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Alimentation. Thesaurus Multilingue

from EUROPEAN-COMMISSION

Kommission der Europäischen Gemeinschaften
Commission of the European Communities n des Communautés européennes
Commissione delle Comunità europee
Lebensmittel · Mehrsprachiger Thesaurus
umiinguai inesaurus
Alimentation · Thesaurus Multilingue
Alimenti · Thesaurus Multilingue
rvGSaur New York · London · Par Xv
The complete thesaurus consists of
four monolingual volumes
(German, English, French and Italian)
and a quadrilingual index.
The following organizations participated in the compilation of
this thesaurus
GESELLSCHAFT FÜR INFORMATION UND DOKUMENTATION MBH (GID),
FRANKFURT/MAIN
BUNDESANSTALT FÜR MILCHFORSCHUNG, KIEL
ASSOCIATION POUR LA PROMOTION INDUSTRIE-AGRICULTURE (APRIA),
CENTRE DE DOCUMENTATION INTERNATIONALE DES INDUSTRIES
UTILISATRICES DE PRODUITS AGRICOLES (CDIUPA), MASSY
MINISTERO DELL'AGRICOLTURA E DELLE FORESTE, DIREZIONE GENERALE
DELLA PRODUZIONE AGRICOLA, DIVISIONE INFORMAZIONE E
DOCUMENTAZIONE, ROMA
ISTITUTO SPERIMENTALE PER LA VALORIZZAZIONE TECNOLOGICA DEI
PRODOTTI AGRICOLI, MILANO
INTERNATIONAL FOOD INFORMATION SERVICE (IFIS-UK), READING
under the auspices of
THE COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
on the recommendation of the Agricultural Working Group of the
Committee for Information and Documentation in Science and
Technology. o<
Kommission der Europäischen Gemeinschaften
Commission of the European Communities n des Communautés européennes
Commissione delle Comunità europee
Lebensmittel ­ Mehrsprachiger Thesaurus
Food ­ Multilingual Thesaurus
Alimentation * Thesaurus Multilingue
Alimenti * Thesaurus Multilingue
2 English Edition
Κ· G · Saur München · New York· London · Paris 1979 ¡χ
The thesaurus was processed with the ASTUTE software
of the Commission of the European Communities and
edited by:
Directorate General for Scientific and Technical
Information and Information Management,
Commission of the European Communities,
Jean Monnet Building, Plateau du Kirchberg,
Luxembourg
EUR 6016
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities
nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is
responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information.
CLIVE BINGLEY Ltd. & K. G. SAUR VERLAG KG
Possen bacherstr 2b K. G. SAUR Ltd.
D­8000 München 71 1­19 New Oxford Street
Federal Republic of Germany London WC1A 1 NE
Tel. (089) 798901 United Kingdom
Telex 521 2067 saur d Tel. 01­404 48 18
Telex 24 902 bingle g
ISBN 3­598­10105­8 (English Edition)
ISBN 3­598­10103­1 (5­vol. Multilingual Set
and Index)
Κ. G. SAUR EDITEUR S.a.r.l.
CIP­Kurztitelaufnahme der Deutschen Bibliothek 38, rue de Bassano
F­75008 Paris Lebensmittel : mehrsprachiger Thesaurus = Food =
Alimentation / Komm. d. Europ. Gemeinschaften. France
[Der Thesaurus wurde mit Hilfe d. ASTUTE-Programms Tel. 7 23 55­18
d. Komm. d. Europ. Gemeinschaften erstellt u.
Telex Iso Bur. 6 30 144 hrsg. von d. Generaldirektion Wissenschaf tl. u.
Techn. Information u. Informationsmanagement,
Komm. d. Europ. Gemeinschaften]. — München, New
York, London, Paris : Saur.
ISBN 3-598-10103-1
NE: Europäische Gemeinschaften / Kommission; K. G. SAUR Publishing Inc. e n / Generaldirektion 175 Fifth Avenue
Wissenschaftliche und Technische Information und
New York, N. Y. 10010 Informationsmanagement; 1. PT; 2. PT
USA
2. English edition. - 1979.
Tel. (212) 477­2500
(EUR; 6016)
Telex 238 386 kgsp ur ISBN 3-598-10105-8
©ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels and Luxembourg, 1979
Computer­controlled phototypesetting by
Imprimerie Centrale, Luxembourg
Printed and bound in the Federal Republic of Germany
by Hain­Druck KG, Meisenheim/Glan
for K. G. Saur KG, München PREFACE
The resolution passed by the Council of Ministers of the European Communities in 1971
defined basic Community policy for the coordination of activities regarding scientific and
technical information within the Member States. A first Three-year Community Action Plan
in this field was drawn up by the Commission of the European Communities assisted by the
Committee for Information and Documentation in Science and Technology (CIDST) and
adopted by the Council of Ministers on March 18th 1975. One of its main objectives was to
provide for improved methodologies in information technology and, in particular, for the
development of suitable multilingual tools to facilitate information exchange.
Three multilingual thesauri covering fields closely related to agriculture have been developed
within the framework of this policy under the auspices of the Commission of the European
Communities, Directorate General XIII — Scientific and Technical Information and Informa­
tion Management — and on the recommendation of CIDST. These are : the Veterinary Multi­
lingual Thesaurus, the Food Multilingual Thesaurus and the Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology Multilingual Thesaurus.
All three have been developed by groups of experts from different professional organizations in
Community countries, and each one is quadrinlingual — German, English, French and Italian.
Work on the Food Multilingual Thesaurus was initiated by the Agricultural Working Group
of CIDST. It is intended to serve both as a common indexing tool for use by existing docu­
mentation services in Community countries and as a retrieval aid so that users can search
bibliographical data bases using indexing terms in their own language and be able to retrieve
references indexed in any of the four languages.
The multilingual thesaurus was compiled over a period of a little more than two years (from
the end of 1975 to the end of 1977) and computer processed by the Commission.
With the publication of a first edition of the three thesauri, the Commission hopes to have
provided the agricultural information community in Europe with concrete starting points
for fruitful cooperation in the three fields covered.
R. K. APPLEYARD
Director General
Scientific and Technical Information and Information Management CONTENTS
PREFACE V
INTRODUCTION VII
Definition, Scope and Method of Construction . . . ° VI
Rules and Conventions X
Presentation XV
Participating Organizations, Experts, Bibliographical Sources consulted .... XVI
Thesaurus Updating XIX
FULL THESAURUS 1
MICROTHESAURI
Composition 117
Countries9
Food Science 125
Food Technology
Foods, incl. Sources and By-products
Health and Environment 13
Industries, Economics, Agriculture
Methodology
Microorganisms 141
Properties and Quality5
VI INTRODUCTION
DEFINITION, SCOPE AND METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
Definition
The ISO Guidelines define a thesaurus, in terms of its function, as a "terminological control
device" used to convert the natural language of documents, indexers and users into a struc­
tured controlled vocabulary in a specific field for the purpose of indexing and retrieving
bibliographic references, and principally those stored as machine-readable data bases. Its
major feature is the display of the structure and network of relationships established between
the selected terms, and between these (which are the preferred terms for indexing and retriev­
al, and are called "descriptors") and the "non-descriptors" (non-preferred or non-authorized
terms which point to the descriptor to be used in their place). This structure defines the se­
mantic content and the use of the term in the given context. The multilingual dimension
further links terms through linguistic equivalents in order to generate language versions of
the thesaurus. Linguistic equivalents are not merely dictionary translations of terms, for
direct translations do not always render the concept which one seeks to represent with a
descriptor. Consequently, a thesaurus, whether it is monolingual or multilingual, should
neither be considered a comprehensive classification scheme, glossary or dictionary, nor
should it be used as such.
Scope
Food science and technology is a cross-roads between many fields of knowledge. For practi­
cal purposes, it was decided to restrict the scope of the thesaurus to the areas of major inter­
est to the food industry, such as foods themselves, food technology, food composition and,
to some extent, food science. Areas such as pure science (e.g. chemistry), agriculture, health
and nutrition are not dealt with in any detail as they have been considered, in this context,
as marginal fields which are in any case more efficiently covered by other information sys­
tems. The terms introduced in the thesaurus have the appropriate meanings and connotations
food technologists would attribute to them; for instance, a rat would be a rodent to a zoo­
logist, an experimental animal to a toxicologist, but to a food technologist a rat is a pest.
Similarly the French term for "intestines" can only be "boyau" in a Food thesaurus, and
not "intestin". For more details on the scope of the thesaurus, see the list of microthesauri
in the section : Rules and Conventions.
Method of construction
Existing monolingual controlled vocabularies used at the national level were taken as the
starting point for collecting terms (see the section : Bibliographical Sources Consulted). Se­
lection of terms, introduction of relations and establishment of language equivalents in three
of the languages (German, English and French) of the thesaurus at first (Italian was only
added a year later) were carried out simultaneously in order to take account of national dif­
ferences in terminology, requirements and approach. ASTUTE, the Commission's software
package for generating, updating, testing, editing and printing mono- and multilingual the­
sauri was used regularly to process the thesaurus. The programs validated thesaurus data on
a formal and a logical level, generated all reciprocal relations and hierarchical structures, and
printed monolingual and multilingual versions of the thesaurus.
Descriptors were chosen on the basis of their suitability in representing a concept, their im­
pact on indexing and retrieval procedures, current usage in each language and, when known,
frequency of use. The main rule observed was that each concept introduced had to be repre-
VII sented by a descriptor ¡n each language; no lacunae of linguistic equivalent at descriptor level
was allowed, nor could one descriptor in one language be linked voluntarily or inadvertently
to two of more different descriptors in one of the other languages (these rules did not apply
to non-descriptors and scope notes). Various solutions were applied, as appropriate, to achieve
this, and many of these were compromises. This occasionally led to the need to devise solu­
tions (and occasionally even to create terms) which can appear artificial in some of the lan­
guages in order to accomodate a term judged necessary in one or more of the others. It could
lead to the adoption of the foreign language term with an explanation in the scope note; in
other cases, intractable terms could be given the status of non-descriptors in that language,
referring to one or more of the accepted descriptors which might fairly adequately represent
that particular concept. Such expedients were justified in so far as a thesaurus is already a
set of conventions; these were merely additional conventions which permitted the group
to come to a workable consensus after analysing concepts.
Examples:
(1) The following group ' of terms:
De En Fr It
KOCHEN COOKING CUISSON COTTURA
BACKEN BAKING N AU FOUR A AL FORNO
ROESTEN ROASTING GRILLAGE TORREFAZIONE
SIEDEN CUISSON A L'EAU BOLLITURA BOILING
BRATEN MIT FETT FRYING FRITURE FRITTURA
IM OFFENEN SYSTEM
The distribution of meanings between the different terms is different in each language; it
was therefore extremely difficult to allocate linguistic equivalents without a measure of
artificiality; explanatory notes (scope notes) and non-descriptors have been added, as
appropriate, to clarify the meanings adopted for the thesaurus.
(2) De En Fr It
CANCER CANCER CANCER CANCRO
The correct German term could not be used as it was needed for :
KREBS CRABS CRABE GRANCHIO
Nevertheless the meaning of the foreign language term is made clear by its position in the
structure (the generic term is KRANKHEIT).
(3) De En Fr It
SCHAEDLING PESTS NUISIBLES INFESTAZIONE
French and Italian do not have a single term which has the same extension as the English
PESTS. Although the single term PESTS would have been sufficient in the English and
German language versions, the additional descriptors RODENTS, INSECTS and PARA­
SITES were included as specific terms to offset the artificiality of the generic term in the
other two languages.
(4) No attempt was made to translate names of cheeses, wines and saussages:
BIERWURST BIERWURST BIERWURST BIERWURST
REBLOCHON REBLOCHON ROBLOCHON ROBLOCHON
(see also the section : Special Options)
After completion of a first draft of the thesaurus, it was revised through test indexing on a
small scale with each language version as well as careful checking. Amendments involving
changes in structure, alterations to language equivalents, corrections, addition or suppression
of descriptors, non-descriptors and scope notes, were incorporated as a result. Compilation
and revision of the thesaurus has taken nearly two and a half years. No thesaurus is ever
finished, or ever perfect (and a fortiori, a first edition). The present edition can therefore be
considered experimental, on the understanding that it will be subject to revision at regular
intervals in order to remain an effective tool. It is indeed expected that the thesaurus will
be kept up-to-date and that periodical lists of amendments will be issued, which will be fol-
VIII