Citizenship in Motion
444 Pages
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Citizenship in Motion


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444 Pages


Anthropological reflections on citizenship focus on themes such as politics, ethnicity and state management. Present day scholarship on citizenship tends to problematise, unsettle and contest often taken-for- granted conventional connotations and associations of citizenship with imagined culturally bounded political communities of rigidly controlled borders.
This book, the result of two years of research conducted by South African and Japanese scholars within the framework of a bilateral project on citizenship in the 21st century, contributes to such ongoing efforts at rethinking citizenship globally, and as informed by experiences in Africa and Japan in particular. Central to the essays in this book is the concept of flexible citizenship, predicated on a recognition of the histories of mobility of people and cultures, and of the shaping and reshaping of places and spaces, and ideas of being and belonging in the process.
The book elucidates the contingency of political membership, relationship between everyday practices and political membership, and how citizenship is the mechanism for claiming and denying rights to various political communities. ‘Self’ requires ‘others’ to construct itself, a reality that is subject to renegotiation as one continues to encounter others in a world characterised by myriad forms of interconnecting mobilities, both global and local. Citizenship is thus to be understood within a complex of power relationships that include ones formed by laws and economic regimes on a local scale and beyond. Citizenship in Africa, Japan and, indeed, everywhere is best explored productively as lying between the open-ended possibilities and tensions interconnecting the global and local.



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Published 22 April 2019
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EAN13 9789956550692
Language English
Document size 13 MB

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CITIZENSHIP IN MOTION South African and Japanese Scholars in Conversation Edited by Itsuhiro Hazama, Kiyoshi Umeya & Francis B. Nyamnjoh
In collaboration
Langaa RPCIG Mankon Bamenda
CAAS Kyoto University
Publisher:LangaaRPCIG Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group P.O. Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon www.langaa-rpcig.netIn Collaboration with The Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University, Japan Distributed in and outside N. America by African Books Collective ISBN-10: 9956-550-68-X ISBN-13: 978-9956-550-68-5
©Itsuhiro Hazama, Kiyoshi Umeya & Francis B. Nyamnjoh 2019
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical or electronic, including photocopying and recording, or be stored in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher
Notes on Contributors Tamara Enomotois Visiting Associate Professor at the Meiji University Research Institute for the History of Global Arms Transfer. From 2013 to 2015, she worked at an international NGO as a policy officer on humanitarian and arms control issues. Her research interests range from African politics, critical security studies and history of arms control and disarmament. Her publications include ‘Agency detached from global civil society: The case of the Acholi region of northern Uganda’,Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 83, No. 2 (2018, in Japanese),Disarmament and Arms Control in the History of International Politics: From the Nineteenth Century to the Present(Editor, 2017, Nihon Keizai Hyouronsha, in Japanese), ‘Controlling arms transfers to non-state actors: From the emergence of the sovereign-state system to the present’History of Global Arms Transfer, No. 3 (2017), and ‘Governing the vulnerable self at home and abroad: Peace and justice in northern Uganda and ‘KONY 2012’,African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 50 (2014). Harry Garubais Professor of African Studies and English at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. He has previously taught at other African universities, such as the University of Ibadan and the University of Zululand, and has held research fellowships at the University of Texas in Austin, the WEB DuBois Institute at Harvard and at Emory University. In addition to being an author and poet, he was a member of the editorial advisory board of the Heinemann African Writers Series and was one of the founding editors of the electronic journal,Postcolonial Text, devoted to the study of literatures from the postcolonial world. His has published widely in the field of African literature and postcolonial studies. His current research interests include debates in world literature, postcolonial studies and decoloniality, animist epistemologies, modernity and difference. His recent publications explored issues of mapping, space and subjectivity within a colonial and postcolonial context, and issues of modernity and local agency. He is the author ofShadow and Dreams and Other Poems(1982), Animist Chants and Memorials(2017) and editor ofVoices from the Fringe: An ANA Anthology of New Nigerian Poetry(1988). Itsuhiro Hazama is Associate Professor of Anthropology at the School of Global Social Sciences and Humanities, Nagasaki University, Japan. He has conducted research in north-eastern Uganda as well as western Kenya. His main interests are nomadic ethnography, studies on man–animal interaction and life
history. His recent works include: ‘Potentials of African Pastoralism: Practice of Citizenship for Livelihood in East African Pastoral Society’,African Study Monographs, Supplementary issue Vol. 56 (2018), ‘Ugandan Pastoralists’ Everyday Histories of Gun Acquisition and State Violence’,History of Global Arms Transfer, Vol. 6 (2018), andLogics of Coexistence in Pastoralists’ World(Kyoto University Press 2015, in Japanese). Olivia Joanesher undergraduate degree at the University of the completed Western Cape, majoring in anthropology, psychology and history. She completed her honour’s degree in social anthropology at the University of Cape Town where her research focus was citizenship beyond constitutional provision in South Africa in a Cape Flats community, Bonteheuwel. She is currently pursuing her masters’ degree at the University of Cape Town in the hope of continuing the research undertaken for her honour’s degree. Minga Mbweck Kongois a PhD student in anthropology at the University of Cape Town. His master’s degree research focused on water scarcity in Cape Town. Minga first pursued the medical field and graduated with a Bachelor of Science (Bio-medical Science) degree from the University of Lubumbashi in 2000. His doubtful questions about African development and his personal life experience led him to obtain an honour’s degree in social anthropology at the University of Cape Town. He completed a course in leadership at UCT in 2016 and held a scholarship from the Mastercard Foundation Scholar’s Program. He is busy finalising an autoethnographic book on undesirable mobility. Minga is multilingual and speaks nine African languages, including conversational Xhosa, as well as French. Claire-Anne Lestera PhD candidate in the Department of Sociology and is Anthropology at Stellenbosch University, South Africa, and has an MPhil in Justice and Transformation from the University of Cape Town. Broad research interests include transitional and economic justice, political economy, discourse and ideology. Her current research focus is the function of official ‘truth-seeking’ commissions of inquiry that investigate state violence in the suppression of labour uprisings. A recent co-authored publication addresses the politics of transformation in South African Universities, ‘Falling Rainbows Anatomy of a False Choice: Student Voice.’New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy2017, No. 64 (2017): 36–38.
Ayanda Manqoyi is a PhD student of anthropology at the University of California, Davis, in the United States of America. With an MPhil (Master of Philosophy) in Sustainable Minerals Development, his research work focused on black youth entrepreneurs in disadvantaged mining towns. His current research interest is on ageing in cities in South Africa. This research is an extension of his interest to understand how family obligation, known in South Africa as ‘black tax’, mediates when one ascends to institutionalised black middle class. He recently published a chapter titled ‘Researching Cannibalising Obligations in Post-apartheid South Africa’ in an edited volume by Francis Nyamnjoh under the book titleEating and being Eaten: Cannibalism as Food for Thought. Msakha Monais an artist, scholar and teacher with a very keen interest in the decolonisation project. In the research for his master’s degree, Msakha focused on curriculum development, and he continues to do work in this field. Msakha is currently working towards his PhD in African Studies at the University of Cape Town, with specific focus on the land distribution question. Msakha is also an nGAP lecturer in Culture and Heritage Studies at the University of Mpumalanga. Gaku Moriguchi is part-time lecturer at Gakushūin University, Tōyō University, Asia University and Tokyo University of Agriculture. He majored in social anthropology with particular focus on development and urbanity in Uganda and East Africa. Zuziwe Msomiis an nGAP lecturer at the University of Cape in the African Studies Department. She completed her master’s degree on indigenous knowledge at Rhodes University, and is currently pursuing her PhD on whiteness. Anye-Nkwenti Nyamnjohis a PhD candidate in the Department of Politics and International Studies at the University of Cambridge, where he is currently working on themes related to epistemic decolonisation. He holds an MPhil in Justice and Transformation from the University of Cape Town, and co-authoredMoral Eyes: Youth and Justice in Cameroon, Nigeria, Sierra LeoneandSouth Africa(2018).
Francis B. Nyamnjohis a Cameroonian national currently working in South Africa. He joined the University of Cape Town in August 2009 as Professor of Social Anthropology from the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA) in Dakar, Senegal, where he served as Head of Publications from July 2003 to July 2009. He is a B1 rated Professor and Researcher by the South African National Research Foundation (NRF), has been a Fellow of the Cameroon Academy of Science since August 2011, a fellow of the African Academy of Science since December 2014, a fellow of the Academy of Science of South Africa since 2016, and Chair of the Editorial Board of the South African Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) Press since January 2011. His publications of relevance to mobility, citizenship, belonging and xenophobia include:Africa’s Media, Democracy and the Politics of Belonging(2005);Insiders and Outsiders: Citizenship and Xenophobia in Contemporary Southern Africa (2006); C’est l’homme qui fait l’homme: Cul-de-Sac Ubuntu-ism in Côte d’Ivoire(2015);#RhodesMustFall: Nibbling at Resilient Colonialism in South Africa (2016);Mobilities, ICTs;and Marginality in Africa: Comparative Perspectives(co-edited with Ingrid Brudvig 2015). Marlon Swaiis a hip-hop artist from Cape Town with a background in spoken word and graphic design. His research and dissertation evaluates how the youth movement forms the backbone of hip hop in South Africa, and how it simultaneously supplements and critiques formal education by promoting the kind of politicisation and awareness raising that is indispensable to various kinds of social justice work. In addition to researching the pedagogical approaches within resistive art, Marlon’s academic interests expand to hip hop’s potential for galvanising Pan-African collaboration towards social justice, specifically with regard to issues around gender discrimination in relation to masculinity, internalised oppression and the politics of representation. His curiosity for the workings of cross-cultural imagination and communication is fed by his experience of spending the last eight years in Brooklyn, Harlem and the Bronx where he supported immigrant and refugee youth in their acquisition of English language and literacy, as well as their socio-emotional adjustment to life in the United States. Marlon’s future interests include the flipped classroom in the African context, youth activist contributions to critical literacies, the political economy of small-scale environmental sustainability work and a continued exploration in developing pedagogy for healthy masculinities. He currently lectures in the anthropology section of the AXL School at the University of Cape Town.
Noriko Taharais Professor of Sociology in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shitennoji University. Her book,Episteme of Inclusion and Release: Practices of Everyday Life with Special Reference to Asante, Ghana(Sagano Syoin, 2007, in Japanese) is the unique ethnography presenting rich description based on her long-term and sympathetic fieldwork in the village in Ghana. Since 1998, her interest has extended to multi-ethnicity, multi-nationality and multi-identity embodied intensively in the lives of peoples in a small village of Lake Albert, Uganda. Toshiki Tsuchitoriis a PhD student at the Graduate School for Intercultural Studies, Kobe University, and a part-time lecturer at Shitennoji University. He majors in cultural anthropology and folklore. He is researching on contemporary folk religion in Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Kiyoshi Umeya isProfessor of Social Anthropology at Graduate School for Intercultural Studies, Kobe University, and currently Visiting Professor at the University of Cape Town. He has carried out fieldwork among the Jopadhola, eastern Uganda extensively since 1997, belonging to Makerere Institute of Social Research and Faculty of Social Sciences, Makerere University. His recent book, The Gospel Sounds like the Witch’s Spell: Ethnographic Aetiology Concerning Misfortune among Jopadhola, Eastern Uganda, Tokyo: Fukyoshya (2018, in Japanese) is an ethnography that attempts to reveal cosmology or ontology of the Jopadhola, an ethnic group of Western Nilotes. Once he served as expert for the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), to grapple with ‘Eradication of Poverty and Integral Development in Rural Uganda’.
Table of ContentsChapter 1: Introduction: Flexible Citizenship in the 21st Century Africa ............................1 Itsuhiro Hazama, Kiyoshi Umeya & Francis B. Nyamnjoh SECTION A: CONCEPTUALISATIONS: AN EXPLORATION OF THE LITERATURE IN BROAD STROKES Chapter 2: Global and African Discourses on Citizenship ............................................................ 39 Anye-Nkwenti Nyamnjoh & Claire-Anne Lester Chapter 3: Inclusive Citizenship: Review of Literature63 Ayanda Manqoyi Chapter 4: Demarcating Battle Lines: Citizenship and Agency in the Era of Misanthropy ..................... 87 Tamara Enomoto SECTION B: CITIZENSHIP INFORMED BY INTERCONNECTEDNESS Chapter 5: Citizenship Practices in the Resistance of North-eastern Ugandan Pastoralists .................................................................... 121 Itsuhiro Hazama Chapter 6: Reflexive Accounts on Uganda General Election 2016: The Agency of the Dead and Its Effect among Western Nilotes...................................................... 149 Kiyoshi Umeya