William Lakin Turner (1867-1936) – landscape artist
- moffat area of the southern uplands
- hewetson hospital
- main part
- small village on the hillside beneath skiddaw
- painting of ‘the coniston
- turner dynasty
- Format PDF
SPRING QUARTER - 2008
M 230: INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL PLANNING:
THE EVOLUTION OF REGIONAL PLANNING
Instructor: Edward W. Soja - Room 2242 - Wednesday, 2-4:50 -
M230 is one of the few courses in Urban Planning explicitly oriented to the role of theory in planning
research and practice. It is a required course for RID students and part of the Regional Policy area
for students in Policy Studies. It will be of interest to students in all areas of concentration wanting
to learn more about regional approaches to planning. It is also highly recommended to Ph.D.
students as a useful complement to the Planning Theory and History sequence. _____________________
M230 is a critical-historical analysis of the development of regional planning from its nineteenth
century roots to the "New-Regionalism" of today. In the course, we will be concerned with three
inter-related levels of analysis and discussion:
1. The evolution of regional planning theory and practice, an intellectual and professional
history of regional planning in the United States, Europe, and the Third World.
2. The associated development of spatial theory and analysis, a history of ideas about
space, territory, regions and the role of spatial organization as they affect regional
planning -- an introduction to what might be called "Spatial Theory for Planners."
3. The influence of the geohistorical and societal context on the evolution of both regional
planning doctrine and spatial theory. Here the aim is to concretize the development of
regional planning thought in "real world" political and economic conditions.
REQUIRED READINGS: Photocopied Reader - to be available for purchase.
GOOGLE EXERCISE: Working paper (2-3 pages) on definitions of the New Regionalism, based
on entering ANew Regionalism@ on a Google search. Brief class presentation in Week 2, summary
paper due Week 3.
CRITICAL COMMENTARIES: Three brief (3-5 page) papers based on books selected from the
weekly bibliographies: 1) weeks 2-3; 2) weeks 4-6; 3) weeks 7-8 These papers are due in
weeks 4, 7, and 9.
FINAL REVIEW PAPER on the New Regionalism: (5-8 pages) due one week after the last class
session; based on the readings for weeks 9-10 and critical reflections on the contemporary
relevance of the New Regionalism.
M230: INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL PLANNING
------------COURSE OUTLINE AND SYLLABUS------------
Week 1. INTRODUCTION--FRAMEWORKS FOR THINKING ABOUT REGIONS
-The regional concept and regional planning
-The development of spatial theory and its impact on planning
-What to expectBa preview of the course
-The New Regionalism on line B selections from Google hits
Renia Ehrenfeucht, AThe New Regionalism: A Conversation with Edward Soja,@ Critical
Planning (2002) Vol. 9, pp. 5-12.
M. Storper, AThe Resurgence of Regional Economies, 10 Years Later,@ in The Regional World
Week 2. THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND POLITICAL SOURCES OF REGIONAL DOCTRINE
th-Industrial capitalism and 19 century regionalisms
-The rise of the social sciences, scientific socialism, and the regional imagination
-Utopians, anarchists, geographers: Keeping the regional fires burning
Clyde Weaver, "The Precursors of Regional Planning," Ch. 3 in Regional Development and the
Local Community: Planning, Politics and Social Context (1984).
John Friedmann, "Planning as Social Mobilization," Ch. 6 in Planning in the Public Domain:
From Knowledge to Action (1988).
Barbara Hooper, "Split at the Roots: A Critique of the Philosophical and Political Sources of
Regional Planning Doctrine," GSAUP (1990).
Peter Hall and Colin Ward, Sociable Cities: The Legacy of Ebenezer Howard, Wiley (1998).
Patrick Geddes, Cities in Evolution: An Introduction to the Town Planning Movement and to the
Study of Cities, London (1915). Current edition contained in Stalley (ed.), Patrick Geddes:
Spokesman for Man and the Environment, Rutgers University Press (1972).
Helen Meller, Patrick Geddes: Social Evolutionist and City Planner, Routledge (1990).
Philip Boardman, The Worlds of Patrick Geddes, Routledge (1978).
Charles Fourier, Design for Utopia: Selected Writings of Charles Fourier, Schocken Books (1971).
Dolores Hayden, The Grand Domestic Revolution, MIT Press (1989).
Carl Guarneri, The Utopian Alternative: Fourierism in 19th Century America, Cornell (1991).
Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of Tomorrow (1898, 1902, MIT Press edition-1984).
Peter Kropotkin, Fields, Factories and Workshops Tomorrow, Harper Torchbooks, (1975).
or Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, Heineman (1902).
or Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution, MIT Press (1970), ed. M.A. Miller.
George Woodcock, Peter Kropotkin: From Prince to Rebel, Black Rose (1990).
George Crowder, Classical Anarchism: The Political Thought of Godwin, Proudhon, Bakunin,
and Kropotkin, Oxford University Press (1991).
Marshall Shatz ed., Statism and Anarchy: Mikhail Bakunin, Cambridge U. Press (1990).
E. Hyams, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: His Revolutionary Life, Mind and Works, Taplinger
Publishing Company (1979).
John Ehrenberg, Proudhon and His Age, Humanities Press (1996).
B. Goodwin, Social Science and Utopia: Nineteenth Century Models of Social Harmony,
Harvester Press (1978).
G. Woodcock, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: His Life and Work, Schocken Books (1972).
Marie Fleming, The Geography of Freedom: The Odyssey of Elisee Reclus, Black Rose Books
Margaret Marsh, Anarchical Women 1870-1920, Temple (1981).
Sheila Rowbotham, Women, Resistance and Revolution, Pantheon (1972)
Week 3. THE U.S. EXPERIENCE IN REGIONAL PLANNING 1900-1950
-Pragmatism vs. Utopia: the Americanization of European tradition
-The consolidation of the first regional planning "doctrine"
-Comprehensive river basin development and the Tennessee Valley Authority
-The Great Depression, the New Deal and the "electrocution of utopia"
Weaver, Ch. 4, "Comprehensive River Basin Development."
Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities, Harcourt, Brace and World (1938).
or The Urban Prospect, Harcourt, Brace and World (1968).
or Lewis Mumford and Patrick Geddes: The Correspondence, Routledge (1995).
Carl Sussman, (ed.), Planning the Fourth Migration: The Neglected Vision of the Regional
Planning Association of America, MIT Press (1976).
Marc Luccarelli, Lewis Mumford and the Ecological Region: The Politics of Planning, Guildford
Donald L. Miller, Lewis Mumford: A Life, Weidenfeld and Nicholson (1989).
Robert Woytowicz, Lewis Mumford and American Modernism: Eutopian Theories for
Architecture and Urban Planning, Cambridge U. Press (1996).
B.J. Frieden and W.W. Nash (eds.), Shaping an Urban Future: Essays in Memory of Catherine
Bauer Wurster, MIT Press (1969).
Benton MacKaye, The New Exploration: A Philosophy of Regional Planning (1928, reissued by
Harcourt, Brace, 1962, and U. of Illinois Press, 1990).
Howard Odum and Harry Moore, American Regionalism, Henry Holt (1938).
David Lilienthal, TVA: Democracy on the March, Harpers (1944).
Clarence Stein, Towards New Towns in America, MIT Press (1957).
John Friedmann, The Spatial Structure of Economic Development in the Tennessee Valley,
University of Chicago (1955).
P. Selznick, TVA and the Grass Roots, University of California (1949).
Week 4. THE SPATIAL CONVERGENCE: REGIONAL THEORY/SCIENCE/DOCTRINE
-The emergence of scientific human geography
-Doctrine 2: Spatial systems planning as the new paradigm
-Growth poles, polarization, and regional development
-Exploring the "space economy"
Friedmann and Weaver, Territory and Function, pp. 89-103, 114-131.
Peter Hall, Von Thunen's Isolated State, Pergamon (1966), translation of first volume of von
Thunen's Der Isolierte Staat, first published in 1826.
Michael Chisholm, Rural Settlement and Land Use, Hutchinson (1962).
Alfred Weber, Theory of the Location of Industries (1909--translation, University of Chicago
Press, 1929, from Uber den Standort der Industrien).
Walter Christaller, Central Places in Southern Germany (1933--translation, Prentice-Hall, 1966
from Die zentralen Orte in Suddeutschland).
August Losch, The Economics of Location, Yale (1954).
E. M. Hoover, The Location of Economic Activity, McGraw-Hill (1948).
E. M. Hoover, An Introduction to Regional Economics, Knopf (1971).
Walter Isard, Location and Space Economy, MIT Press (1956).
Peter Haggett, Locational Analysis in Human Geography, Methuen (1967).
David Harvey, Explanation in Geography, Arnold (1969).
John Friedmann and W. Alonso (eds.), Regional Development Planning: A Reader, MIT
Press,(first edition 1964).
Harry Richardson, Regional Economics, Illinois (1978).
Week 5. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF REGIONAL DOCTRINE
-The "necessity" for regional policy--the diffusion of Doctrine 2
-Nation-building, "developmentalism," and the geography of modernization
-On the causes and consequences of geographically uneven development
-Bell-curves and the core-periphery relation
John Friedmann and William Alonso (eds.), Regional Development Planning: A Reader,
MIT Press (first edition--1964). Chapters by Francois Perroux, "Economic Space: Theory
and Applications," pp. 59-71. B.J.L. Berry, "Cities as Systems Within Systems of Cities,"
and "City-size Distributions and Economic Development."
Gunnar Myrdal, Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions, Duckworth (1957), also
published as Rich Lands and Poor.
Albert O. Hirschmann, The Strategy of Economic Development, Yale (1958).
John Friedmann, Regional Development Policy: A Case Study of Venezuela, MIT Press (1966).
E.A.J. Johnson, The Organization of Space in Developing Countries, Harvard (1970).
P.O. Pedersen, Urban-Regional Development in South America: A Process of Diffusion and
Integration, Mouton (1974).
J.G. Williamson, "Regional Inequality and the Process of National Development: A Description
of the Patterns," Economic Development and Cultural Change 13 (1965), pp. 3-45.
A. Kuklinski (ed.), Regional Development and Planning: International Perspectives, Sijthoff
______ (ed.), Growth Poles and Growth Centers in Regional Planning, Mouton (1972).
A. Kuklinski and Petrella (eds.), Growth Poles and Regional Policies
Edward W. Soja, The Geography of Modernization in Kenya, Syracuse (1968).
Week 6. POST-WAR REGIONAL POLICY IN THE U.S. AND WESTERN EUROPE
-Promises-Promises: the regionalization of the welfare state
-EDA and Regional Commissions in the U.S.
-Regional policy in Britain, France, and Italy
-The implicit regional policies of Keynesianism and Fordism
Weaver, Chs. 5 and 6, "Postwar Growth and the Reappearance of Regional Theory" and
"The Rise and Fall of Regional Policy."
Brian Berry, Growth Centers in the American Urban System, Vol. 1, Ballinger (1973).
John Cumberland, Regional Development: Experiences and Prospects in the United States of
America, Mouton (1971).
Peter Hall, Urban and Regional Planning, Wiley (1975).
Niles Hansen, (ed.), Public Policy and Regional Economic Development: The Experience of
Nine Western Countries, Ballinger (1974).
______ (ed.), Growth Centers and Regional Economic Development, The Free Press (1972).
J. Boudeville, Problems of Regional Economic Planning, Edinburgh (1966).
Harvey Perloff, Edgar S. Dunn Jr., E.E. Lampard and R.F. Muth, Regions, Resources and
Economic Growth, Johns Hopkins (1960).
M. J. Moseley, Growth Centers in Spatial Planning, Pergamon (1974).
J. Sundquist, Dispersing Population: What America Can Learn From Europe, Brookings (1975).
OECD, Regional Policy in 15 Industrialized OECD Countries (1970).
_____. Regional Problems and Policies in OECD Countries (1976).
Gavin McCrone, Regional Policy in Britain, Allen and Unwin (1969).
E. A. G. Robinson (ed.), Backward Areas in Advanced Countries, St. Martins (1969).
Week 7. THE DISINTEGRATION OF REGIONAL PLANNING DOCTRINE 2
-Peripheral voices: underdevelopment and dependency theory
-The Neo-Marxist critique of regional planning doctrines
-The end of welfare regionalism?
Weaver, Ch. 7, "Development, Underdevelopment and Uneven Development: A Debate on
Friedmann and Weaver, Territory and Function, pp. 163-180.
Stuart Holland, The Regional Problem, Macmillan (1976).
_____, Capital vs. the Regions
Harold Brookfield, Interdependent Development, Methuen (1975).
Andre Gunder Frank, Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America, Monthly Review
_____, Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopment, Monthly Review Press (1980).
T. Szentes, The Political Economy of Underdevelopment, Budapest (1976).
Samir Amin, Accumulation on a World Scale, 2 vols., Monthly Review Press (1974).
Immanuel Wallerstein, The Capitalist World Economy, Cambridge (1979).
Arghiri Emmanuel, Unequal Exchange, New Left Books (1972).
William R. Thompson, Contending Approaches to World Systems Analysis, Sage (1983).
Week 8. REGIONS AND THE RECONCEPTUALIZATION OF SPATIALITY
-Structuralism and social theory
-Lefebvre and Foucault: the discovery of "other" spaces
-Foundations for a new regionalism
E. Soja, Postmodern Geographies, Chs. 2 and 4, "Marxist Geography and Critical Social
Theory" and "Urban and Regional Debates: the First Round."
Ernest Mandel, "Capitalism and Regional Disparities," Southwest Economy and Society
(1976), pp. 41-47.
Doreen Massey, "Regionalism: Some Current Issues," Capital and Class (1978), pp.106-
Val Burris, "Introduction: The Structuralist Influence in Marxist Theory and Research," in The
Insurgent Sociologist IX (1979), pp. 4-17 of special issue on Marxism and Structuralism.
Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space, Basil Blackwell (1991).
_____, The Survival of Capitalism, St. Martin's Press (1976).
Anthony Giddens, The Constitution of Society, (1984).
_____, Central Problems in Social Theory, (1979).
_____, A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism (1981).
Derek Gregory, Ideology, Science and Human Geography, St. Martins (1978).
Nicos Poulantzas, State, Power, Socialism, Verso (1980).
J. G. Carney, R. Hudson, and J. Lewis (eds.), Regions in Crisis, Croom Helm (1980).
Costis Hadjimichalis, Uneven Development and Regionalism: State, Territory and Class in
Southern Europe, Croom Helm, (1987).
W. Stohr and D. R. F. Taylor, Development from Above or Below? Wiley (1982).
Charles Gore, Regions in Question: Space, Development Theory and Regional Policy, Methuen
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