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### Stretching and Shrinking : Homework Examples from ACE

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Changjoo Kim
Lecture 5: Vector Data Model
Geography 373 Fall, 2006
Vector Data model
1 10/9/2006
nHow to represent simple features as point, line, and areas? How the computer “see” the features and their spatial relationships? àVector data model 1. Vector data uses points and their x,y coordinates 2. Geometric objects and their spatial relationships are organized into digital data files that the computer can access, interpret, and process. (Georelational data model)
Changjoo Kim
Vector Data
3 10/9/2006
nGeospatial data is represented in the form of x, y coordinates nThe basic units of spatial information arepoints, arcs, and polygons nEach of these units is composed simply as a series of one or more coordinate points, for example, a line is a ordered collection of related points, and a polygon is a ordered collection of related lines nTIGER (Topologically Integrated Encoding and Referencing), ArcView Shapefile, ArcInfo coverage, DLG, CAD drawing 5 Changjoo Kim10/9/2006
Contents of Lecture
nVector Data nTopology nSpaghetti Data Model nArcnode Data Model nVector vs. Raster nData Transformation nData Combination
Changjoo Kim
Georelational Data model
2 10/9/2006
nSpatial (location) + Attribute (description) component nUse synchronized ID to link the two components nTo eliminate the problem of data synchronization, objectbased data model is developed.
Changjoo Kim
Dimensionality and property
4 10/9/2006
n0 dimensional objects Point:geometric location with a set of coordinates Node:topological junction n1 dimensional objects Line segment (vector):a direct line between two points having length Link:direct connection between two nodes üdirected link String:sequence of line segments Chain:directed sequence of nonintersecting line segments with nodes at each end Arc:curve string Ring:sequence of any line segments with closure n2 dimensional objects Simple polygon:an area defined by an outer ring without inner rings Complex polygon:an area defined by an outer ring with inner rings
Changjoo Kim
6 10/9/2006
1
Digital Line Graphs
nDigital vector representations of cartographic information derived from USGS maps and related sources nDepending on scale, the following layers (or categories of feature type) may be available Public Land Survey System (PLSS), boundaries, transportation, hydrography, hypsography, survey control and markers, vegetative surface cover nThree primary types of DLG data and 1:25,000Large Scale(7.5 minute):1:20,000 ,1:24,000 , scale Intermediate Scale(1:100,000 scale) Sm all Scale(1,2,000,000 scale) nSource: http://edc.usgs.gov/products/map/dlg.html 7 Changjoo Kim10/9/2006
Vector Data Representation
X, Y Coordinates (Lat, Lon) in Point
Set of Nodes (Open Path, Line)
Set of nodes where begin and ending node are same (Closed path, Polygon)
nPreserve Topology nAttributes will be saved in a separate file in georelational model Changjoo Kim
9 10/9/2006
Topology nTopology in mathematics deals withgeometric propertieswhich remain invariable under certain transformation such as stretching or bending (Massey 1967) nTopology in GIS is generally defined as thespatial relationshipsbetween adjacent or neighboring features nA GIS topology is a set of rules and behaviors that model how points, lines, and polygons share geometry For example, adjacent features, such as two counties, will share a common edge 11 Changjoo Kim10/9/2006
Digital Line Graphs
nLargescale (7.5minute) DLG Boundary, Hydrography and Transportation layers (Dancyville, TN)
Changjoo Kim
Vector Data Issue
nScaledependent scale)Polygon (largescale) to point (small E.g. city, stream in large/ small scale map nTopological error Effects of tolerance on topological cleaning E.g. snapping
nComplex data structure Arcnode data model RDBMS
Changjoo Kim
1
Changjoo Kim
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4
3
5
1 112 13 14 11 01 0 1 12 00 1 0 13 10 0 0 14 01 1 0
8 10/9/2006
10 10/9/2006
nIncidence matrix 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 11 0 1 0 0 12 0 1 1 0 1 0 13 1 0 1 0 0 1 14 0 0 0 1 1 1
12 10/9/2006
2
Topology nTo manageshared geometry (better data quality) Constrain how features share geometry For example, adjacent polygons, such as parcels, share edges; street centerlines and the boundaries of census blocks share geometry nTo define and enforcedata integrity rules No gaps should exist between parcel features, parcels should not overlap, road centerlines should connect at the endpoints nTo supporttopological relationship queries and navigation (enhance GIS analysis) Have the ability to identify adjacent and connected features, find the shared edges, and navigate along a series of connected edges
Changjoo Kim
Topology Components
Changjoo Kim
chain
Spaghetti Data Model
a rc
ring
13 10/9/2006
sim p le polygon
complex polygon 15 10/9/2006
nViewed as raw digital data nOneforone translation of the analog map nEach entity is a single record coded as x, y coordinates nNo details of logical relationships between objects the line shared by two adjacent polygons is recorded separately in the computer spatial relationships are only implied nEfficient for cartographic display nAt first, GIS used vector data and cartographic spaghetti structures
Changjoo Kim
17 10/9/2006
Topological Relationships
nConnectivity:chains are connected at which nodes nDirection:defines a “from node” and a “tonode” of a chain nAdjacency:polygons are on the left and which are on the right side of a chain nInclusion:simple spatial objects (node, chain, smaller polygon) are within a polygon 14 Changjoo Kim10/9/2006
Vector Data Model
nSpaghetti data model No topology Graphical elements nArcnode data model Topological data model Require additional data files to store the spatial relationships (line meets correctly? Polygons are closed properly?)àbetter data quality Spatial relationships
Changjoo Kim
Arcnode Data Model
16 10/9/2006
nVector data evolved the arc/node model in the 1960s nAn area consist of lines and a line consists of points, in the arc/node model nThe topological vector model uses theline (arc)as a basic unit nAreas (polygons) are built up from arcs
Changjoo Kim
18 10/9/2006
3
Arcnode Data Model