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Published : Wednesday, March 28, 2012
Reading/s : 27
Origin : speitaly.org
Number of pages: 16
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Why do we need to discuss about
Unconventional Hydrocarbon Reservoirs?
Unconv
Formation Evaluation
Global economy is strongly
based on Fossil Fuels
based on
Challenges in Unconventional
represerepresenting 90% of the the
Tight Hydrocarbon Reservoirs primary eprimary energy produced in
the world.
the world.
Fossil Fuels, by definition,
Fossil Fuelsition,
are not reare not renewable sources
THE GROWING GAP
of energy, and their amount
Regular Oil
Mauro Gonfalini
60
is limited.
is limited.
50 Past Discovery
SPE Italian Section
Future Discovery
Oil, by itself, represents
Oil,nts
40
Production
th 30
about 40% ofabout 40% of the Foossil ssil
June 7
June 7
, 2005 Past discovery based
on ExxonMobil (2002).
20
Revisions backdated
Fuels used worldwide.Fuels used worldwide.
10
Oil production peak is close!
Oil pr 0
1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050
Newsletter ASPO n° 49 - January 2005
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 3
The resource Triangle
Outline of the lecturee of thre
Introduction
Introduction
Conventional reservoirs
Past
small volume,
easy to develop
Definitions
Definitions
Mr HolditcMr Holditch
vision about vision about
Gas from Tight Reservoirs (mainly sandstones) Unconventional Present sa
Reservoirs
fossil
fossil
Gas from Gas from Shales
hydrocarbon hydrocarbon
Large Volumes,
difficult to
resourcesresources.
develop
Gas from Coal
ConclusionsConclusions Future
Unconventional sources are Next on the E&P Radar -
Drilling Contractor - November/December 2004
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 2 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 4
1 2
Gb/a
Increased pricing
Increased technologyThe resource triangle modified
Expected decarbonization trend
Due to Due to
enviroenvironmental
ThThe rese resource issues and
issues and
triangletriangle is here
availability of availability of
modified in
modified in
fossil energy
Gas shales fossil ene
order to better
order to
sources, we see sources, we see
define thedefine the focus
in the industry a
of thisof this lecture.
trend toward
trend toward
Focus of thhee l leeccttureure
decarbonization
Resource Triangle modified of fossil fuels
of fossil fuels
The Increasing Rolee o off UncUncoonventional
SPE 90242 - Is Bitumen a Pettrroolleum Reeum Reserve?
Reservoirs in the Futuree of of th the Oil ae Oil and Gas Business
J. R. Etherington eett al., 200 al., 20044
SPE Lecture 2001 2001 -- S. A.S. A. HolditcHolditch
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 5 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 7
Conventional vs Unconventional
The Golden Age of Natural Gas
Hydrocarbon Reservoirsoirs
ThThe ine increasincreasing role of Unconventional
ReservReservoioirs in the Furs in the Future of the Oil and Gaass
Business -
SPE LectSPE Lecture 2001 - S. A. Holditch
The Schlumberger Natural Gas Strategies 2004
Thlumberger Naturategi04
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 6 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 8
3 4
increased pricing
increased technologyz
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Is this really true?
Formation Evaluation
ForFormation Evaluation is the
Primary EPrimary Energy
analysis aanalysis and interpreetatiotation of well log
Coal
Hydroelectricity
data, drill stem tests, etc. in terms of
data, etc
Nuclear energy
the nthe nature of the forrmmations aations and their
Natural Gas
Oil
fluid contefluid content.
The objectives of Formation
The mation
Evaluation are:
Evaluation
to ascertain if commercially
to ascertai
proproducible hydrocarbons are presns are present,
to determto determine the best means for their
From SPWLA Glossary
From
recovery,recovery,
toto derive lithology and other
bp statistical review of world energy
June 2004
June 2004 informatinformation on formmation ation
characteristics for use in further
exploration and development.
explora
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 9 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 11
Unconventional Reservoirs:
Formation Evaluation and E&P process
some exsome example of the growing interest in the industry
DevelopDevelopment &
Exploration &
Appraisal Production Prod
DiscoveryDiscovery Evaluation
OOpptimizationtimization
FE TechnologiesFE Technologies FE TechnologiesFE Technologies FE TechnologiesFE Technologies
• Surface Logging • Surface Logging • CH Logging
• Surface Lo • Surface Lo CH Logging
•• Well LoWell Logging gging •• Well LoWell Logging • Reservoir Monitoring & Reservoir Monitoring &
•• CoringCoring •• CoringCoring SurveillanceSurveillance
•• Formation Testing Formation Testing •• Formation Testing Formation Testing
•• Well TestingWell Testing •• Well TestingWell Testing
DisciplinesDisciplines DisciplinesDisciplines Disciplines
• Geosciences • Geosciences • Geosciences
• Geosciences • Geosciences Geosciences
•• DrillingDrilling •• DrillDrilling ing • DrillingDrilling
• Production (feasibility) • Reservoir Engineering • Reservoir Engineering
• P • Reservoir Engi Reservoir Engi
•• Reserve evaluationReserve evaluation •• PPrroduoduction (design) • PProduction (optimization)roduction (optimization)
•• Reserve certifiReserve certification
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 10 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 12
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The importance of Tight Gas Reservoirs
The importance of Tight Gas Reservoirs
What makes a reservoir tight?
Effective porosity, viscosity, fluid
Effective
saturation,saturation, the capillary pressure are
Unconventional resources are probably very large,
some ofsome of the import parameter
but their character and distribution are not yet well
controllingcontrolling the effective permective permeability
understood.
understo
of a reservoir.
of a reservoir.
Tight GTight Gas sands in the U.S. comprise 69%69% of gas
Rock parameters are controlled by
production from all unconventional gas resources
productio
depositional and post-depositional -depositional
ConvConventientional Gas Sand
and already account for and already account for 19% of the total gas environments:
environme
deep basinal or over-bank levees in flood
production from conventional and unconventional deep bank levees in flood
plains areas (deposition of very fine sand to
plains
sources. sources.
silt and clays, which form poor reservoirs on
lithlithification);
Total Gas In Place related to Tight Gas sands in
Total G relateas sands in
highhigh-energy clean sandstonstoneess (intergranular
3
the the U.S. is estimated between 100 & 400 Tm .
pores occludpores occluded by authigenicic clay minerals &
cements);cements); TiTight Gas Sand
Other countries: Canada, Australia, Argentina,
postpost-depositional diageneteneticic events act events act many
Venezuela, Egypt, Algeria and … ?
times ntimes negatively, reducee th the effective porosity e effective porosity G.G. C. Naik, 2003
and thand thereby make the rock less perme rock less permeable.
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 13 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 15
Petrophysical attributes of s of
Gas production from Tight Reservoirs
low-permeability Reservoirs
Tight hydrocarbon reservoirs are the ones
Tight hydrocarbon reservoirs are the ones
ThThe loe low-permeability structure
characterized by characterized by low quualityality due to low
and the response to overburden
permeabilities, generally in the range between and th
permeabilities
stress hstress have a strong impact onve a strong impact on
a a mDmD and a µD (a millionth of a Darcy!).
Tight reservoirs can be of any kind: the lothe low-pe
Tight reservoirs can be of any ki
and the relative permeability
clasticlastics, carbonates and and igignneous rocks. and thmeability
relationsrelationships.
Higher QuaHigher Quality Tight Hylity Tight Hydrocarbon reservoirs drocarbon reservoirs
In lowIn low-permeability reeservoirs servoirs
are already in prare already in production fr from years, but nears, but new w
E&P technologies anE&P technologies and methodologies will there cthere can be a broad range of
lower the cost to drill, characterize, complete water saturations in which
lower the cwater satu which
and prand produce hydrocarbons frns from highly tight neitherneither gas nor water can flow. r can flow.
formations.
form
In some vIn some very low-ppeermeability rmeability
Each one of these reseEach one of these reservoir typervoir types requires reservoir, there is virtually no
specific E&P strategies and adequate mobile water phase even at very
G. C. G. C. NaiNaik, 2003
Formation Evaluation Techniques.Techniques. high whigh water saturations.ns.
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 14 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 16
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Key F. E. technologies Reservoir Characterization
Tight gas sands often exhibit unique gas storage
and producing characteristics that require:
improved knowledge o of the nature, geometrometryy and
The objective of the reservoir
distribution of petrophysical properties,
characterization program is to
chara
more dense well spacing,
acquire data to identify and
adequate Stimulation & Production techniques.
characterize the mechanisms
PetrophysicsPetrophysics is a critical technology required forquired for
understanding low--permeability repermeability reservoirs. controlling production and
optimum development.
GeomechGeomechanics is also very important for the
correct implementation of advanced Drilling
correct implementatio of advanced Drilling
technologies and of adequate stimulation and
production strategies.
productio
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 17 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 19
Data AcData Acquisition & Formation Evaluation
Reservoir Modeling
The objective of the reservoir description program is
The ultimate goal of reservoir
The ultimreservoir
to provide sufficient data to accurately describe the
modelingmodeling is to validate the reservoir
resource in place and reserve potential.
descriptiodescription and characterization
Surface Logging
programs and to develop realistic 3D
Coring
Coring well bore and reservoir models that
Well Logging Well Logging can be used to predict future
can be used to predict future
Formation testingFormation testing
performances:performances:
Production Logging & Reservoir Surveillance
increase in model complexity with
Applications timetime
Applications
Reservoir Characterization stochastic models
Reservoir Modeling
deterministic modelsdeterministic models
Drilling & Completion
Drilling & Completion
model integration
model integration
Well StiWell Stimulation & Production Optimization
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 18 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 20
9 10Reservoir Monitoring and Surveillance
Importance of Surface logging data
The objective of reservoir monitoring and
surveillansurveillance is; a) continuously monitor well
production performance, b) obtain data required to
quantify any anomalous behavior and c) update the c) update the
reservoir models.
Dynamic reservoir characterization data are critical
for evaluating production performance (Pressure (Pressure
WD, CH Testing, WD, CH Testing, PLT’sPLT’s & Permanent Sensors, etc.).
SPE ACTE 2004
SPE ACTE 2004
C. C. Carugo, V. Chelini, S. El Manaa, E, EAAGEGE, Tu, Tunis, 2002
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 21 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 23
Drilling & Completion
Formation Testing
Economically producing gas from
The low permeability of these
the unconventional sources is a
great challenge today and tight gas reservoreservoirs slows down their response
reservoirs require advanced to pressure transient testing so it is
techniques to enable migration difficult to obtain dynamic reservoir
distances from formation to well to
properties and, therefore, to
be reduced. be reduced.
characterize gas reserves.
Therefore modern technologies for
MoreoveMoreover, the determination of real
the production of tight gas ght gas
composition of fluids trapped in tight
reservoirs are horizontal and
reservoreservoirs is very challenging, since
multilateral wells, as well as under-
recovered fluid often reflects the
balanced drilling.
composition of the ones related to
Stimulation and cementing techno-
largest pores, interstices and
largest pores, interstices and
logies are proving very significant
logies
RCI RCI – Baker Atlas
invaded zinvaded zone.
for improved economic production.
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 22 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 24
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Log interpretation uncertainties
Well logging in Tight Reservoirs
in a tight gas bearing sandstone
High porosity/low permeability
(Sandstones, carbonates & volcanic)
Strong diagenetic effects and clay filling by chlorite
and illite need to be studied by means of ad hoc
5 ohmm
petrophysicalpetrophysical models and specialized lithologylithology logs
Low Resistivity contrasts affect Water Saturation
evaluationevaluation
0.3 – 0.4 ohmm
Good total porosity determination using Density,
Neutron & Sonic
NMR logging: good Φ estimation, poor K estimationΦ
P. F. Worthington, 2000hingto
Extensive laboratory analysis for Archie parameters
((especially “n”especially “n”) are required.
Uncertainties on Uncertainties on Resistivity measurements and measurements and petrotropphysicalhysical models
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 25 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 27
Log interpretation uncertainties
Well logging in Tight Reservoirs
in a tight gas bearing sandstone
Low porosity/low permeability
(Sandstones & carbonates)
Very high Very high Resistivityy contrasts, anisotropy and
dipping effects require Resistivity modeling
Lack of accuracy for all porosity logs (Density, Density,
Neutron, Sonic and NMRNeutron, Sonic and NMR)
Extensive laboratory analysiss for Archie parameters for Archie parameters
((especially “m” and RwRw)
Need for image log acquisition and interpretation
((geology and formation/stress anisotropy)
Need for acoustic anisotropy acquisition and
interpretation (to improve seismic interpretation and
interpretation (m
better characterize in situ stress anisotropy) Uncertainties on Archie parameters and log derived porosities
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 26 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 28
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New Logging technologies:
New Logging technologies:
Log interpretation uncertainties
Array Acoustic measurements
in a tight gas bearing sandstone
Wire LineWire Line technology While Drilling
ImprImproved petrophyysicalsical Real-time applications:pplications:
Uncertainties on
Uncertainties on
analysis
analysis Pressure Management
on fluid conton fluid contacts
(CPI vs RFT) Seismic calibration & AVO
Seismic Time--Depth Tie-In
Stoneley permeability
StoneleyGeosteering
In situ stress anisotropy
In situ stre Well bore instability
Fracture location (OH/CH)Fracture location (OH/CH) analysis
Rock MechanicsRock Mechanics Formation Evaluation
Post-well applications:
Detailed pepetrotrophysics
GWC RFT
Seismic calibration & AVO
GWC LOG
Rock Mechanics.
SupeSupercharge effect
on WFT data
Schlumberger WEC Algeria
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 29 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 31
New Logging technologies:
New Logging technologies:
Uncertainty reduction by integration
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
To reduce the unTo reduce the uncertainty in the
estimation of hydrocarbon in
estimationon in
There areThere are strong limits to the
place and place and fluid contact inn tight ga tight gas
application of NMR logging in
applic
reservoirs, it is essential to
reseto
low porosity, low permeability
low porosermeabilit
integrate integrate core data and log analysislog analysis
gas bearing formation.
(i.e. saturation height functions) to
(i.e. sanctions)
New tools can better cope with
better define petrophysical
bettesical
these conditions provided that
properties such as Sw and FWL.
prop and FWL
pre job/post job modeling and
(SPE 84390).
(SPE 84390).
strong integration with all the
available well data (core,
This implies that the Well Data
This ll Dat
pressure data and fluid
Acquisition program is defined with
Acquisiti
the strong collaboration among all samples, logs, etc.) are
the
the different specialists ithe different specialists innvolvedvolved performed by well trained
(Eni & Total WDA – SPE 63284) experts.experts.
(Eni & T
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 30 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 32
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Fracture characterization by imaging logs
Fracture erizat
Fracture network characterization
Open vs drilling
Tight reservoirs are proneTight reservoirs are prone to inte to intense
induced fractures
induceced fractd fractuureress
fracturing afracturing and fractures have a strong s have a strong
impact on drilling, exploration &
production activities..
The correct knowledge of the
relationships between the in situ stress
and theand the natural fracturee system is of system is of
primary imprimary importance for:
minimizing drilling risks,
Monitoring of
Monitoring of
maximizing hydrocarbon production
maximizing hydrn prinduced fractures
induceures
minimizing operational costs.
In situ stress &
IInn situ st&
fractures
To achieve these goals, a very strong fracturesvery str
relationshipsti
integration among different disciplines
(i.e. Geosciences, Reservoir Engineering,
(i.e. Geosciences, Reservoir Engineering,
GeomechanicsGeomechanics, etc.) iis mans mandat dato or ry!y!
Courtesy of Schlumberger
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 33 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 35 Court
Well information & well bore stability
Fracture network characterization
R.R. Ne Nelson – SPE ACTE 2004
DistributioDistribution, orientation anntation and density of
natural fractures need to be studied but,
natural fraeed to b
reservoir engineers also need detailed
analysesanalyses of the effecfectts of inters of interstitial
clays and fluids.
Conventional methods of producing gas
Conventioods of prods
from tight reservoirs usually requires
some forsome form of artificial stimulation (such h
as hydraulic fracturing) and/or other ad
SH max direction
from Image Logs
hoc completion and production
strategies that are strongly dependant
on correct characterization of the
Courtesy of Bakeer Atr Atlaslas
natural fracture systems and in situ
Importance of OH & CH OH & CH
stress costress conditions.
Shear Wave anisotropy
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 34 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 36
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Maximizing production in tight reservoirs
Cross hole Electro Matro Magnetic Tomography
To significantly increase
productioproduction from low
permeability and widely
disperseddispersed resources, correctcorrect
20.0 20.0
well bore positioning is
40.0 40.0
mandatory!
mandatory!
60.0 60.0
This requires extensive use of
80.0
80.0
While Drilling Formation
While Drilling Formation
100.0 100.0
EvaluatioEvaluation technologies such
120.0
120.0
as as Advanced Geosteering
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0
location (m)
location (m)
techniques based on deep n deep
-50.0 0.0 50.0
reading Sreading Seismic and E. M. -30.0 -10.0 10.0 30.0
percent difference resistivity
percent difference resistivity
technologies.
technologies.
Time X + 1
Time X
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 37 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 39
Tight Gas Sands Development: ament:
Deep Resistivity measurements
how to improve Recovery Efficiency
(Intensive Resource Development DOE/NETL)
The IRD suite of technologies includes:
natural fracture identification technologies
to delineate to delineate high-producctivittivity sections
within a mulwithin a multi-township tight gas
accumulation;
accumulati
well lwell logging technoloogiesgies that reliably
distinguish between gas and water bearing
distinguish band wat
sands, and can help identifying and
sands, and tifying and
quantifying vquantifying volumes of secondary porosity;
multi-zone completion technologies that
multition tec
can efficican efficiently stimulate multiple zones multiple zones
withwithout damaging the formation;
well testing technologies to establish
well testing ogies to es
drainage vdrainage volumes, w weellll--toto-well
cocommunication and anisotr anisotropic flow
pattpatterns. Gas TIPS Gas TIPS – Winter 2004
SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slislide # de # 38 SPE ItalSPE Italiian Secan Section - FE challenges in Uncoonventionanventional Hl Hyydrdrococararbon Resbon Reservoir – slide # 40
19 20
depth (m)
depth (m)

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