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Thermal Plasticity and Performance Adaptations in
Gadid Muscle: Consequences for Activity and
Lifestyle.
Temperatur-Plastizität und Leistungsanpassung im
Fisch-Muskel (Gadidae): Konsequenzen für
Aktivitätsniveau und Lebensweise




Dissertation
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades
- Dr. rer. nat. -


dem Fachbereich 2 Biologie/Chemie
der Universität Bremen
vorgelegt von

Glenn J. Lurman





Bremen 2007 Human understanding when it has once adopted and opinion… draws all things
to support and agree with it. And though there may be a greater number and
weight of instances to be found on the other side, yet these it either neglects and
despises… in order that by this great and pernicious predetermination the
authority of its former conclusions may remain inviolate.

Sir Francis Bacon, Nova Organum, 1620















Gutachter:
1. Prof. Dr. Hans-Otto Pörtner, Universität Bremen
Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar und Meeresforschung
Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven

2. Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Hagen, Universität Bremen
FB 2 Biologie/Chemie Universität NW II A
Leobener Straße, 28359 Bremen Dedication

To my family,
Daniela, Jasinta and Cléo.
For the unerring patience, love and support. CONTENTS
Contents


Summary _________________________________________________________ iii

Zusammenfassung ___________________________________________________ v
1 Introduction _______________________________________________1
1.1 Thermal tolerance _____________________________________________1
1.2 Swimming performance ________________________________________5
1.3 Cardiac performance___________6
1.4 The heart_____________________9
1.5 Atlantic cod __________________________________________________11
1.5.1 Distribution of Atlantic cod _________________________________________ 11
1.5.2 Ecology of different cod populations _________________________________ 12
1.6 Central questions_____________14
2 Materials and Methods _____________________________________17
2.1 Experimental cod _____________________________________________17
2.2 Exercise experiments_________18
2.2.1 Swim tunnel ____________________________________________________ 18
2.2.2 Surgical procedure _______________________________________________ 18
2.2.3 Exercise protocol ________________________________________________ 18
2.2.4 Oxygen measurement ____________________________________________ 19
2.2.5 Respiration data modelling_________________________________________ 20
31
2.2.6 P-NMR spectroscopy 20
2.3 In situ heart performance ______________________________________21
2.3.1 In situ heart preparation ___________________________________________ 21
2.3.2 Cardiac performance tests 23
2.3.3 Data collection and analysis________________________________________ 23
2.4 Red skeletal muscle stereology _________________________________24
2.4.1 Tissue sampling _________________________________________________ 24
2.4.2 Tissue fixation___________________________________________________ 24
2.4.3 Stereology _____________________________________________________ 25
iCONTENTS
2.5 Myosin heavy chain (MHC) ATPase activity _______________________25
2.5.1 Myofibril isolation ________________________________________________ 25
2.5.2 MHC ATPase activity _____________________________________________ 26
2.6 Myoglobin western blotting ____________________________________26
2.7 Myoglobin mRNA characterisation and quantification ______________27
2.7.1 RNA isolation ___________________________________________________ 27
2.7.2 Myoglobin characterisation_________________________________________ 27
2.7.3 Sequence analysis and molecular modelling ___________________________ 27
2.7.4 Myoglobin mRNA quantification _____________________________________ 28
2.8 Statistical Analysis____________________________________________28
3 Publications ______________________________________________29
Publication I______________________31
Publication II_____________________41
Publication III________________________________73
Publication IV___________________103
Publication V____________________111
4 Discussion ______________________________________________123
4.1 Long-term thermal acclimation ________________________________123
4.1.1 Mitochondrial proliferation in the cold 123
4.1.2 Thermal acclimation in the heart ___________________________________ 125
4.1.3 In situ cardiac performance and temperature _________________________ 127
4.1.4 Swimming performance and temperature ____________________________ 130
4.1.5 How does oxygen limitation result in fatigue? 132
4.2 Acute temperature change ____________________________________133
4.3 Metabolic cold adaptation: Fact or artefact? _____________________134
4.4 Conclusions________________135
4.5 Future Prospects____________137
5 References ______________________________________________139


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