Decentralisation and Community Participation

-

Books
288 Pages
Read an excerpt
Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more

Description

This book explores how policies of decentralisation and community participation adopted in Cameroon in 1996 have played out on the ground since 2004. These reforms were carried out amid economic crisis, structural adjustment and political upheaval. At the time, popular sentiment was that change on the economic and political fronts was imperative. However, the ruling elite, some of whom had been shuttling around the state apparatus since independence, feared that succumbing to popular demands for change was tantamount to political suicide, as was the case elsewhere on the continent. These elites thwarted opposition demands for a �sovereign� national conference to discuss constitutional reform. The Francophone-dominated elite fiercely objected to Anglophone demands for the restoration of the Federal state that was dissolved in 1972. Instead, decentralisation was presented as an authentic forum for grassroots autonomy and municipal councils as credible arenas for community participation in local development. This study adopts an interdisciplinary approach to unearth the permutations of decentralisation and community participation in Cameroon. It explores how local actors have responded to the implementation of state policy of decentralisation. Further, it documents how local issues observed in Bali in the North West Region and Mbankomo in the Central Region of Cameroon impact and are impacted by national policies and processes.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 13 June 2016
Reads 4
EAN13 9789956764242
Language English
Document size 2 MB

Legal information: rental price per page 0.006€. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

Report a problem
DECENTRALISATION and COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
DECENTRALISATION and COMMUNITY PARTICIPATIONLocal Development and Municipal Politics in Cameroon
Numvi Gwaibi
Decentralisation and Community Participation: Local Development and Municipal Politics in Cameroon
Numvi Gwaibi
L a ng a a R esea rch & P u blishing CIG Mankon, Bamenda
Publisher:LangaaRPCIG Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group P.O. Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon Langaagrp@gmail.comwww.langaa-rpcig.net Distributed in and outside N. America by African Books Collective orders@africanbookscollective.com www.africanbookscollective.com
ISBN: 9956-763-91-8 ©Numvi Gwaibi 2016
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical or electronic, including photocopying and recording, or be stored in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher
Table of Contents Acknowledgements………………………………….……….. vii List of Acronyms and Abbreviations…………………………. ix Foreword by John Sharp………………………………...……..xii Chapter I: Introduction and Methods………………………1 1.1Contextualising Decentralisation and Community Participation in Cameroon………………….……. 1 1.2 Objective of the Study………………………………..…… 3 1.3 Problem Statement…………………………………….….. 5 1.4 Research Question…………………………………………6 1.5 Literature Review…………………………………………. 8 1.6 Research Methods………………………………………… 13 1.7 Chapter Outline……………………………………………24 Chapter II: Cameroon: From Mandate to Independence & Reunification…………………………. 29 2.1 Introduction……………………………………….……… 29 2.2 French Colonial Policy in Africa……………………….….. 32 2.3 The British Mandate in Cameroon……………………….... 38 2.4 Political Developments in the Southern Cameroons………. 41 2.5 The Path to Independence in the Southern Cameroons……………………………………….… 43 2.6 Ahmadou Ahidjo and Political Activities in East Cameroon…………………………………………….…. 46 2.7 Plebiscite and Reunification In the Southern Cameroons………………………………………49 2.8 The Fumban Constitutional Conference………………….. 51 2.9 Conclusion…………………………………….……….…..54 Chapter III: Political Transition and Economic Crisis: ‘Wind of Change’ But No Change………………………………………………57 3.1 Introduction……………………………………….……… 57 3.2 The Political Economy of Cameroon from the 1980s to the 1990s……………………………...…… 60 iii
3.3 Economic (Mis)-Management and Meltdown……….…….. 64 3.4 Economic Crisis, Structural Adjustment and Political Impasse…………………………………..……… 67 3.5 Political Turbulence and ‘Governance’ Reforms……………………………..………….. 73 3.6 Political Reform in Cameroon: ‘Wind of Change’ But No Change………………….….……… 75 3.7 People vs. Power I……………………………….…….….. 78 3.8 People vs. Power II…………………………….…………. 80 3.9 Discussion and Conclusion……………………………….. 83 Chapter IV: Self-Reliance in Anglophone Cameroon: The Bali Community Water Project……………………………………….……….. 87 4.1 Introduction………………………………………………. 87 4.2 Background…………………………………….…………. 88 4.3 Bali under German Colonialism……………….….……….. 90 4.4 The First World War and the Partition of Kamerun……………………………………….……..……. 93 4.5 Widekum Action against Bali………………………..…….. 95 4.6 Self-Help in Anglophone Cameroon: The Bali Community Water Project……………………………98 4.7 ‘Modernisation’ And Expansion of Bali’s Water Supply: Enter SNEC……………………………………101 4.8 Build-Up to the Revolt against SNEC in Bali……………………………………….………… 104 4.9 Discussion and Conclusion……………………………..…. 114 Chapter V: Land Tenure and Inter-Community Politics: The Perils of Municipal Planning In Bali…………………. 119 5.1 Introduction…………………………………….………… 119 5.2 Background…………………………………………….…. 120 5.3 Land Tenure and Traditional Land-Use Practices……………………………….……………122 5.4 Changing Land-Use Patterns in the Grassfields…………………………………….………... 124 5.5 Timeline of Encounters between iv
Bali and Bawock, 1970-2007…………………………..………. 132 5.6 Partition and Annexation of Mantum Village…………………………………………..…… 135 5.7 Inter-Communal Politics in Bali: Analysis and Discussion……………………………….……… 138 5.8 Conclusion…………………………………………….…...143 Chapter VI: ‘Wrath from the Gods:’ Traditional Institutions and Electoral Politics in Bali……………………………………….……… 145 6.1 Introduction………………………………………………. 145 6.2 Background…………………………………………….…. 148 6.3 Démocratie Avancée in Cameroon and President for Life……………………………………….…….. 152 6.4 Election Management in Cameroon………………………. 156 6.5 The Role of Voma in Bali Nyonga Traditional Structure………………………………………….. 159 6.6 Traditional Authorities and Multi-Party Politics in Cameroon……………………………………….…. 161 6.7 Voma and the 2013 Municipal/ Legislative Elections in Bali……………………………..…….. 165 6.8 ‘Wrath from the Gods:’ Analysis and Discussion……………………………………… 172 6.9 Conclusion…………………………………………..……..176 Chapter VII: In The Name of Investiture: CPDM Party Discipline in Mbankomo……………………. 179 7.1 Introduction……………………………………….……… 179 7.2 Background………………………………………….……. 181 7.3 The 2013 Municipal and Legislative Elections in Cameroon…………………………………………………. 183 7.4 In Search of ‘Consensus’ At Mbankomo Town Hall…………………………………………………..… 188 7.5 Investiture Saga in Mbankomo: Contrasting Opinions I………………………………………………….… 195 7.6 Investiture Saga in Mbankomo: Contrasting Opinions: II………………………………………………..…. 199
v
7.7 Conclusion…………………………………………..……..203 Chapter VIII Decentralisation and Community Participation: Analysis and Discussion……………………. 2058.1 Introduction………………………………………….…… 205 8.2 Background……………………………………….………. 206 8.3 Participation………………………………………….…… 208 8.4 Community Participation in Cameroon…………………… 210 8.5 Decentralisation and Community Participation: Experiences from the Global South………………………...… 214 8.6 Municipal Authorities and Public Procurement in Cameroon…………………………….……… 219 8.7 Mbankomo: Revenue Collection in Disarray……………….226 8.8 Discussion and Conclusion……………………….….……. 229 Chapter IX: Conclusion: Political Project and Policy Boomerang…………………………………..…..235Bibliography………………………………………………… 249
vi
Acknowledgements I want to thank the Almighty God for the inspiration, the wisdom, and the strength that guided and enabled me to complete this study. This study is the fruit of hard work, dedication and devotion to achieving a higher level of academic excellence. My research with the Human Economy Programme at the University of Pretoria was funded in collaboration with the Andrew J. Mellon Foundation, and the Social Science Research Council’s Next Generation Social Science in Africa Fellowship. Much of the writing up process was carried out at the superb facilities of the Old College House at the University of Pretoria. Special thanks to my supervisor Professor John Sharp for leading me down a challenging but ultimately fruitful path to academic success. To Professor Keith Hart, your incisive comments and wise counsel were crucial in the process of obtaining the ticket into this prestigious trade union. I also wish to thank everyone I encountered during my fieldwork in Cameroon specifically in Mbankomo and Bali, for lack of space I cannot mention all of you however, Mr Pefok, Mr Essomba and Mr Daniel your inputs was crucial in ensuring the success of this project. This study is dedicated to my family for supporting me throughout this process. I am eternally grateful to my late mother Mami NUNYONGA GRACE who despite the pain and suffering of ill-health and until the point of death never failed to remind me of the importance of my study and the need to stay focused despite the very traumatic effects of her malady. Mami, your courage and steadfastness in the face of the most unbearable pain and your determination to overcome the illnesses that afflicted you is a powerful source of inspiration to us as we face the gruelling challenges of life without your physical presence...
vii
viii
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations AFD Agence Française de Développement AfDB African Development Bank AIP Annual Investment Plans AusAID Australian Agency for International Development B.C.W.C Bali Community Water Committee CAMWATER Cameroon Water Utilities Corporation CAR Central African Republic CARE Cooperation for American Relief Everywhere C.B.O Community Based Organisations C.C Central Committee C.D.D Community Development Department C.D.P Council Development Plans CELLUCAM Cellulose du Cameroun CFA Communauté Financière Africaine CIACC Cameroon Industrial and Civic Contractors CNU Cameroon National Union CPDD Cercle des Promoteurs du Développement Durable CPDM Cameroon Peoples Democratic Movement CPM Communist Party of India-Marxist CRTV Cameroon Radio Television CWE China Water and Electricity Corporation CYL Cameroon Youth League CYSD Centre Youth and Social Organisation DFID Department of International Development DO Divisional Officer EEC European Economic Community ELECAM Elections Cameroon EU European Union FEICOM Fonds Spécial d'Equipement et d'Intervention Intercommunale FMO Forces des Maintiens de l'Ordre GBSS Government Bilingual Secondary School GDP Gross Domestic Product GIZ German Organisation for International Cooperation IDP Internally Displaced Persons ix