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Project Gutenberg's Diseases of the Horse's Foot, by Harry Caulton Reeks This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: Diseases of the Horse's Foot Author: Harry Caulton Reeks Release Date: February 21, 2004 [EBook #11204] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK DISEASES OF THE HORSE'S FOOT *** Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Leonard D Johnson and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team. DISEASES OF THE HORSE'S FOOT By H. CAULTON REEKS Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons Author of 'The Common Colics of the Horse' 1906 To J. MacQueen, F.R.C.V.S., Professor of Surgery at the Royal Veterinary College, London, as a slight acknowledgment of his ability as a teacher, and in return for many kindly services, this volume is gratefully inscribed by THE AUTHOR. PREFACE Stimulated by the reception accorded my 'Common Colics of the Horse,' both in this country and in America, and assured by my publishers that a work on diseases of the foot was needed, I have been led to give to the veterinary profession the present volume. While keeping the size of the book within reasonable limits, no effort has been spared to render it as complete as possible. This has only been achieved by adding to my own experience a great deal of the work of others. To mention individually those who have given me permission to use their writings would be too long a matter here. In every case, however, where the quotation is of any length, the source of my information is given, either in the text or in an accompanying footnote. A few there are who will, perhaps, find themselves quoted without my having first obtained their permission to do so. They, with the others, will, I am sure, accept my hearty thanks. The publishers have been generous in the matter of illustrations and diagrams, and although to the older practitioner some of these may appear superfluous, it is hoped they will serve to render the work an acceptable textbook for the student. H. CAULTON REEKS. SPALDING, _January, 1906_. CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION CHAPTER II REGIONAL ANATOMY A. The Bones B. The Ligaments C. The Tendons D. The Arteries E. The Veins F. The Nerves G. The Complementary Apparatus of the Os Pedis H. The Keratogenous Membrane I. The Hoof CHAPTER III GENERAL PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL OBSERVATIONS A. Development of the Hoof B. Chemical Properties and Histology of Horn C. Expansion and Contraction of the Hoof D. The Functions of the Lateral Cartilages E. Growth of the Hoof CHAPTER IV METHOD OF EXAMINING THE FOOT CHAPTER V GENERAL REMARKS ON OPERATIONS ON THE FOOT A. Methods of Restraint B. Instruments required C. The Application of Dressings D. Plantar Neurectomy History of the Operation Preparation of the Subject The Operation After-treatment E. Median Neurectomy F. Length of Rest after Neurectomy G. Sequel of Neurectomy� Liability of Pricked Foot going undetected Loss of Tone in the Non-sensitive Area Gelatinous Degeneration Chronic Oedema of the Leg Persistent Pruritus Fracture of the Bones Neuroma Reunion of the Divided Nerve The Existence of an Adventitious Nerve-supply Stumbling H. Advantages of the Operation I. The Use of the Horse that has undergone Neurectomy CHAPTER VI FAULTY CONFORMATION A. Weak Heels B. Contracted Foot (_a_) Contracted Heels (_b_) Local or Coronary Contraction C. Flat-foot D. Pumiced-foot, Dropped Sole, or Convex Sole E. 'Ringed' or 'Ribbed' Hoof F. The Hoof with Bad Horn (_a_) The Brittle Hoof (_b_) The Spongy Hoof G. Club-Foot H. The Crooked Foot (_a_) The Foot with Unequal Sides (_b_) The Curved Hoof CHAPTER VII DISEASES ARISING FROM FAULTY CONFORMATION A. Sand-crack Definition Classification Causes Complications Treatment Surgical Shoeing for Sand-crack B. Corns Definition Classification Causes Pathological Anatomy and Histology Treatment Surgical Shoeing for Corn C. Chronic Bruised Sole CHAPTER VIII WOUNDS OF THE KERATOGENOUS MEMBRANE A. Nail-bound Definition Causes Symptoms Treatment B. Punctured Foot Definition Causes Common Situations of the Wound Classification Symptoms and Diagnosis Complications Prognosis Treatment C. Coronitis (Simple) 1. Acute Definition Causes Symptoms Complications Prognosis Treatment 2. Chronic Definition Causes Symptoms Treatment D. False Quarter Definition Causes Treatment E. Accidental Tearing off of the Entire Hoof CHAPTER IX INFLAMMATORY AFFECTIONS OF THE KERATOGENOUS APPARATUS A. ACUTE Acute Laminitis Definition Causes Symptoms Pathological Anatomy Complications Diagnosis and Prognosis Treatment Broad's Treatment for Laminitis Smith's Operation for Laminitis B. CHRONIC 1. Chronic Laminitis Definition Causes Symptoms Pathological Anatomy Treatment 2. Seedy-Toe Definition Causes Symptoms Treatment 3. Keraphyllocele Definition Causes Symptoms Treatment 4. Keratoma 5. Thrush Definition Causes Symptoms Treatment 6. Canker Definition Causes, Predisposing and Exciting Symptoms and Pathological Anatomy Differential Diagnosis and Prognosis Treatment Malcolm's, Lieutenant Rose's, Bermbach's, Hoffmann's and Imminger's Treatment for Canker 7. Specific Coronitis Definition Causes Symptoms Treatment CHAPTER X DISEASES OF THE LATERAL CARTILAGES A. Wounds of the Cartilages B. Quittor Definition Classification 1. Simple or Cutaneous Quittor Definition Causes Symptoms Pathological Anatomy Prognosis Complications Treatment, Preventive and Curative 2. Sub-horny Quittor Definition Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Complications Necrosis of the Lateral Cartilage Pathological Anatomy of the Diseased Cartilage Necrosis of Tendon and of Ligament Ossification of the Cartilage Treatment Operations for Extirpation of the Cartilage C. Ossification of the Lateral Cartilages (Side-bones) Definition Symptoms and Diagnosis Causes Treatment Smith's Operation for Ossification of the Lateral Cartilages CHAPTER XI DISEASES OF THE BONES A. Periostitis and Ostitis 1. Periostitis (_a_) Simple Acute Periostitis (_b_) Suppurative Periostitis (_c_) Osteoplastic Periostitis 2. Ostitis (_a_) Rarefying Ostitis (_b_) Osteoplastic Ostitis (_c_) Caries and Necrosis Treatment of Periostitis Recorded Cases of Periostitis B. Pyramidal Disease, Buttress Foot, or Low Ringbone Definition Symptoms and Diagnosis Pathological Anatomy Treatment Recorded Cases of Buttress Foot C. Fractures of the Bones 1. Fractures of the Os Coron � Recorded Cases of Fractures of the Os Coron � 2. Fractures of the Os Pedis Recorded Cases of Fractures of the Os Pedis 3. Fractures of the Navicular Bone Recorded Case of Fracture of the Navicular Bone Treatment of Fractures of the Bones of the Foot CHAPTER XII DISEASES OF THE JOINTS A. Synovitis (_a_) Simple (1) Acute (2) Chronic (_b_) Purulent or Suppurative B. Arthritis (_a_) Simple or Serous (_b_) Acute (_c_) Purulent or Suppurative (_d_) Anchylosis C. Navicular Disease Definition History Pathology Changes in the Bursa Changes in the Cartilage Changes in the Tendon Changes in the Bone Causes Heredity Compression Concussion A Weak Navicular Bone An Irregular Blood-supply to the Bone Senile Decay Symptoms and Diagnosis Differential Diagnosis Prognosis Treatment D. Dislocations LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1. The Bones of the Phalanx 2. The Os Coron (Anterior View)� 3. The Os Coron (Posterior View)� 4. The Os Pedis (Postero-lateral View) 5. The Os Pedis (viewed from Below) 6. The Navicular Bone (viewed from Below) 7. The Navicular Bone (viewed from Above) 8. Ligaments of the First and Second Interphalangeal Articulations (Lateral View). (_After Dollar and Wheatley_) 9. Ligaments of the First and Second Interphalangeal Articulations (viewed from Behind). (_After Dollar and Wheatley_) 10. The Flexor Tendons and the Extensor Pedis. (_After Ha �bner_) 11. The Flexor Perforans and Perforatus 12. The Flexor Perforans and Perforatus (the Perforans cut through and deflected) 13. Median Section of Normal Foot 14. The Arteries of the Foot 15. The Veins and Nerves of the Foot 16. The Lateral Cartilage 17. The Keratogenous Membrane (viewed from the Side) 18. The Keratogenous Membrane (viewed from Below) 19. The Wall of the Hoof 20. Internal Features of the Hoof 21. Inferior Aspect of the Hoof 22. Hoof with the Sensitive Structures removed 23. Section of Epidermis 24. Section of Skin with Hair Follicle and Hair 25. Section of Human Nail and Nail-bed 26. Section of Foot of Equine Foetus. (_Mettam_) 27. Section from Foot of Sheep Embryo. (_Mettam_) 28. Section from Foot of Calf Embryo. (_Mettam_) 29. Section from Foot of Equine Foetus. (_Mettam_) 30. Section through Hoof and Soft Tissues of a Foal at Term. (_Mettam_) 31. Perpendicular Section of Horn of Wall 32. Horizontal Section of Horn of Wall 33. Horizontal Section through the Junction of the Wall with the Sole 34. Section of Frog. (_Mettam_) 35. Professor Lungwitz's Apparatus for Examining the Foot Movements 36. Professor Lungwitz's Apparatus for Examining the Foot Movements 37. The Movements of the Solar and Coronary Edges of the Hoof illustrated. (_Lungwitz_) 38. The Blind 39. The Side-line 40. Method of securing the Hind-foot with the Side-line 41. The Hind-foot secured with the Side-line 42. The Casting Hobbles 43. Method of securing the Hind-leg upon the Fore 44. The Hind-leg secured upon the Fore 45. The Drawing-knife (Ordinary Pattern) 46. Modern Forms of Drawing-knives 47. Symes's Knife 48-51. Illustrating Colonel Nunn's Method of applying a Poultice to the Foot 52. Poultice-boot of Canvas and Steel 53. Poultice-boot of Cocoa-fibre 54. Foot-swab 55. The Shoe with Plates 56. Quittor Syringe 57. The Esmarch Bandage and Tourniquet 58. Tourniquet with Wooden Block 59. Neurectomy Bistoury 60. Neurectomy Needle 61. Double Neurectomy Tenaculum 62. Adventitious Nerve-supply to Foot. (_Sessions_) 63. Tip Shoe 64. The Tip Shoe 'let in' to the Foot 65. The Thinned Tip 66. Drawing-knife for Charlier Shoeing 67. The Foot prepared for the Charlier Shoe 68. Bar Shoe 69. Rubber Bar Pad on Leather 70. The Bar Pad applied with a Half-shoe 71. Frog Pad 72. Frog Pad applied 73. Smith's Expansion Shoe for Contracted Feet 74. A Contracted Foot treated with Smith's Shoe 75. De Fay's Vice 76. Hartmann's Expanding Shoe 77. Brou 's� Slipper Shoe. (_Gutenacker_) 78. Einsiedel's Slipper and Bar-clip Shoe. (_Gutenacker_) 79. Hoof showing Coronary Contraction. (_Gutenacker_) 80. Flat-foot (Solar Surface). (_Gutenacker_) 81. Hoof showing Laminitis Rings on the Wall. _(Gutenacker)_ 82. Hoof showing 'Grass' Rings on the Wall. (_Gutenacker_) 83. Club-foot. (_Gutenacker_) 84. Shoe with extended Toe-piece. (_Gutenacker_) 85. A Crooked Foot in Cross-section. (_Gutenacker_) 86. Sand-crack Firing-iron 87. Sand-crack Forceps and Clamp. (_Vachette's_) 88. McGill's Sand-crack Clamp 89. Koster's Sand-crack Clamp 90. Sand-crack Belt 91. Method of 'Easing' the Bearing of the Wall on the Shoe in the Treatment of Sand-crack 92. Method of 'Easing' the Bearing of the Wall on the Shoe in the Treatment 93. Method of 'Easing' the Bearing of the Wall on the Shoe in the Treatment of Sand-crack 94 96. Grooving the Wall in the Treatment of Sand-crack 97. Removing the Wall in the Treatment of Sand-crack 98. Removing the Wall in the Treatment of Sand-crack 99. Horizontal Section of Corn. (_Gutenacker_) 100. Inner Surface of the Wall, showing Changes in Chronic Corn. (_Gutenacker_) 101. Perpendicular Section of the Wall in a Case of Chronic Corn. 102. Three-quarter Shoe 103. Three-quarter Bar Shoe 104. Shoe with a 'Dropped' Heel 105. Shoe with a 'Set' Heel 106. Curette, or Volkmann's Spoon 107. Resection of the Terminal Portion of the Perforans Tendon (_Gutenacker_) 108. Shoe with extended Toe-piece. (_Colonel Nunn_) 109. Mesian Section of Foot with Lesions following Coronitis. (_Gutenacker_) 110. Toe of Ordinary Hind-shoe 111. Toe of Hind-shoe Bevelled for the Prevention of Overreach 112. Hoof showing Lesion in the Wall following Coronitis. (_Gutenacker_) 113. Foot with Lesions of Chronic Coronitis. (_Gutenacker_) 114. Hoof Accidentally Tom from Foot. (_Cartledge_) 115. Hoof Accidentally Tom from Foot. (_Rogerson_) 116. Section of Foot with Laminitis of Eight Days' Duration. (_Gutenacker_) 117. Section of Foot with Laminitis of Fourteen Days' Duration. (_Gutenacker_) 118. Chronic Ostitis of the Os Pedis in Laminitis. 119. Broad's Rocker Bar Shoe for Laminitis. 120. The Foot showing Grooves made in the Wall for Treatment of Laminitis (Anterior Surface). 121. The Foot showing Grooves made for the Treatment of Laminitis (Solar Surface). 122. Foot with Chronic Laminitis. (_Gutenacker_) 123. Inferior Aspect of Foot with Chronic Laminitis. (_Gutenacker_) 124. Section of Foot with Laminitis of Three Weeks' Duration. (_Gutenacker_) 125. Section of Foot with Laminitis of Several Years' Duration. 126. Diagram showing Position of the Abnormal Growth of Horn in Chronic Laminitis. 127. Diagram showing the same Abnormal Growth of Horn Removed prior to Shoeing. 128. Shoe with Heel-clip. 129. Internal Seedy-Toe. 130. External Seedy-Toe. (_Colonel Nunn_) 131. External Seedy-Toe. (_Colonel Nunn_) 132. A Keraphyllocele on the Inner Surface of the Horn of the Wall at the Toe. (_Gutenacker_) 133. Os Pedis showing Absorption of Bone caused by the Pressure of a Keraphyllocele. (_Gutenacker_) 134. Foot with Canker of the Frog and Heels. (_Gutenacker_) 135. Foot with Canker extending to the Wall. (_Malcolm_) 136. Foot with Advanced Canker. (_Gutenacker_) 137. Feet affected with Specific Coronitis. (_Taylor_) 138. Fore-foot with Specific Coronitis. (_Taylor_) 139. Excision of the Lateral Cartilage (Old Method). (_Gutenacker_) 140. Excision of the Lateral Cartilage. (_After Moller and Frick_). (_Gutenacker_) 141. Excision of the Lateral Cartilage. (_After Bayer_.) (_Gutenacker_) 142. Partial Excision of the Lateral Cartilage 143. Ossified Lateral Cartilages, or Side-bones. 144. Smith's Side-bone Saw (Old Pattern). 145. Smith's Side-bone Saw (Improved Pattern). 146. Smith's Hoof Plane. 147. Hodder's Hoof Chisel. 148. Foot showing the Grooves made in Smith's Operation for Side-bones (viewed from the Side). 149. Foot showing the Grooves made in Smith's Operation for Side-bones (viewed from Below). 150. Periostitis involving the Pedal and Navicular Bones. (_Litt_) 151. Periostitis involving the Pedal and Navicular Bones. (_Litt_) 152. Effects of Periostitis on the Os Pedis. (_Smith_) 153. Effects of Periostitis on the Os Pedis. (_Smith_) 154. Effects of Periostitis on the Os Pedis. (_Jones_) 155. Effects of Periostitis on the Os Pedis. (_Jones_) 156. Case of Buttress Foot. (_Routledge_) 157. Foot showing Fracture of the Pyramidal Process in a Case of Buttress Foot. (_Routledge_) 158. Fracture of the Os Coron . (_Crawford_) � 159. Fracture of the Os Coron . � 160. Fractured Os Pedis. (_Freeman_) 161. Navicular Bone showing Lesions of Navicular Disease. (_Gutenacker_) 162. Foot with the Seat of Navicular Disease exposed (showing Lesions). 163. Navicular Bone showing Lesions of Navicular Disease (a Case of Long-standing). (_Gutenacker_) 164. Frog Seton Needle. 165. Diagram showing Course of the Needle in Setoning the Frog. DISEASES OF THE HORSE'S FOOT CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The importance of that branch of veterinary surgery dealing with diseases of the horse's foot can hardly be overestimated. That the animal's usefulness is dependent upon his possession of four good feet is a fact that has long been recognised. Who, indeed, is there to be found entirely unacquainted with one or other of such well-known aphorisms as: 'Whoever hath charge of a horse's foot has the care of his whole body'; 'As well a horse with no head as a horse with no foot'; or the perhaps better known, and certainly more epigrammatic, 'No foot, no horse.' Without taking these sayings literally, it will be admitted by almost everyone that they contain a vast amount of actual truth. This allowed, it at once becomes clear that a ready understanding of the diseases to which the foot is liable, the means of holding them in check, and the correct methods of treating them should figure largely in the knowledge at the command of the veterinary surgeon. In the very great majority of instances the horse's ability to perform labour is the one thing that justifies his existence, and to that end the presence of four good, sound feet is an almost indispensable qualification. And yet how many circumstances do we see tending to militate against that one essential.