Medieval Wisdom Literature and the Circle of Justice1

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  • dissertation
  • expression écrite - matière potentielle : king kai kā
Medieval Wisdom Literature and the “Circle of Justice”1 Draft Only. Please Do Not Cite or Circulate. Jennifer London University of Chicago Fall, 2007 Comments are welcome: Key Words: Wisdom, Wisdom Literature, the “Circle of Justice,” Persian Political Thought, Arabic Political Thought, History of Political thought, Language and Politics. Introduction One of the best tools we have for learning about modern political thought, and for differentiating it from what is ancient, is to look to how modern scholars invoked the past to express their concerns about the present.
  • sayings
  • hierarchical vision of social order
  • kai kā
  • saljūq period
  • c.e. bosworth
  • social groups
  • see
  • political thought
  • king
  • arabic
Published : Wednesday, March 28, 2012
Reading/s : 14
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Number of pages: 3
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SIR ARTHUR LEWIS MEMORIAL CONFERENCE ECONOMIC GROWTH, POVERTY AND INCOME INEQUALITY DR. COMPTON BOURNE, O.E. PRESIDENT CARIBBEAN DEVELOPMENT BANK SUMMARY  Economicgrowth, poverty and income distribution are central, interrelated facets of much economic analysis and discussions of economic trends across the globe. SirArthur Lewis noting the “depths of West Indian poverty” in 1938 saw economic growth as the route to poverty reduction.  Between1985 and 2004, Caribbean countries enjoyed respectable economic growth but poverty remains a major problem with poverty rates exceeding 20% in many countries and above 10% in most.Poverty has multiple negative effects on economic growth.Economic growth also affects poverty especially because of the volatility of Caribbean economies and inadequate social safety nets.Sustained increases in economic growth could reduce poverty in the Caribbean.
2  Thereis substantial inequality of incomes in the Caribbean, even though there may have been reductions in the degree of inequality in some countries.The influence of income inequality on economic growth although much studied is still unresolved. Oneview is that inequality by boosting national savings facilitates growth. Thecontrary view is that inequality by causing misallocation of investment, constraining investment in human capital, and contributing to social tensions and political instability retards economic growth.Income inequality also directly influences the level of poverty.“Income distributionas much as matters growth for poverty reduction.”(Bourguignon). Thedistribution of earned incomes is a good place to start analysing income inequality even though there are other sources of income including dividends and capital gains.Data for Trinidad and Tobago for 1998 to 2006 reveal substantial inequality in income across economic sectors and within economic sectors.The trend has been for inequality to decrease during the period of relatively strong economic growth.The income share of the top 20% has been upward as has been that of the bottom 20% while the middle has been falling.The inequality of earned incomes reflect the influence of education and skill differences among occupations, possibly attenuated by trade union bargaining, government policies and public sector employment.  Modernsocieties have a limited tolerance for poverty and income inequality. The approach to reconciling the goal of a more egalitarian income distribution with economic efficiency and economic growth is likely to include effective minimum wages policy, provision of greater access to education and training, lower tax rates
3 for the poor, the targetting of public expenditures to low income households, and engendering a more even distribution of capital assets.
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