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Effects of mixing depth, turbulent diffusion and nutrient enrichment on enclosed marine plankton communities
Thomas J. Kunz
Dissertation der Fakultät für Biologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Oktober 2005
Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Sebastian Di Zweitgutachter: PD Dr. Herwig Stibor
ehl
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung:
21.11.2005
Table of contents
Table of contents
1
Table of contents ........................................................................................................................................1
Abstract......................................................................................................................................................3
Generalintroduction...................................................................................................................................5
Summaries of the articles .........................................................................................................................11Article 1Effects of mixing depth and nitrogen enrichment on marine zooplankton, phytoplankton, light andmineralnutrients................................................................................................................................12Article 2Response of auto-, mixo- and heterotrophic marine plankton to nitrogen enrichment and a mixing-depthgradient..............................................................................................................................13Article 3Effects of water column depth and turbulent diffusion on an enclosed North Atlantic plankton community................................................................................................................................................15Synopsis...................................................................................................................................................17
References................................................................................................................................................18
Articles.....................................................................................................................................................20Article 1Effects of mixing depth and nitrogen enrichment on marine zooplankton, phytoplankton, light andmineralnutrients................................................................................................................................21Introduction..............................................................................................................................................21
Material and Methods...............................................................................................................................23
StudySite..............................................................................................................................23Experimental set-up ..............................................................................................................23Sampling and laboratory analyses ........................................................................................24Calculation of seston production and loss rates ....................................................................24Microplankton.......................................................................................................................24Mesozooplankton..................................................................................................................25Data analysis .........................................................................................................................25Results......................................................................................................................................................26Light and nutrients ................................................................................................................26Seston and phytoplankton .....................................................................................................26Zooplankton..........................................................................................................................26
Discussion................................................................................................................................................32Limiting resources ................................................................................................................32Patterns in algal biomass.......................................................................................................32Patterns in zooplankton biomass...........................................................................................34Conclusions..............................................................................................................................................35Acknowledgements..................................................................................................................................35References................................................................................................................................................36
Table of contents
2
Article 2Responses of auto-, mixo- and heterotrophic marine plankton to nitrogen enrichment and a mixing-depthgradient..............................................................................................................................40
Introduction..............................................................................................................................................40
Material and Methods...............................................................................................................................42
Experimental design and study site ......................................................................................42Sampling and laboratory analyses ........................................................................................43Data analysis .........................................................................................................................45ResultsandDiscussion.............................................................................................................................45
Plankton nutritional mode vs. mixing depth and nutrient enrichment ..................................45
Conclusions..............................................................................................................................................55
Acknowledgements..................................................................................................................................56
References................................................................................................................................................57
Article 3Effects of water column depth and turbulent diffusion on an enclosed North Atlantic plankton community................................................................................................................................................60
Introduction.....60
Material and Methods.62
Experimental design62
Measurement of mixing intensity63
Sampling and laboratory analyses...63
Data analysis...64
Results.65
Light and mineral nitrogen..65
Algal biomass patterns....65
Patterns in zooplankton...68
Discussion...........70
Vertical distribution of phytoplankton and limiting resources...70
Effects on algal and herbivore density, and phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions...71
Effects on herbivores, predators and predator-prey interactions in the plankton...73
Conclusions.75
Acknoledgements....75
References................................................................................................................................................77
Acknowledgements..................................................................................................................................79
CurriculumVitae......................................................................................................................................80