158 Pages
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An Insider's Experience of Insurgency in India's North-East


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158 Pages


A rare analysis that – for the first time – examines the crises of a region mired in political strife and ambiguity.

Written with empathy and lucidity, Mukherjee’s book combines hard fact with sensitive insight in his approach to the region’s landscape, people and history. The author analyses problems intrinsic to this enigmatic area, offering viable solutions where possible. As former Chief of Staff of the Eastern Command, Mukherjee forms astute observations about the north-east’s conditions. Drawing on his 41 years of experience with north-eastern soldiers, ex-servicemen and their families, he is able to explore the perspectives of both the north-eastern people and those who oppose them.

Foreword; Preface; Section I: Issues and Problems of Insurgency, Growth and Development; Effects of Geography and History; Assam; Nagaland; Manipur; Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura; Arunachal, Sikkim and North Bengal; Role of Servicemen/Ex-servicemen; India’s Foreign Relations, the Effects of Geo-power Politics and Events in Neighbouring Countries; Section II: Resolution; Foreign Policy with Reference to the North-East; Internal Policy; Economic Aspects; Politico – Military Policy; Conclusion: Problem Resolution for the North-East; List of Abbreviations; Selected Bibliography; Index



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Published 01 May 2007
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EAN13 9781843313540
Language English

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An Insider’s Experience of Insurgency in India’s North-East
Anthem South Asian Studies Series Editor: Crispin Bates
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Brosius, ChristianeEmpowering Visions(2005) Mills, Jim (ed)Sport in South Asia(2005) Joshi, ChitraLost Worlds: Indian Labour and its Forgotten Histories(2005) Dasgupta, Biplab,European Trade and Colonial Conquest(2005) Kaur, RaminderHinduismPerformative Politics and the Cultures of (2005) Rosenstein, LucyNew Poetry in Hindi(2004) Shah, Ghanshyam,Caste and Democratic Politics in India(2004) Van Schendel, WillemThe Bengal Borderland: Beyond State and Nation in South Asia(2004)
An Insider’s Experience of Insurgency in India’s North-East
Anthem Press
Anthem Press An imprint of Wimbledon Publishing Company 75-76 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HA www.anthempress.com
This edition first published by Anthem Press 2005
Copyright © Lt General J R Mukherjee PVSM, AVSM, VSM (Retd) 2005
The moral right of the authors has been asserted. All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book has been requested.
1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2
ISBN 1 84331 700 1 (HB)
Cover illustration: Chabi Datt
Printed in India
An Insider’s Experience of Insurgency in India’s North-East
Lt General J R Mukherjee, PVSM, AVSM, VSM (Retd)
An alumni from National Defence Academy, the Indian Military Academy and the National Defence College, Lt General J R Mukherjee, PVSM, AVSM, VSM (Retd) was commissioned into the Assam Regiment (Infantry) of The Indian Army in 1964 and retired in 2005 as Chief of Staff, Eastern Command, Indian Army. Professionally attended Staff College at Camberley in the UK and the Senior and Higher Air Command Courses of the Indian Army, Lt General J R Mukherjee, PVSM, AVSM, VSM (Retd) served for over 41 years in the Indian Army on active, wartime and operational command – out of which he spent more than 23 years in the north eastern region handling diverse assignments. In 1999, Lt General J R Mukherjee, PVSM, AVSM, VSM (Retd) became the Chief of Staff of the corps stationed for operations in Kashmir when the Pakistani conflict at Kargil. He then commanded the same corps in Kashmir and was acclaimed for his contribution towards restoring internal security at the hour of crises. He has also been awarded the Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM), the Vishisht Seva Medal (VSM) and the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal (AVSM) for his rich contribution to the Indian Army and for his efforts towards bringing insurgency under control in the northeast. Lt General J R Mukherjee, PVSM, AVSM, VSM (Retd) has plans to make use of his leisure time by way of sharing his many untold stories.
Lt Gen S.K. Pillai,PVSM (Retd.)
‘Vichitra’, Jawahar Nagar Trivandrum - 695 003 Tel : 0471-2724935 e-mail : sushil@md5.vsnl.net.in
The title of this remarkable book says it all. Lt General J R Mukherjee, PVSM, AVSM, VSM (Retd) is an ‘insider’ with over twenty four years of service in our north-eastern region in various capacities ranging from a company commander to Chief of Staff, Eastern Command. In addition, he has an insider’s Regimental and familial ties with the north-east. Added to this is his considerable experience in tackling insurgencies not only in our north-eastern states but also as a Corps Commander in J&K during the Kargil War. His views and recommen-dations, many of which are radical and thought provoking will, I am sure, bring in a freshness to what has unfortunately become a stale and repetitive discourse on the insurgencies in our north eastern states. This book, notable for its brevity and focus on essentials, can be read at various levels. It could be a reading as an introductory book for those interested in or posted to the north-east; an aide in understanding the complex problems of each of the eight north eastern states and North Bengal; a catalyst for new initiatives and for prompting re-examination and debate on north eastern policies;and finally as a case study of how well intentioned but flawed policies generate violence. Three points which specially stand out in this book are the need for applying a deep historical, geographical and socio-economic perspective to the search for solutions to the insurgencies in the north eastern states. Secondly, the need for a holistic approach when evolving conflict resolution measures and thirdly the need for full utilisation of human resources in ensuring the aims of National Security which are to ensure the freedom, well being and safety of our citizens and protection of our core values and interests. The author rightly points out that insurgencies and ethnic conflicts th in the north east have a long history going back well before the 12 th and 13 Centuries. The usual time line of dating the commencement of insurgencies post-1947 is wrong and leads to incorrect conclusions.
The need for a holistic approach, is illustrated by showing how foreign policy is generally not taken into account when considering the insurgencies in our eastern border lands, and if at all it is, the discourse restricts itself to denial of insurgent bases and conduct of joint operations with our neighbouring countries. The author suggests a far wider holistic scope in our foreign policy that includes cooperation in a whole gamut of measures including joint operations in checking illegal finance, weapons, fissile materials and drug flows as well as intelligence sharing mechanisms in so far as tackling insurgency and terrorism is concerned. Above all, one of the aims of our foreign policy should be to convince friendly nations that our security is vital to their own interests as is perceived by them in regard to Saudi Arabia (Oil), Pakistan (ally in the Great Game and in the fight against terrorism) and Japan (bulwark in East Asia). Unfortunately, this degree of integration of security concerns with foreign policy has yet to be attained. Thirdly, the full capability of human resources has yet to be utilised. For the first time, a detailed recommendation has been made urging the utilisation of serving and ex-servicemen in the development of the region. The human aspect of insurgencies is dealt with by policy makers in a pedestrian manner and is an area for reform. The state of our uncoordinated efforts to win the hearts and minds of the people is appalling with each Ministry concerned, working out schemes on their own. The existing mechanisms to integrate the people of the north-east with the rest of the country are inadequate, as has been empirically proved. A lack of understanding and empathy for the unique psyche of each of our north-eastern tribes continues, despite the passage of almost six decades since Independence. One of the disturbing aspects of our policies on the north eastern region is the lack of fresh ideas on how to tackle what is a fast changing, dynamic situation there. Much of the discourse still concerns old, outdated concepts such as ‘no development before peace’; ‘political solution instead of a military solution’, and the choice of a ‘strategy of attrition to wear down the insurgents’. The fond belief that an agreement with the leaders of the ‘mother of insurgencies’ – the NSCN (I-M) will bring peace to the entire north-east is fallacious. Indeed, we need to look beyond Accords in working out future contingencies. A newspaper report of August 18, 1995, gives details of a three-pronged strategy for the development of the north-east. I find the same strategy being presented afresh at a recent conclave of Chief Ministers
of insurgency-ridden states. There is a sense ofdéjà vuon reading a th news item of October 15, 2004 on the 18 Annual Conference of DGPs and IGPs of the north eastern states, wherein a Special Director, Intelligence Bureau ‘stressed the need for setting up a mechanism for regular coordination between the police forces in the region and the Security and Central Para-Military Forces’. The same recommendation has been regularly made during the last five decades of internal security in the north-eastern region! The need to come up with a fresh approach to meet the changed external and internal security environment is all too evident as is the resistance to change by stake-holders for maintaining the status quo. This book offers a number of fresh suggestions such as consociation politics, state boundaries to be considered mainly for administrative purposes, increased economic inter-action and a quickened pace of modernisation, particularly in information technology; improved surface and air communications; development and skilling of local entrepreneurs and focusing on preparing for the future when the Asian Highway brings with it a host of benefits and negative influences; and doing away with Inner Line restrictions while allaying tribal fears of being swamped by outsiders. The book avoids the earlier security paradigm of emphasis on military operations, though this aspect is given its due importance. This book is an important addition to the literature on insurgencies in our north-eastern states. It is both informant and catalyst and takes a contemporary view of the dynamic and changing nature of the insurgencies that ill serve the people of the north-east. The essence of the book is clear – we need to evolve fresh counter-insurgency, growth and development strategies and shed those that are no longer relevant. Lt General J R Mukherjee PVSM, AVSM, VSM (Retd) has suggested a way out. It is for these reasons that his book must be read.