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The Italian Cantata in Vienna

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<P>Lawrence Bennett provides a comprehensive study of the rich repertoire of accompanied vocal chamber music that entertained the imperial family in Vienna and their guests throughout the 17th and early 18th centuries. The cantata became a form of elite entertainment composed to amuse listeners during banquets or pay homage to members of the royal family during special occasions. Concentrating on Baroque cantatas composed in the Habsburg court, Bennett draws extensively on primary source material to explore the stylistic changes that occurred within the genre in the generations before Haydn and Mozart.</P>
<P>Preface<BR>List of Bibliographical Abbreviations<BR>List of RISM Sigla<BR>1. Introduction<BR>The Role of Music in the Daily Lives of the Habsburgs<BR>The Scope of the Book<BR>The Secondary Literature<BR>The Cantata Terminology<BR>Forerunners of the Cantata in Vienna<BR>Part I: The Cantata in Vienna, 1658-1700<BR>2. The Political and Cultural Milieu<BR>Historical Background<BR>Leopold I as Patron and Composer<BR>Habsburg Music Chapels, 1658-1700<BR>Occasions, Places of Performance, and Performers<BR>Librettists<BR>3. The Composers<BR>Composers Who May Have Written Cantatas for Vienna During the Early<BR>Reign of Leopold I<BR>Antonio and Carlo Draghi<BR>Filippo Vismarri<BR>Carlo Cappellini<BR>Giovanni Battista Pederzuoli<BR>Antonio Maria and Giovanni Buonaventura Viviani<BR>German-Speaking Composers<BR>4. Repertoire and Sources<BR>The Repertoire<BR>The Sources<BR>5. Text and Music<BR>Antonio Maria Viviani<BR>Antonio Bertali<BR>Filippo Vismarri<BR>Carlo Cappellini<BR>Giovanni Battista Pederzuoli<BR>Antonio and Carlo Draghi<BR>Part II: The Cantata in Vienna, 1700-1711<BR>6. The Political and Cultural Milieu<BR>Historical Background<BR>Joseph I as Patron and Composer<BR>Cultural Growth<BR>Habsburg Music Chapels, 1700-1711<BR>Genre Designations<BR>Occasions, Places of Performance, and Performers<BR>Librettists and Librettos<BR>7. The Composers<BR>Carlo Agostino Badia<BR>Giovanni Bononcini<BR>Marc’Antonio Ziani<BR>Attilio Ariosti<BR>Antonio Maria Bononcini<BR>Composers Who May Have Written Cantatas for Vienna<BR>8. Repertoire and Sources<BR>New Interest in the Cantata<BR>The Repertoire of Cantatas by Habsburg Composers<BR>Sources<BR>9. Style Overview<BR>The Style Transition<BR>Broad Structural Plans<BR>Selection of Voices<BR>Instrumentation<BR>Dynamics<BR>Recitative and Arioso<BR>Aria Keys<BR>Continuum (Tempo/Meter)<BR>The Use of Devisen<BR>Aria Designs<BR>10. Aspects of Form<BR>The Conventional Da Capo Design<BR>Variants from the Conventional Design<BR>Articulation of Form<BR>11. Melody, Harmony, and Rhythm<BR>Melody<BR>Harmony<BR>Surface Rhythm<BR>Changes in Timbre<BR>12. The Relationship of Text and Music<BR>The Text and Its Influence upon the Musical Design<BR>The Interactions of the Text with Melody and Rhythm<BR>Tone Color and Dynamics<BR>Descriptive Treatment of the Text<BR>Affective Treatment of the Text<BR>13. Conclusion: The Interregnum and Its Aftermath<BR>The End of the War of the Spanish Succession<BR>The Fate of the Cantata Composers and Librettists Who Served Joseph I<BR>The Cantatas by Composers Residing in Vienna During the Interregum<BR>Appendix A: Index of Cantata Text Incipits and Sources<BR>Appendix B: Catalogue Raisonné of Viennese Cantata Sources<BR>Appendix C: Texts of Arias Analyzed in Chapters 10-12<BR>Notes<BR>Bibliography<BR></P>

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Published 18 October 2013
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THE ITALIAN CANTATA IN VIENNA
Publications of the Early Music Institute PAUL ELLIOTT, EDITOR
THE ITALIAN CANTATA IN VIENNA
This book is a dublication of
InDiana University Press Office of Scholarly Publishing Herman B Wells Library 350 1320 East 10th Street Bloomington, InDiana 47405 USA
iudress.inDiana.eDu
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© 2013 by Lawrence Bennett All rights reserveD
No dart of this book may be redroDuceD or utilizeD in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, incluDing dhotocodying anD recorDing, or by any information storage anD retrieval system, without dermission in writing from the dublisher. The Association of American University Presses’ Resolution on Permissions constitutes the only excedtion to this drohibition.
The dader useD in this dublication meets the minimum requirements of the American National StanDarD for Information Sciences—Permanence of Pader for PrinteD Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48–1992.
Manufactured in the United States of America
Cataloging information is available from the Library of Congress.
ISBN 978-0-253-01018-6 (cloth) ISBN 978-0-253-01034-6 (ebook)
1 2 3 4 5 18 17 16 15 14 13
For Nancy, whose patience provided the support that made this book a reality
PART II THE CANTATA IN VIENNA, 1700–1711
Preface List of Bibliographical Ābbreviations
12. The Relationship of Text and Music
5. Text and Music
3. The Composers
Notes Editions and Bibliography Index
2. The Political and Cultural Milieu
4. Repertoire and Sources
Appendix A. Index of Cantata Text Incipits and Sources Appendix B. Catalogue Raisonné of Viennese Cantata Sources Appendix C. Texts of Arias Analyzed in Chapters 10–12
PART I THE CANTATA IN VIENNA, 1658–1700
1. Introduction
8. Repertoire and Sources
11. Melody, Harmony, and Rhythm
9. Style Overview
13. Conclusion: The Interregnum and Its Aftermath
10. Aspects of Form
CONTENTS
6. The Political and Cultural Milieu
7. The Composers
List of RISM Sigla
PREFACE
This book isthe culmination of many years of work by a lover of vocal chamber music. That love began in 1969, when I cofounded The Western Wind vocal ensemble, a sextet dedicated to a cappella music of all periods. About the time that The Western Wind gave its first concert, I began my search for a Ph.D. dissertation topic in music history at New York University. Strongly attracted to the great madrigals of Claudio Monteverdi, Giaches de Wert, and Luca Marenzio, I at first considered a topic focused on an aspect of the Italian madrigal. Noticing, however, that many outstanding scholars were already working in this field, I wondered if perhaps there was a seventeenth- or eighteenth-century topic in accompanied vocal chamber music that merited exploration. Scholars such as Owen Jander, Gloria Rose, and Eleanor Caluori were producing groundbreaking studies and thematic catalogs for important secular cantata composers such as Alessandro Stradella, Giacomo Carissimi, and Luigi Rossi, but the sheer vastness of the extant cantata repertoire made it evident that much work still needed to be done. My search for a topic eventually led me to the music of the Bononcini brothers, Giovanni and Antonio Maria, and more specifically to their secular cantatas. In the spring of 1969 I learned that I had received a Fulbright Fellowship to study the Bononcini cantatas housed in the great libraries of Vienna. That summer I traveled to Massachusetts, where I received valuable advice from Jander, a professor at Wellesley College, and met Lowell Lindgren while working in the Loeb Music Library at Harvard University. To my surprise, Lindgren informed me that he too was starting out on a dissertation about the music of the Bononcinis. After the initial shock, we decided to split the topic: Lindgren would concentrate on the operas, and I would work on the cantatas. Lindgren has gone on to write a dissertation and to publish many meticulously prepared articles. For my study of the Bononcini cantatas, I had chosen Vienna because of its central location, naively hoping that I would be able to travel to libraries and archives all over Europe. Because of travel restrictions and limited funds, I concluded within a few weeks after arriving in Vienna that it would be impossible to realize my dream of collecting all the Bononcini cantatas in a single year. Regular visits to the music collections of the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek and the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde made me aware that there was more than enough to do in Vienna. I learned that the Bononcini brothers were only two of many Italian composers who spent all or large portions of their careers in the service of the imperial family. I therefore refocused my topic to concentrate on the cantatas written for Vienna by composers employed by the Habsburgs during the baroque era. I rewrote my dissertation proposal and was fortunate to receive a one-year renewal of my Fulbright Fellowship. I soon learned that the music-loving Habsburg emperors took great pains to preserve the works composed in their honor and for their entertainment. Thus the music libraries of the emperors Leopold I, Joseph I, and Charles VI contain beautiful copies of operas, oratorios, cantatas, and other works prepared for them by professional scribes on high-quality paper. The sturdy bindings of parchment or leather often display elaborate imprints decorated with gold that identify the specific emperors who had ordered the archival copies. The majority of the cantatas are housed in the music collection of the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, but I discovered that the library of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde also preserves many cantatas, including autograph copies by Habsburg composers such as Marc Antonio Ziani and Antonio Caldara. Over time I also located manuscript copies of cantatas composed for Vienna in libraries such as the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek in Berlin and the Max-Reger-Institut in Meiningen. Manuscripts, yes, but what of printed Italian cantata collections? After all, many volumes of
cantatas were published in Italy during the baroque era. Of the dozens of composers employed by the Habsburgs between 1658 and 1740, only one—Carlo Agostino Badia— appears to have received permission to publish a volume of secular cantatas. The Habsburg emperors asserted strict ownership of works composed in their honor and in general did not permit much of the music to circulate beyond the imperial court. The Viennese libraries contain manuscripts with countless cantatas by composers who never received Habsburg appointments. No doubt some of these cantatas were performed in Vienna. My task eventually became one of isolating the cantatas specifically written for Vienna by composers employed there. The work was somewhat mitigated by the fact that composers such as Antonio Draghi, Filippo Vismarri, Carlo Cappellini, and Badia spent most of their careers in the service of the imperial family. The Habsburgs’ pride in preserving archival copies of cantatas by composers with imperial appointments also enabled me to identify many works pertinent to my topic. Giovanni Bononcini posed a special problem. Giovanni composed large numbers of cantatas before and after his service in Vienna. Would it be possible to separate the cantatas written for Vienna from the rest? Many Bononcini cantatas exist in multiple copies spread throughout Europe and the United States. For some time I attempted to create a thematic catalog with concordances of the Bononcini cantatas. This work was eventually expanded and completed by Lindgren; the text incipits with sigla for libraries containing Bononcini cantatas are given by Lindgren in the articles for Giovanni and Antonio Bononcini published in the 2001 edition ofThe New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Five cantatas by Giovanni are found in unique archival copies from the period of his first imperial service (1698–1712), and I therefore concluded that they were composed for Vienna. I returned to New York in the summer of 1971. My dissertation advisors at New York University, David Burrows and Jan LaRue, gave helpful suggestions as the project moved forward. At first I intended to include the cantatas composed for Vienna for the entire baroque era. Observing that such a project could take a lifetime to complete, LaRue wisely recommended that I limit the dissertation to the cantatas composed from roughly 1700 to 1711, the final years of the emperorship of Leopold I and the brief reign of Joseph I. Confining the dissertation to this period made perfect sense because it coincided with the influx of new composers who brought the late baroque style to Vienna. Following an American Musicological Society conference in the 1990s, Robert Kendrick strongly encouraged me to consider a book about the cantatas composed for Vienna.The Italian Cantata in Vienna: Entertainment in the Age of Absolutism is the result of my current research. A book of this scope would not be possible without the support of many colleagues. I am especially grateful to Steven Saunders and Andrew Weaver for their generous advice in helping me to shape the introductory chapter; to Lowell Lindgren for sharing innumerable valuable suggestions and details; and to the Austrian scholars Martin Eybl, Herbert Seifert, and Theophil Antonicek for their insights. I also wish to acknowledge the music library staff at the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, especially Günter Brosche and Thomas Leibnitz, the former and current directors; Otto Biba and the library staff at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde; Herta Müller and Maren Goltz, the former and current music librarians at the Max-Reger-Institut in Meiningen; and the staff of the William and Gayle Cook Music Library at Indiana University, especially David Lasocki and Carla Williams, the former and current reference librarians. I am also grateful for the support of the library staff at Wabash College, especially Diane Norton, John Lamborn, and Deborah Polley, and for the suggestions of my colleague in the Music Department, Peter Hulen. Lucia Marchi painstakingly proofread the entire manuscript, and Steven Winkler helped to prepare the seventy-five music examples with the Finale program. Finally, I would like to thank Raina Polivka and the staff at Indiana University Press for the care with which they helped me to complete this book. The abbreviations for voices and instruments and for bibliographical citations used
throughout this book are those found inThe New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2001). The sigla for libraries are those provided by Répertoire International des Sources Musicales (RISM). The bibliographical abbreviations and the sigla are given below. At present I envision a second book,The Italian Cantata in Vienna: Entertainment in the Age of Emperor Charles VI,will sum up my research of cantatas by important which composers such as Antonio Caldara, Francesco and Ignazio Conti, Giuseppe Porsile, Georg Reutter Jr., Leopold Timmer, and Luca Predieri. I hope that my work will lead to future studies that will shed more light on the rich history of the Italian cantata.