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Title: The Birth of Yugoslavia, Volume 2 Author: Henry Baerlein Release Date: March 8, 2008 [EBook #24781] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BIRTH OF YUGOSLAVIA, VOLUME 2 ***
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T H E Y U G
R T H S L A V I
L O N D LEONARD PARSONS
First Published 1922 [All Rights Reserved ]
LEONARD P ARSONS LTD .
CONTENTS OF VOLUME II
VI. YUGOSLAVIA'S FIRST YEAR OF LIBERTY (AUTUMN 1918 TO AUTUMN 1919) VII. FURTHER MONTHS OF TRIAL (1919-1921) VIII. YUGOSLAVIA'S FRONTIERS (1921) IX. C ONCLUSION: A FEW N ATIONAL C HARACTERISTICS INDEX MAP OF YUGOSLAVIA
7 208 272 392 411
YUGOSLAVIA'S FIRST YEAR OF LIBERTY
FOES FOR OLD —ROUMANIAN ACTIVITIES—THE TALIAN FRAME OF MIND I —S ENSITIVENESS WITH RESPECT TO THEIR ARMY—A N UNFORTUNATE NAVAL AFFAIR —WHAT WAS HAPPENING AT POLA—THE STORY OF THE "VIRIBUS UNITIS"—HOW THE I TALIANS LANDED AT POLA—THE SEA-FARING YUGOSLAVS—WHO SET A STANDARD THAT WAS TOO HIGH —A N ELECTRICAL ATMOSPHERE AND NO PRECAUTIONS— I TALIANS' MILDNESS ON THE I LE OF V —THEIR TRUCULENCE AT K S IS ORČULA—A ND ON H VAR —HOW THEY WERE RECEIVED AT ZADAR —WHAT THEY DID THERE—P RETTY DOINGS AT K RK—UNHAPPY POLA—WHAT ISTRIA ENDURED —THE FAMOUS TOWN OF RIEKA—THE DRAMA BEGINS—THE I.N.C.—T ROATS' BLUNDER —MELODRAMA—FARCE HE C —P AROLE D 'HONNEUR —THE POPULATION OF THE TOWN —THE TALE CONTINUES ON THE NORTHERN ISLES—RAB IS COMPLETELY CAPTURED —A VANTI S AVOIA!—THE E NTENTE AT R IEKA—A CANDID F RENCHMAN —E CONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS—THE TURNCOAT MAYOR —HIS FERVOUR —THREE PLEASANT PLACES—I TALY IS LED ASTRAY BY SONNINO
—THE STATE OF THE CHAMBER —THE STATE OF THE COUNTRY—A FOUNTAIN IN THE SAND —THOSE WHO HELD BACK FROM THE PACT OF ROME—GATHERING WINDS—WHY THE TALIANS CLAIMED D I ALMATIA—CONSEQUENCES OF THE T REATY OF L ONDON —I TALIAN HOPES IN M ONTENEGRO—WHAT HAD LATELY BEEN THE FATE OF THE A USTRIANS THERE—A ND OF THE NATIVES—NOW NIKITA IS DEPOSED —THE ASSEMBLY WHICH DEPOSED HIM —NIKITA'S SORROW FOR THE GOOD OLD DAYS—THE STATE OF B OSNIA—RADIĆ AND HIS PEASANTS—THOSE WHO WILL NOT MOVE WITH THE TIMES —THE YUGOSLAV POLITICAL PARTIES—THE SLOVENE QUESTION —THE SENTIMENTS OF TRIEST —MAGNANIMITY IN THE BANAT —TEMEŠVAR IN TRANSITION —A SORT OF WAR IN CARINTHIA—Y UGOSLAVIA BEGINS TO PUT HER HOUSE IN ORDER —THE PROBLEM OF A GRARIAN R EFORM —FRENZY AT R IEKA—A DMIRAL M ILLO EXPLAINS THE SITUATION —HIS MISGUIDED SUBORDINATES AT ŠIBENIK—THE ITALIANS WANT TO TAKE NO RISKS —Y ET THEY ARE INCREDIBLY NONCHALANT —ONE OF THEIR VICTIMS—S EVEN HUNDRED OTHERS—A GLIMPSE OF THE OFFICIAL ROBBERIES—A ND HARSHNESS AND BRIBERY —THE ITALIANS IN DALMATIA BEFORE AND DURING THE WAR —CONSEQUENT SUSPICION OF THIS MINORITY—A LLIED CENSURE OF THE T ALIAN NAVY—NEVERTHELESS THE I TYRANNY CONTINUES—A VISIT TO SOME OF THE ISLANDS—WHICH THE ITALIANS TRIED TO OBTAIN BEFORE, BUT NOT DURING, THE W —OUR WELCOME TO JLŠA AR E —P ROCEEDINGS AT S TARIGRAD —THE AFFAIRS OF H VAR —FOUR MEN OF K OMIŽA —THE WOMEN OF BIŠEVO—ON THE WAY TO BLATO—WHAT THE MAJOR SAID —THE PROTEST OF AN ITALIAN JOURNALIST —I NTERESTING DELEGATES—A DIGRESSION ON SIR A RTHUR E VANS—THE DUPES OF N IKITA IN M ONTENEGRO—I TALIAN ENDEAVOURS —V ARIOUS BRITISH COMMENTATORS—THE MURDER OF MILETIĆ —D'A NNUNZIO COMES TO R IEKA—THE GREAT INVASION OF T ROGIR —THE SUCCESSION STATES AND THEIR MINORITIES—OBLIGATIONS IMPOSED ON THEM BECAUSE OF ROUMANIAN A NTISEMITISM .
NEW FOES FOR OLD
With the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian army, the Serbs and Croats and Slovenes saw that one other obstacle to their long-hoped-for union had vanished. The dream of centuries was now a little nearer towards fulfilment. But many obstacles remained. There would presumably be opposition on the part of the Italian and Roumanian Governments, for it was too much to hope that these would waive the treaties they had wrung from the Entente, and would consent to have their boundaries regulated by the wishes of the people living in disputed lands. Some individual Italians and Roumanians might even be less reasonable than their Governments. If Austria and Hungary were in too great a chaos to have any attitude as nations, there would be doubtless local opposition to the Yugoslavs. And as soon as the Magyars had found their feet they would be sure to bombard the Entente with protestations, setting forth that subject nationalities were intended by the Creator to be subject nationalities. A large pamphlet, The Hungarian Nation, was issued at Buda-Pest in February 1920. It displayed a very touching solicitude for the Croats, whom the Serbs would be sure to tyrannize most horribly. If only Croatia would remain in the Hungarian State, says Mr. A. Kovács, Ministerial Councillor in the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, then the Magyars would instantly bestow on her both Bosnia (which belonged to the Empire as a whole) and Dalmatia (which belonged to Austria). That is the worst of being a Ministerial Statistical Councillor. Another gentleman, Professor Dr. Fodor, has the bright idea that "the race is the multitude of individuals who inhabit one uniform region." ... Passing to Yugoslavia's domestic obstacles, it was impossible to think that all the Serbs and Croats and Slovenes would forthwith subscribe to the Declaration of Corfu and become excellent Yugoslavs. Some would be honestly unable to throw off what centuries had done to them, and realize that if they had been made so different from their brothers, they were brothers still. For ten days there was a partly domestic, partly foreign obstacle, but as the King of
Montenegro did not take his courage in both hands and descend on the shores of that country with an Italian army, he lost his chance for ever.
There was indeed far less trouble from the Roumanian than from the Italian side. On October 29, 1918, one could say that all military power in the Banat was at an end. The Hungarian army took what food it wanted and made off, leaving everywhere, in barracks and in villages, guns, rifles, ammunition. Vainly did the officers attempt to keep their men together. And scenes like this were witnessed all over the Banat. Then suddenly, on Sunday, November 3, the Roumanians, that is the Roumanians living in the country, made attacks on many villages, and the