Cooperative Diplomacy, Regional Stability and National Interests


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The Nile River is the longest river in the world covering nearly 7,000 kilometres. It traverses ten countries in Africa, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda, with South Sudan as the eleventh riparian state once it acquires its sovereignty. Of the more than 300 million inhabitants in the ten riparian states, the Nile River Basin is home to nearly 160 million people. The interlocking controversies surrounding the utilisation of the waters of the Nile River and the resources therein have centered on the 1929 Anglo-Egyptian and the 1959 Egypto-Sudanese treaties, which have largely ignored the interests of the upstream states. Through the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) established in 1999, the riparian states concluded, in 2010, the Agreement on the River Nile Basin Cooperative Framework (CFA) based on the principle of equitable and reasonable utilisation, the objective of which is to establish durable legal regime in the Nile River Basin. This book addresses the complexities inherent in the colonial and post-colonial treaties and agreements and their implications for the interests of the riparian states and the region in general. It is the first book of its kind that covers the ten riparian states in a single volume and deals comprehensively with politico-legal questions in the Nile River Basin as well as conventions on the international water courses and their relevance to the region.



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Published 20 September 2011
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EAN13 9780798302982
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The Interface between National Interest Cooperative Diplomacy, and Regional Stability: Regional Stability The Nile River and National Interests and the Riparian States The Nile River INTRODUCTION Lega and Poitica Questions in Context: and the Riparian States The Nie River Basin in Perspectives Korwa Gombe Adar and Nicasius Achu Check
Edited by Korwa G. Adar and Nicasius A. Check
Cooperative dipomacy, regiona stabiity and nationa interests: The Nie River and Riparian States
First Published in 2011 by the Africa Institute of South Africa PO Box 630 Pretoria 0001 South Africa
ISBN: 978-0-7983-0287-6 © Copyright Africa Institute of South Africa 2011
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Acknowledgements About the Editors About the Contributors Abbreviations, Acronyms and Concepts Introduction: The Nile River Basin – An introductory context Korwa G. Adar and Nicasius A. Check Physiographic and Statistical Appraisal of the Nile River Basin Politico-Legal and Conceptual Frameworks Contents and Sections of the Book
viii ix xi xiii xvii
xx xxii xxiii
PART 1 TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS OF THE NILE RIVER BASIN: LEGAL QUESTIONS AND CASE STUDIES1 The interpretation of the 1929 treaty and its legal relevance to and implications for the stability of the region1 Patrick Loch Otieno Lumumba 1.1 Introduction3 the Nile River part of res communis (common heritage of1.1.1 Is humankind)?4  1.2 Historical Background5  1.2.1 Salient features of the 1929 treaty8  1.3 Interpretation of the 1929 Treaty8  1.3.1 The 1929 treaty and third parties13 implications for regional stability: Making a case for more1.3.2 The effective riparian dialogue14  1.4 Latter-day Efforts: Agreement on the Nile River Basin Cooperative Framework, 201016  1.5 Conclusion and Policy Recommendations17 2 The Democratic Republic of Congo and the Nile Cooperative Framework Agreement23 André Mbata B. Mangu
The Nile River and the riparian states
2.1Introduction 2.2 International Conventions under the DRC’s Constitutional Law 2.3 The DRC’s Position on the 1929 Egypt-Britain and the 1959 Egypt-Sudan Agreements on the Nile River 2.4 DRC’s Conflict and Involvement in the NBIto the DRC’s involvement in the NBI:2.4.1 Background Conflict and foreign aggression 2.4.2 DRC’s involvement in the NBI 2.5 The DRC and the CFA 2.5.1 The CFA 2.5.2 General principles of the CFA 2.5.3 Rights and duties of the states under the CFA 2.5.4 The NRB Commission 2.5.5 The DRC and its role in the negotiation, signing and commencement of the CFA 2.6 Conclusion and Policy Recommendations3 Cooperation between Egypt and Sudan over the Nile River waters: The challenges of duality Biong Deng  3.1 Introduction 3.2 Research Questions on the Equitable Sharing of the Nile Waters 3.3 International Legal Theories and Conflict-resolution Mechanisms on Uses of Water Resources 3.4 Egypt and the 1929 Nile Waters Agreement 3.5 Egypt and the 1959 Nile Waters Agreement 3.6 Egypt’s Geopolitical Strategies and the Nile 3.7 Sudan and the Use of the Nile Waters 3.7.1Sudan: Political developments and Egypt’s imprints 3.8 Cooperative Frameworks in the Nile Basin 3.8.1 The Nile Basin Initiative 3.9 Conclusion and Policy Recommendations4 Ethiopia’s position on the Nile water agreements Tesfaye Tafesse  4.1 Introduction 4.2 Appraisal of Nile Water Agreements 4.2.1 Rome, 15 April 1891 4.2.2 Addis Ababa, 15 May 1902 4.2.3 London, 13 April 1906 4.2.4 9 May 1906 4.2.5 7 May 1929 4.2.6 The 1959 agreement 4.3 Ethiopia’s Position with Regard to the Nile Water Agreements 4.4 The Cooperative Framework Agreement 4.5 Conclusion and Policy Recommendations
23 25
26 27
27 28 29 30 30 31 31
34 36
39 40
40 45 48 50 53 54 59 60 63 67
67 68 68 68 69 70 70 71 73 75 78
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RwandaandtheNileCooperativeFrameworkAgreement:Assessing the 1929 Nile treaty Nicasius A. Check
5.1 5.2 5.3
5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8
IntroductionConceptualising Transborder Water ManagementHistory and Hydropolitics of the Nile Basin: Assessing the 1929 Nile Water AgreementThe Nile Basin InitiativeRwanda’s Water NeedNile Basin Cooperative Framework AgreementRwanda and the Nile Basin Cooperative Framework AgreementConclusion and Policy Recommendations
85 87
89 92 93 95 97 100
PART 2 NATIONAL AND REGIONAL INTERESTS IN THE NILE RIVER BASIN: COUNTRY CASE STUDIES105 6 Burundi’s national interests and the Nile Basin Initiative107 Jean S. Muntunutwiwe 7 The Nile River and Egyptian foreign-policy interests131 Hamdy A. Hassan and Ahmad Al Rasheedy  7.1 Introduction131  7.2 Egypt and the Nile Civilisations: Historical Context132  7.3 The Nile River Waters and Egypt’s Southern Strategic Imperatives136  7.4 Egyptian Foreign-Policy Approaches and the Nile River Water140  7.4.1 The pre-1922 scenario and perspectives regarding Egyptian water politics141  7.4.2 Egyptian foreign-policy behaviour in the 1922–1952 period142  7.4.3 The post-1952 revolution and Egyptian foreign-policy interests in the Nile Basin143  7.5 Egypt’s Dilemma: Bilateralism or Multilateralism?147  7.6 Conclusion and Policy Recommendations149 8 The Nile ‘Lone Ranger’ in the Nile River waters initiative: The case of Eritrea153 Adams Oloo  8.1 Introduction153  8.2 Historical Background154  8.3 The Nile Basin Initiative: The Search for Cooperation154  8.3.1 Nile Basin Initiative: The challenges160  8.4 Eritrea’s National and Geopolitical Interests and the Nile161  8.5 Conclusion and Policy Recommendations164
The Nile River and the riparian states
9 Kenya’s foreign-policy and geopolitical interests: The case of the Nile River Basin Korwa G. Adar  9.1 Introduction 9.2 Operational Research Questions 9.3 Theoretical Perspectives on State Claims to Rights to River Waters and International Drainage Basins 9.4 Domestic Context and Kenya’s Foreign-policy Interests in the Nile Water 9.5 Multilateral Diplomatic Initiatives and Kenya’s Foreign-policy Interests in the Nile Water Question 9.6 Regional Geopolitical Questions and Kenya’s Foreign-policy Interests in the Nile Basin 9.7 Conclusion and Policy Recommendations10 Tanzania: Multilateralism and national interests in the Nile River Basin question Richard M. Bosire  10.1 Introduction 10.2 Governance of Watercourses: Existing Principles 10.2.1 The Harmon Doctrine 10.2.2 Absolute territorial integrity 10.2.3 Absolute territorial sovereignty 10.2.4 Limited territorial sovereignty 10.2.5 Equitable utilisation 10.2.6 Community of co-riparians 10.3 The Nile Water and its Geopolitical Significance to Tanzania 10.4 Theoretical Framework for Nile Basin Cooperation 10.4.1 Interest-based regimes 10.4.2 Liberal institutionalist approach 10.4.3 Institutional bargaining 10.5 Tanzania’s Foreign Policy: Defining National-interest Priorities 10.6 Centrality of Fresh Water and Tanzania’s Development 10.6.1 Tanzania’s water policy 10.6.2 Water and agriculture 10.6.3 Water and other key sectors 10.7 Tanzania’s Response to the 1929 Agreement 10.7.1 The Nyerere Doctrine of state succession 10.8 Multilateralism: In Pursuit of National Interests 10.8.1 Hydrometeorological project (HYDROMET) 10.8.2 Undugu 10.8.3 TECCONILE 10.8.4 The Kagera Basin Organization 10.8.5 Nile Basin Initiative 10.9 Conclusion and Policy Recommendations
167 168
169 172
179 183
189 190 190 191 191 191 191 192 192 195 196 197 198 199 201 202 203 204 204 205 206 206 207 207 207 208 209
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11 National and regional foreign policy underpinnings: Uganda and the Nile River Basin controversy Godfrey P. Okoth  11.1 Introduction 11.2 Foreign and National Security Policy and Regional Stability in the Riparian States: A Theoretical Framework 11.3 Nile-Water Conflicts and Cooperation Within the Riparian States 11.4 Conceptualising Uganda’s Foreign-Policy Interest 11.5 Conclusion and Policy RecommendationsPART 3 CONCLUSION  Conclusion: Setting the agenda for a Nile River waters agreementKorwa G. Adar and Nicasius A. Check 12.1 Introduction 12.2 The Cooperative Framework Agreement 12.2.1 Towards a new water-sharing treaty?
Appendix 1Appendix 2
The Nile River and the riparian states
216 219 223 230
235 237 241 242
248 250
The editors are greatly indebted to the Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA) for providing funds that enabled the participants to discuss their papers presented at the Conference on: “The Interface between National Interest and Regional Stability: The Nile River and the Riparian States”, Hilton Hotel Nairobi, Kenya, 12–13 November 2010. The conference enabled the participants to provide useful insights and critiques on the papers presented by the chapter contributors. A number of people were extremely helpful in enlightening the chapter contributors on the interlocking issue areas on Nile River basin. Owing to the limitations of space only a few individuals will be mentioned here: Prof. James H.P. Kahindi, United States International University, Nairobi, Kenya; Grace Ong’ile, Executive Director, NEPAD Secretariat, Kenya Chapter, Nairobi, Kenya; Moses Onyango, United States International University, Nairobi, Kenya; Phindile Lukhele-Olorunju, Director of Research, Africa Institute of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa and the ˜ĜŒ’Š•œ ›˜– ‘Ž ’‘ ˜––’œœ’˜— ˜ ˜ž‘ ›’ŒŠǰ Š’›˜‹’ǰ Ž—¢Šǯ
The editors are indebted to the rapporteurs, Susan Karegi Muriungi and Emily J.A. Ogola of the United States International University, for compiling the suggestions and criticisms of the papers by the participants during the conference. The rapporteurs’ report has, without question, helped the contributors in improving their chapters. Special thanks are also due to the Publications Division, particularly to Solani Ngobeni, the Africa Institute of South Africa Publications Director who has been involved in every stage in the production of the manuscript right from the conference in Nairobi.
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About the Editors
Korwa Gombe Adar is Professor of International Relations, Department of International Relations, United States International University, Nairobi, Kenya. He received his BSc and MSc in political science at Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana, US, followed by an MA and PhD in international studies at the University of South Carolina, Columbia, United States. He was one of the recipients of the 1992 Fulbright Research grant awarded to senior African scholars. Prior to joining the United States International University, Adar worked as the director of research at the Africa Institute of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa (2003–2009). Adar also lectured at Rhodes University, South Africa (1997–2002), United States International University-Africa, Nairobi, Kenya (1994–1997) and the University of Nairobi, Kenya (1987–1994). Adar has published widely in international relations, foreign policy analysis and African international relations, with a special focus on Africa, the Horn of Africa and East Africa. He has authored a number of articles in refereed journals and co-edited several books. Some of his selected recent co-edited volumes includeGlobalization and emerging trends in African foreign policy: A comparative perspective of Eastern Africa(New York: University Press of America, 2007);Somalia peace process: Challenges and future prospects for the reconstruction and restoration of legitimacy (Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa, 2006);Sudan peace process: Challenges and future prospects (Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa, 2004); andGlobalization and emerging trends in African states’ foreign policy: A comparative perspective of southern Africa (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002).
Nicasius Achu Checka research specialist in the Peace and Security is Research Unit at the Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA). Before joining AISA, Check was a junior lecturer in the Department of History at Vista University Distance Education Campus (VUDEC), where he taught modules on the spread of Islam in West Africa, Pan-Africanism and decolonisation. He holds a BA from the University of Buea, Cameroon, an MA in history from Unisa and is currently a PhD candidate in the Department of Politics at the University of Johannesburg. ‘ŽŒ” ‘Šœ ™ž‹•’œ‘Ž œŽŸŽ›Š• Š›’Œ•Žœǰ ’—Œ•ž’— ˜—Ě’Œ ’— ‘Ž ›ŽŠ Š”Žœ Region: Revisiting the case of Burundi,Africa Insight, 2007; Resuscitating
The Nile River and the riparian states