Conditioning Democratization
352 Pages
English
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Conditioning Democratization

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Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more
352 Pages
English

Description

Focusing on Albania and Macedonia, this book analyzes the effects of European Union membership conditionality on institutional reforms in Eastern European countries hoping to join the EU.


How much, and under what conditions, can the European Union affect democratization and democratic consolidation in prospective member states? What mechanisms does the EU employ to influence reforms in countries emerging from authoritarian rule? Focusing on Albania and Macedonia, two postcommunist countries with a legacy of internal conflict, “Conditioning Democratization” analyzes the relationship between EU accession conditionality and institutional reforms. It focuses on four sectors of reform that are often overlooked in other studies: constitutions, asylum, local decentralization and the judiciary system.


The volume critically reviews the theory of “consociational democracy,” often considered the key to stabilizing deeply divided countries, and reapplies it to the supranational institution of the European Union. In articulate, accessible prose, Ridvan Peshkopia builds on examples from multiple sectors in multiple countries to reconceptualize this theory and show that the EU can indeed use membership conditions as a tool to encourage and direct reform.


Preface; Abbreviations; Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: A Sectorial Contextual Approach to the Effects of EU Membership Conditionality on Eastern European Institutional Reforms; Chapter 3: Constitutional Reforms in Albania and Macedonia: Conditioning Consociational Practices for EU and Domestic Democratic Stability; Chapter 4: Local Decentralization Reform; Chapter 5: Judicial Reforms; Chapter 6: Asylum Reforms; Chapter 7: Beyond Reforms; Chapter 8: Conclusions; Appendix A: The Demographic Dynamic of Macedonia since 1981; Appendix B: Ohrid Framework Agreement; Appendix C: Analysis of the Fulfillment of the the European Commission’s Recommendations to Albania, November 2010, According to 2011 and 2012 Progress Reports; Appendix D: Geographic and Political Divisions of Historical Macedonia; Notes; References; Index

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Published 15 April 2014
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EAN13 9780857283344
Language English
Document size 1 MB

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Conditioning Democratization
Anthem Series on Russian, East European and Eurasian Studies
TheAnthem Series on Russian, East European and Eurasian Studiespublishes original research on the economy, politics, sociology, anthropology and history of the region. The series aims to promote critical scholarship in the field, and has built a reputation for uncompromising editorial and production standards. The breadth of this series reflects our commitment to promoting original scholarship on Russian and East European studies to a global audience.
Series Editor
Balázs Apor – Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Editorial Board
Bradley F. Abrams – President, Czechoslovak Studies Association, USA Jan C. Behrends – Zentrum für Zeithistorische Forschung, Potsdam, Germany Dennis Deletant – University College London, UK Tomasz Kamusella – University of St Andrews, UK Walter G. Moss – Eastern Michigan University, USA Arfon Rees – University of Birmingham, UK Marshall T. Poe – University of Iowa, USA Maria Todorova – University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, USA
Conditioning Democratization
Institutional Reforms and EU Membership Conditionality in Albania and Macedonia
Ridvan Peshkopia
Anthem Press An imprint of Wimbledon Publishing Company www.anthempress.com
This edition first published in UK and USA 2014 by ANTHEM PRESS 75–76 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HA, UK or PO Box 9779, London SW19 7ZG, UK and 244 Madison Ave #116, New York, NY 10016, USA
Copyright © Ridvan Peshkopia 2014
The author asserts the moral right to be identified as the author of this work.
All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book.
British Library CataloguinginPublication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Peshkopia, Ridvan. Conditioning democratization : institutional reforms and EU membership conditionality in Albania and Macedonia / Ridvan Peshkopia. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9780857283252 (hardcover : alk. paper) – ISBN 0857283251 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Democratization–Albania. 2. Democratization–Macedonia (Republic) 3. Albania–Politics and government–1990– 4. Macedonia (Republic)–Politics and government–1992– 5. European Union–Albania. 6. European Union–Macedonia (Republic) 7. European Union–Membership. I. Title. JN9689.A15P47 2014 320.94965–dc23 2013049288
ISBN13: 978 0 85728 325 2 (Hbk) ISBN10: 0 85728 325 1 (Hbk)
Cover image: “Europe on the Open Seas” © Agim Sulaj 2012
This title is also available as an ebook.
To Drita and Edmond Peshkopia with love, humbleness and promise…
Preface Abbreviations
C
O
N
TEN
TS
Chapter 1 Introduction The Legacies of Communism Precommunist Legacies NationState Building and Ethnic Homogeneity Elites and Masses in Democratization The International Dimension of Democratization and the EU Impact on Eastern European Democratization From political conditionality to EU membership conditionality Explaining the Effects of EU Membership Conditionality on MembershipAspiring Countries’ Institutional Reform
Chapter 2 A Sectorial Contextual Approach to the Effects of EU Membership Conditionality on Eastern European Institutional Reforms Negotiating Conditions The Sectorial Contextual Approach Research Design Assuming elites’ roleThe empirical test and dataSelection of cases: Reforms and countriesVariablesDataConclusions
Chapter 3 Constitutional Reforms in Albania and Macedonia: Conditioning Consociational Practices for EU and Domestic Democratic Stability The EU and Albanian Constitutional Reform A consociational interpretation of Albanian constitutional reformA sectorial contextual interpretation of Albanian constitutional reformImposing TwoLevel Consociational Practices: The EU and Macedonian Constitutional Reform Macedonian constitutional reform in paper and practice: Dodging the bullet or baiting it?
xi xvii
1 3 3 3 5
1
6 8
2
19 27 30 34 34 34 34 37 40 40
43 45 54 55
57 58
viii
CONDITIONING DEMOCRATIZATION
A consociational interpretation of the Macedonian crisis and its aftermathA sectorial contextual interpretation of Macedonian constitutional reformConclusions Chapter 4 Local Decentralization Reform The Politics of Local Decentralization in Albania: Denying Yourself What You Do Not Want Your Rival to Have A consociational interpretation of EU motivations toward Albanian decentralization reformA sectorial interpretation of Albanian decentralization reform Conditioning Consociational Practices in Local Government: The Case of Macedonia Macedonian decentralization reform A consociational interpretation of Macedonian decentralization reform A sectorial contextual interpretation of Macedonian decentralization reform Conclusions
Chapter 5 Judicial Reforms Albanian Judicial Reform A consociationalist interpretation of Albanian judicial reform A sectorial contextual interpretation of Albanian judicial reformMacedonian Judicial Reform A consociational interpretation of Macedonian judicial reform A sectorial contextual interpretation of Macedonian judicial reform The Role of Human Capital: Eliminating Alternative Explanations Conclusions
Chapter 6 Asylum Reforms Asylum in Albania: The Politics of Oblivion and Obedience Asylum in Macedonia: How Many Sticks and Carrots Count? A Consociational Interpretation of Albanian and Macedonian Asylum Reforms A Sectorial Interpretation of Albanian and Macedonian Asylum Reforms Conclusion
Chapter 7 Beyond Reforms Albania: In the Trap of the Politics of Obtaining and Maintaining Power Macedonia: In the Trap of Identity Politics The politics of antiquisation On neighbors’ toes The name dispute with Greece The diplomacy of the name dispute The name dispute and Macedonia’s NATO and EU perspective The aftermath of the Bucharest Summit The implications of Macedonia’s international disputes to its EU membership: A consociationalist interpretation Conclusion
73 80 80 83
87 96 96
99 99 108 110 112
115 117 130 133 135 144 146 148 150
153 155 161 168 171 176
177 178 182 183 186 188 195 196 200
205 207
Chapter 8
Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C
Appendix D Notes References Index
Conclusions
CONTENTS
The Demographic Dynamic of Macedonia since 1981 Ohrid Framework Agreement Analysis of the Fulfillment of the European Commission’s Recommendations to Albania, November 2010, According to 2011 and 2012 Progress Reports Geographic and Political Divisions of Historical Macedonia
i
x
209
217 221
235 243 245 287 317