TUTORIAL 7: TACITUS AND THE PROBLEM OF IMPERIAL HISTORY The aim of this tutorial is to consider the practice of history writing in imperial Rome with particular focus on one of the most challenging historians: Tacitus, and his best known work, theA n n a l sand consider the choices that are always inherent in writing history. Read the extracts and consider the following questions for discussion in the tutorial: 1)Beginnings (A n n a l s1.1-3) •What do you make of the beginning of the Annals? What point is Tacitus trying to make? •How does he set his own history within the greater scheme of Roman history? •How does he describe his project? •Why do you think Tacitus chooses to begin his imperial history where he does? •Where would you begin and why? •How reasonable a summary does Tacitus give of the fall of the Republic and the rise of Augustus? How does it compare with other accounts you have looked at? 2)The impartial historian •What does Tacitus have to say about writing history under the Emperors?•What do you think of his claim to write ‘without anger and without partiality (sine ira et studio)?3)Hearsay and drama (1.5-6) •How does Tacitus use hearsay and insinuation to tell his story here?•Is this impartial history?4)The proper object of history (A n n a l s4.32-3) •What does Tacitus suggest ought to be the “proper”object of history?•How does he present the subject of his own work?•What utility does he say can be found in concentrating on “trivialities”?•Do you agree?5)Tacitus and tyranny •‘Tacitus teaches those who live under tyrants the mode of life and how to govern oneself prudently and he teaches tyrants how to establish tyranny [Francesco Guicciardini (1583-1540) author ofThe History of Italy]•“Tacitus. of all others the greatest enemy to Tyrants” [John Milton]•What do you make of these assessments of Tacitus? Do you think he was against tyranical emperors only or imperial government in general?Suggested Secondary Reading (this may well help!) •*Duff, T.E. (2003)The Greek and Roman Historians: chs 8 and 9 (a good, simple introduction)•Martin, R. (1981)Tacitus•Mellor, R. (1993)Tacitus•Percival, J. (1980) ‘Tacitus and the Principate,Greece and Rome27: 119-133
Tacitus,A n n al s (NB: you might not find Tacitus easy-reading at first sight, but persevere!) BOOK 1 1. Rome at the beginning was ruled by kings. Freedom and the consulship were established by Lucius Brutus. Dictatorships were a temporary expedient: the power of the decemvirs did not last beyond two years, nor was the consular jurisdiction of the military tribunes of long duration. The despotisms of Cinna and Sulla were brief; the rule of Pompey and of Crassus soon yielded before Caesar; the arms of Lepidus and Antony before Augustus; who, when the world was wearied by civil strife, subjected it to empire under the title of "Prince." But the successes and reverses of the old Roman people have been recorded by famous historians; and fine intellects were not wanting to describe the times of Augustus, till growing sycophancy scared them away. The histories of Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, while they were in power, were falsified through terror, and after their death were written under the influence of still rankling hatreds. Hence my plan is to treat a small part (the concluding one) of Augustus reign, then the reign of Tiberius, and all which follows, without anger and without partiality, from the motives of which I stand sufficiently removed. 2. When after the destruction of Brutus and Cassius there was no longer any army of the Republic, when Pompey was crushed in Sicily, and when, with Lepidus pushed aside and Antony slain, even the Julian faction had only Caesar left to lead it, then, dropping the title of triumvir, and giving out that he was a Consul, and was satisfied with a tribune's authority for the protection of the people, Augustus won over the soldiers with gifts, the populace with cheap corn, and all men with the sweets of leisure, and so grew greater by degrees, while he concentrated in himself the functions of the Senate, the magistrates, and the laws. He was wholly unopposed, for the boldest spirits had fallen in battle, or in the proscriptions, while the remaining nobles, the readier they were to be slaves, were raised the higher by wealth and promotion, and as they had thrived on revolution, they preferred the safety of the present to the dangerous past. Nor did the provinces dislike that condition of affairs, for they distrusted the government of the Senate and the people, because of the rivalries between the leading men and the rapacity of the officials, while the protection of the laws was unavailing, as they were continually deranged by violence, intrigue, and finally by corruption. 3. Augustus meanwhile, as supports to his despotism, raised to the pontificate and curule aedileship Claudius Marcellus, his sister's son, while a mere stripling, and Marcus Agrippa, of humble birth but a good soldier, and one who had shared his victory, to two consecutive consulships, and as Marcellus soon afterwards died, he also accepted him as his son-in-law. Tiberius Nero and Claudius Drusus, his stepsons, he honoured with imperial titles, although his own family proper was as yet intact. For he had admitted the children of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, into the house of the Caesars; and before they had yet laid aside the dress of boyhood he had most fervently desired, with an outward show of reluctance, that they should be entitled "princes of the youth," and be consuls-elect. When Agrippa died, and Lucius Caesar as he was on his way to our armies in Spain, and Gaius while returning from Armenia, still suffering from a wound, were prematurely cut off by destiny, or by their step-mother Livia's treachery, Drusus too having long been dead, Nero remained alone of the stepsons. On him all centred. He was adopted as a son, as a colleague in empire and a partner in the tribunician power, and paraded through all the armies, no longer through his mother's secret intrigues, but at her open suggestion. For she had gained such a hold on the aged Augustus that he drove out as an exile into the island of Planasia, his only grandson, Agrippa Postumus, who, though devoid of worthy qualities, and having only the brute courage of physical strength, had not been convicted of any gross offence. And yet Augustus had appointed Germanicus, Drusus's offspring, to the command of eight legions on the Rhine, and required Tiberius to adopt him, although Tiberius had a son, now a young man, in his house; but he did it that he might have several safeguards to rest on.
There was no war at the time, except the campaign against the Germans, which was waged rather to wipe out the disgrace of the loss of Quintilius Varus and his army than out of an ambition to extend the empire, or with any prospect of adequate recompense. At home all was tranquil, and there were magistrates with the same titles; there was a younger generation, sprung up since the victory of Actium, and even many of the older men had been born during the civil wars. How few were left who had seen the republic! 4. Thus the State had been turned upside down, and there was not a vestige left of the old sound morality. Stripped of equality, all looked up to the commands of a sovereign with no immediate misgivings, so long as Augustus in the full vigour of his prime, could maintain his own position, that of his house, and the general peace. When in advanced old age, he was worn out by a sickly frame, and the end was near and new prospects opened, a few spoke in vain of the blessings of freedom, but most people dreaded and some longed for war. The popular gossip of the large majority fastened itself variously on their future masters. "Agrippa was savage, and had been exasperated by insult, and neither from age nor experience in affairs was equal to so great a burden. Tiberius Nero was of mature years, and had established his fame in war, but he had the old arrogance inbred in the Claudian family, and many symptoms of a cruel temper, though they were repressed, now and then broke out. He had also from earliest infancy been reared in an imperial house; consulships and triumphs had been heaped on him in his younger days; even in the years which, on the pretext of seclusion he spent in exile at Rhodes, he had had no thoughts but of wrath, hypocrisy, and secret sensuality. There was his mother too with a womans caprice. They must, it seemed, be subject to a female and to a pair of striplings too, who for a while would burden, and some day rend asunder the State." 5. While these and like topics were discussed, the infirmities of Augustus increased, and some suspected foul play on his wife's part. For a rumour had gone the rounds that a few months before Augustus had sailed to Planasia on a visit to Agrippa, with the knowledge of some chosen friends, and with one companion, Fabius Maximus; that many tears were shed on both sides, with expressions of affection, and that thus there was a hope of the young man being restored to the home of his grandfather. This, it was said, Maximus had divulged to his wife Marcia, Marcia again to Livia. It had come to the Caesars knowledge, and when Maximus soon afterwards died, by a death some thought to be self-inflicted, there were heard at his funeral wailings from Marcia, in which she reproached herself for having been the cause of her husband's destruction. Whatever the fact was, Tiberius as he was just entering Illyria was summoned home by an urgent letter from his mother, and it has not been thoroughly ascertained whether at the city of Nola he found Augustus still breathing or quite lifeless. For Livia had surrounded the house and its approaches with a strict watch, and favourable bulletins were published from time to time, till, provision having been made for the demands of the crisis, one and the same report told men that Augustus was dead and that Tiberius Nero was master of the State. Book 4 32. Much of what I have related and shall have to relate, may perhaps, I am aware, seem petty trifles to record. But no one must compare my annals with the writings of those who have described Rome in old days. They told of great wars, of the storming of cities, of the defeat and capture of kings, or whenever they turned by preference to home affairs, they related, with a free scope for digression, the strifes of consuls with tribunes, land and corn-laws, and the struggles between the commons and the aristocracy. My labours are circumscribed and inglorious; peace wholly unbroken or but slightly disturbed, dismal misery in the capital, an emperor careless about the enlargement of the empire, such is my theme. Still it will not be useless to look more closely at events, trivial at first glance, those out of which the movements of vast changes often take their rise.
33. All nations and cities are ruled by the people, the nobility, or by one man. A constitution, formed by selection out of these elements, it is easy to commend but not to produce; or, if it is produced, it cannot be lasting. Formerly, when the people had power or when the patricians were in the ascendant, the popular temper and the methods of controlling it, had to be studied, and those who knew most accurately the spirit of the Senate and aristocracy, had the credit of understanding the age and of being wise men. So now, after a revolution, when Rome is nothing but the realm of a single despot, there must be good in carefully noting and recording this period, for it is but few who have the foresight to distinguish right from wrong or what is sound from what is hurtful, while most men learn wisdom from the fortunes of others. Still, though this is instructive, it gives very little pleasure. Descriptions of countries, the various incidents of battles, glorious deaths of great generals, enchain and refresh a reader's mind. I have to present in succession the merciless biddings of a tyrant, incessant prosecutions, faithless friendships, the ruin of innocence, the same causes issuing in the same results, and I am everywhere confronted by a wearisome monotony in my subject matter. Then, again, an ancient historian has but few disparagers, and no one cares whether you praise more heartily the armies of Carthage or Rome. But of many who endured punishment or disgrace under Tiberius, the descendants yet survive; or even though the families themselves may be now extinct, you will find those who, from a resemblance of character, imagine that the evil deeds of others are a reproach to themselves. Again, even honour and virtue make enemies, condemning, as they do, their opposites by too close a contrast. But I return to my work.