean. She is one of seven traditional divisions of the land surface of the planet. It includes Australia, New Zealand, eastern Indonesia and New Guinea and other islands and archipelagos. In Australia most of its surface, and while the rest of Oceania cannot be treated only as a group of islands, the mainland of Australia may itself be regarded as the smallest continent.
Oceania and its five major subdivisions.
Oceania is a geographical entity whose boundaries are discussed, but usually includes the Wallacea (southeast of present-day Indonesia), Australia, New Guinea, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Its prehistoric settlement has been through two major waves of migration. The first occurred there from 45 to 50 000 years or more, and brought hunter-gatherers to populate the East Indies and the near Oceania, that is to say of New Guinea, some islands Melanesia and Australia. The second wave is more recent and begins there are about 6,000 years. It leads farmers and sailors speaking Austronesian languages to populate the East Indies or the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia. From Indonesia, it leads, there are 3 500 to 4 000 years, these Austronesian navigators to the islands of Oceania itself: Wallacea (southeast of Indonesia), Micronesia, Melanesia and coasts New Guinea. Further east, the navigators were the first to achieve, there are about 3500 years Polynesia (population of Tonga, west of Polynesia, there are about 3300 years) and there probably a millennium, South America. Finally, parties outside of Oceania (probably from Borneo), further west, Austronesian speaking languages barito reached there 1500 years the African island of Madagascar which thus became, linguistically, Pacific's fourth largest island. Throughout this course, the people of the first and second wave of settlement were quite extensively crossbred, both culturally and biologically. The question of the origin of Pacific was one of the major themes of the Pacific Research since the nineteenth century. If it was today, thanks to archeology, linguistic, ethnolinguistic, ethnobotany or genetic research, nearly a response consistent to that, many issues remain unresolved. You see, reader friend, that the definitions of Oceania divergent and not very clearly defined limits, which only increases the blur in the stand that results. The presence of the genus Homo in Oceania is old. So Homo erectus reached the first part of the world it is 1 million years, and could have survived as recently as 25,000 years, or even for some of his descendants, more recently, if the hypothesis of existence of Flores Man as a valid species is confirmed. This first settlement did not stay on the mainland in the region. As the settlement of the island of Flores, the archaic early humans were able to cross the inlet to populate the nearby islands. But this very old settlement by Homo erectus (at least -840 000 years on the island of Flores) did not exceed the current Wallacea, in the far west of Oceania. Some researchers have postulated a genetic continuity, or at least a partial interbreeding between modern humans (Homo sapiens) in the region and recent Homo erectus. Genetic studies, however, seem to contradict this thesis. Contrary to the claims of gene flow (as part of a regional continuity) between H. erectus and H. sapiens, we found no ancestral lines of the Y chromosome [transmitted by men] in a group of 1209 samples. This finding rules out the possibility that early hominids have contributed significantly to
1 the paternal heritage of the region. Current research has revealed at least two waves of settlement of modern humans, but not totally exclude the hypothesis an intermediate wave.
The first modern human migrations across the Sunda to the banks of the Wallacea are poorly known and date back to -60000 years. The Sunda Shelf is an extension of the Asian continent. It supports the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali and Borneo (part of which belongs to Malaysia.) These were attached to the mainland for long periods when the sea level was lower than today. Its name comes from Sunda, which means the western part of Java, whose inhabitants speak a language, Sundanese, Javanese distinct from 1 Hence the phenomenon of regression. We will find that there is not the same culture: indeed, the continent will be separated by the rising waters and do not live the arrival of Modern Men. Folded on themselves, aboriginal survive without significant development, almost to regression and extinction.
spoken by the inhabitants of the center and east of the island. Sunda is separated from the biogeographical area known Wallacea by the Wallace Line, named after the naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace, who had noticed differences in the fauna of mammals and birds on both sides of the line. Current Sunda Islands, west of the line, namely Sumatra, Java, Bali and Borneo, share the same mammalian fauna with that of Southeast Asia, including tigers, rhinos and primates. During the ice age, the sea level was much lower, uniting most of these islands to the Asian continent and allowing the animals to come Asian inhabit these islands.
Estimated maps early human migration between -60 and -40 000 years.
We can already say that the settlement took place from Asia, thanks to the continental shelf shown here in light blue. Indeed, much of it was to be short when the Würm glaciation, and gradually immersed with glacial fonts that followed. We find this in the texts coming.
View of the continental shelf, shown in Light Blue
The Wallacea is a biogeographical area that includes all the islands located beyond Java and Borneo, between Southeast Asia and Oceania close. It corresponds to areas that have not been fully occupied by
placental mammals, due to their geographical isolation and the depth of the water around them (as Sumatra, Java and Borneo were attached to the mainland for long periods, especially when the sea level was lower). According to the authors, it is attached to Oceania or Asia. His biogeographic characteristics (late and incomplete colonization placental mammals) rather closer to the Oceania.
The likely extent to Sahul eighteenth millennium BC (the sea level was lower then 150 meters). Sahul is the name of the continental shelf which parties emerged today Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea. The term formerly used to denote only the immersed parts, now used to refer to all continental emerged there are more than 10 000 years (the end of the last ice age), when the sea level was more than 100 meters low and that the majority of this plateau was then emerged (Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea joined by land bridges), forming a single continent called Sahul.
Stand by man: Since there has never been a territorial continuity between Asia and New Guinea and Australia, this raises the problem of the colonization of the area by man. But archaeological excavations prove a human presence to 40,000 years BP northwest of this continental assembly, suggesting that the man was already used at the time of maritime vessels to cross the line and the Wallace Timor Sea from the Indonesian islands. However, the emergence of most of the land of the continental shelf between 40 000 and 10 000 years BP has promoted human spread of this new continent: the Arafura Sea and Torres Strait between New Guinea and Australia is dry, they acted like real land bridges to allow humans to populate the current Australia. Same thing between Australia and Tasmania in the south, Bass Strait him being too dry during this period. It is not unlikely that these bridges were alternately opened and closed several times over the millennia.
Immersion of Sahul: around 10 000 years BP begins the period of the Holocene characterized by global warming and melting ice sheets. The sea level rises gradually over the following millennia to the present level. The seas and continental shelf of the straits are gradually submerged, leaving not exceed Sahul that New Guinea, Australia and Tasmania.