Democratic Governance and Political Participation in Nigeria 1999 - 2014

Books
570 Pages
Read an excerpt
Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more

Description

The year 1999 was a watershed in the history of Nigeria as it witnessed the peaceful transfer of power from the military to the political class. Given Nigeria's tumultuous history of successive military interventions, this development was the first 'genuine' transition that saw the military elite transferring political power to civilians without itching to stage a comeback. This edited volume, composed of 22 chapters discusses the form, trajectory and substance of democratic governance in post-military Nigeria between 1999 and 2014. It is a compilation of well researched essays and narratives on Nigerian government and politics. The book is a multi-disciplinary assessment of Nigeria's democratic strides, including contributions from scholars in a broad range of disciplines such as history, sociology and anthropology, political science, economics, international relations, among others. The book examines the factors responsible for the resilience of the current democratic governance structures, in spite of centripetal and centrifugal forces frustrating democratic consolidation in the country. It equally interrogates these factors and makes appropriate recommendations for overcoming them. Key themes covered in the book in the Boko Haram insurgency, governance and corruption, militancy, sharia law, Islamic banking amongst others. It sheds light on contending issues affecting, afflicting and retarding the country's progress. Issues like ethnicity, electoral corruption, human rights abuses, privatization of national assets, kidnapping and armed robbery, overbearing leadership personality and many more are critically discussed. Local government autonomy and the challenges of grassroots development and civil service administration are also thoroughly analysed. Democratic Governance and Political Participation in Nigeria 1999-2014 is a detailed, exhaustive, deep, stimulating and captivating narrative of the Nigerian situation. It is enthusiastically recommended for those who wish to know more about contemporary Nigerian history. As a collection of contemporary issues on the Nigerian government and politics, the book is recommended for courses in politics and governance in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. It is an invaluable companion for both graduate and undergraduate students as well as scholars of African politics.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 21 May 2016
Reads 6
EAN13 9781942876397
Language English
Document size 3 MB

Legal information: rental price per page 0.0088€. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

Report a problem

DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE
OMOTOSO
AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
KEHINDE
IN NIGERIA 1999-2014
Femi OMOTOSO obtained his Ph.D. “Tis volume captures the essence and dynamics of
degree in Political Science from the democratic governance in Nigeria. Te authors have
University of Ibadan. He is currently done an excellent job of critically assessing the key
a Professor of Political Science at Ekiti themes, events, institutions, and actors that dominates
State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. He the spectrum of contemporary Nigerian society and
was formerly a visiting Professor, Obafemi politics. Te book is a must read for all interested in
Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria. He understanding the Nigerian State.” 
focuses on Political Behaviour, Federalism
and Governance. His papers have appeared Celestine Oyom Bassey, Professor of International
in several reputable local and international Relations, Department of Political Science,
journals as well as edited books. University of Calabar, Nigeria
“Tis edited volume comprises some of the
wellMichael KEHINDE holds a Ph.D. in researched essays ever written on democratic
Political Science from Durham University governance and political participation in Nigeria. Te
in the UK. He was associate lecturer in essays go beyond the expected narratives of elections,
African Politics at Newcastle University, party politics, gender and interest representation,
UK between 2008 and 2010. Michael human rights, public policy, political culture and
recently completed a postdoctoral governance to explore some of the peculiar issues in
fellowship at the Pennsylvania State Nigeria’s contemporary democratic experiment such
University in the USA. He also taught as privatization of national assets, anti-corruption
Political Science at Lagos State University, campaign, terrorist insurgency, domestic security and
Nigeria. Dr. Kehinde is presently diversity the Bakassi Peninsula foreign policy debacle. Te book
and inclusion lead at the Ontario Ministry is a strongly recommended reading for all relevant
of Government and Consumer Services, researchers, students, instructors and policy makers.”
Toronto, Canada.
Prof Kenneth Omeje, University of Bradford, UK &
University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
Democratic Governance and Political Participation in Nigeria 1999-2014 seeks
to critically analyse Nigeria’s democratic experience since 1999 when the current
Republic was instituted. Given the chequered democratic antecedents of the
country, the book examines the factors responsible for the resilience of the present
democratic dispensation, in spite of forces inhibiting democratic consolidation. It
also examines these inhibiting forces and makes recommendations for overcoming
them. Finally, the book seeks to stimulate intellectual discourse on Nigeria’s
democracy and arouse greater research interests in the subject.
POLITICAL SCIENCE/AFRICAN STUDIES Edited by
Femi Omotoso & Michael KehindeCover Design by Spears Media
Front Cover image courtesy of Femi Omotoso
www.spearsmedia.com
DEMOCRATIC
GOVERNANCE
AND
POLITICAL
PARTICIPATION IN
NIGERIA 1999-2014
Democratic Governance anD Political ParticiPation
in niGeria 1999-2014
Democratic Governance and Political Participation in Nigeria 1999-2014 seeks to
critically analyse Nigeria’s democratic experience since 1999 when the current Republic
was instituted. Given the chequered democratic antecedents of the country, the book
examines the factors responsible for the resilience of the present democratic dispensation,
in spite of forces inhibiting democratic consolidation. It also examines - these inhibit
ing forces and makes recommendations for overcoming them. Finally, the book seeks
to stimulate intellectual discourse on Nigeria’s democracy and arouse greater research
interests in the subject.
Dr. Femi OMOTOSO obtained his Ph.D. in Political Science from the University
of Ibadan. He is currently a Professor of Political Science at Ekiti State University,
Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. He was formerly a ProfessorObaf,emi Awolowo University, Ile Ife,
Nigeria. He focuses on Political Behaviour, Federalism and Governance. His papers have
appeared in several reputable local and international journals as well as edited books.
Dr. Michael KEHINDE holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from Durham University
in the UK. He was associate lecturer in African Politics at Newcastle University, UK
between 2008 and 2010. Michael completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Pennsylvania
State University in the USA. He also taught Political Science at Lagos State University,
Nigeria. Dr. Kehinde is presently diversity and inclusion lead at the Ontario Ministry
of Government and Consumer Services, Toronto, Canada.
Praise for Democratic Governance and Political Participation
in Nigeria 1999-2014
“Tis volume captures the essence and dynamics of democratic governance
in Nigeria. Te authors have done an excellent job of critically assessing the
key themes, events, institutions, and actors that dominates the spectrum
of contemporary Nigerian society and politics. Te book is a must read
for all interested in understanding the Nigerian State.” 
Celestine Oyom Bassey, Professor of International Relations,
Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria
“Tis edited volume comprises some of the well-researched essays ever
written on democratic governance and political participation in Nigeria.
Te essays go beyond the expected narratives of elections, party politics,
gender and interest representation, human rights, public policy, political
culture and governance to explore some of the peculiar issues in Nigeria’s
contemporary democratic experiment such as privatization of national
assets, anti-corruption campaign, terrorist insurgency, domestic security
and the Bakassi Peninsula foreign policy debacle. Te book is a strongly
recommended reading for all relevant researchers, students, instructors
and policy makers.”
Prof Kenneth Omeje, University of Bradford, UK & University of
Johannesburg, South Africa.
DEMOCRATIC
GOVERNANCE
AND POLITICAL
PARTICIPATION IN
NIGERIA 1999-2014
Edited by
Femi Omotoso
Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
Michael Kehinde
Lead, Ontario Ministry of Government and
Consumer Services, TorontoSpears Media Press
Denver • Bamenda
7830 W. Alameda Ave, Suite 103 Denver, CO 80226
First Published 2016 by Spears Media Press
www.spearsmedia.com
info@spearsmedia.com
Information on this title: www.spearsmedia.com/democraticgovernance
© Femi Omotoso & Michael Kehinde 2016
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form
or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical
methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of
brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses
permitted by copyright law. For permission requests, write to the publisher, addressed
“Attention: Permissions Coordinator,” at the address below.
Ordering Information:
Special discounts are available on bulk purchases by corporations, associations, and
others. For details, contact the publisher at any of the addresses above.
ISBN: 978-1-942876-11-3 [Paperback]
Spears Media Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for
external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not
guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or
appropriate.
To Nigerians:
For their resilience and commitment to the survival of the nation and
unshaken belief and abiding faith in democratic rule despite all odds.CONTENTS
List of Tables xiv
Acknowledgements xv
Foreword xvii
List of Contributors xx
1 Democratic Governance and Political Participation:
Introduction to the Issues 1
Femi Omotoso
PART ONE CONCEPTUAL ISSUES 21
2 Democratic Governance, Public Policy Process And
Political Participation In Nigeria’s Fourth Republic 23
A. Agagu
3 Leadership Personality and Democratic Governance in
Nigeria: A Case Study of Olusegun Obasanjo 41
Steve Itugbu
4 The Media, Public Opinion and Democratic
Governance In Nigeria 77
Olaopa Olawale. R & S. T. Akindele
5 Grassroots’ Governance and Crisis of Autonomy
19992014 115
Femi Omotoso & Isaac Oladeji
PART TWO Party Politics and Political
Competition 135
6 Political Parties and Political Competition in Nigeria
137
xiContents
Adedayo O. Olaleye, Joseph Ayo & Ikeji Arakeji
7 The 2003 General Elections 155
Bamgbose J. Adele
8 The Nigeria 2007 General Elections 173
Bamgbose J. Adele
9 Election and the Challenges of Democratic
Consolidation in Nigeria: An Appraisal of 2011 General
Elections 197
Usman A. Tar & Alfa Patrick Innocent
PART THREE ISSUES OF GOVERNANCE 215
10 Goals and Failures of Anti-corruption Agencies in
Nigeria 217
Declan Amaraegbu
11 Politics of Privatisation of National Assets 255
H. A. O. Idowu & T. O. Asaolu
12 Labour Relations And Collective Bargaining In Nigeria
1999-2013 273
O. S. Elegbeleye
13 Religion in Democratic Nigeria: A Janus-faced
Phenomenon 283
Segun Oshewolo
14 The Politics of Islamic Banking in Nigeria 293
Michael Kehinde
15 Democracy and Terrorism: The Boko Haram Insurgency
in Nigeria 313
Agaptus Nwozor
xiiContents
16 Democracy and Ethnic Militancy in Nigeria 341
Ola Abegunde
17 Security of Life and Property: Armed Robbery and
Kidnapping in Nigeria 359
Isaac Olayide Oladeji
18 The State of Human Rights in The Nigerian Fourth
Republic 381
Lere Amusan
PART FOUR INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK 403
19 The Nigerian Senate 1999-2013 405
Joseph Yinka Fashagba & Oluwakemi Shade Babatunde
20 An Assessment of The Civil Service and Democratic
Governance in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic, 1999-2014
425
Felix Olanrewaju Awosika
21 Women and the Politics of Representation in Nigeria’s
Democratic Governance: An Analysis of the Legislative
Elections from 1999 to 2011 439
Oluwaniyi, O. Oluwatoyin
PART FIVE FOREIGN POLICY 457
22 Nigeria’s Foreign Relations: An Assessment of The
Bakassi Peninsula Crisis And Resolution 459
Ajinde Oluwashakin
Bibliography 491
Index 535
xiiiLIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Senators of the Fourth Republic of Nigeria (1999-2013) 414
Table 2: Women’s Representation in Legislature (1999-2011)447
Table 3: Women’448
Table 4: Women’s Representation in State Houses of Assembly,
19992011 449
xivACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
e owe so many people debts of gratitude for the assistance r - enW dered in various ways while compiling this volume. It is therefore
incumbent on us to appreciate the contributions of these individuals.
First and foremost, we are most grateful to the various contributors
across diferent universities in Nigeria, South Africa and the UK for
believing in our vision for a greater Nigeria and supporting the goal of this
modest contribution to knowledge – particularly the political history of
our dear country. We cherish their sense of responsibility and patriotism.
We look forward towards more engaging and robust academic partnership
with these great Nigerians.
Prof. Rotimi T. Suberu (our mentor) deserves special gratitude for
always believing in our dreams. He did not only write the foreword to the
book but he also went beyond the call of our request to add signifcant
value to the work through useful suggestions with great impact on the
quality of the book. Coming from such an authority, these gestures are
a special icing.
Prof. Usman Tar is a contributor with a diference. We value you so
much and many thanks for the ‘‘special assignment’’.
We also acknowledge with thanks the noteworthy and invaluable
contributions of Mr. Segun Omolayo, Political Afairs/Reporting Ofcer,
United Nations Mission in South Sudan, in providing needed editorial
support and useful suggestions towards improving the literary quality of
some of the articles. We are grateful for this sir.
Dr. Declan Amaraegbu of Durham, England, went over and above
being a contributor to make out time to review and provide very valuable
feedback to enhance the quality of this volume.
Our Publisher, Spears Media Press, USA deserves our gratitude for
their unhesitant consent to publish this book. We value their diligence,
professionalism, time consciousness and commitment to excellence as
xvmanifested in the quality they have brought to bear on the book. We hope
this partnership will endure.
When it mattered most, Prof Tale Omole, Vice Chancellor, Obafemi
Awolowo, Ile Ife, Nigeria, - approved a year’s sabbatical for Prof. Femi
Omotoso in the Department of Public Administration in his institution.
No doubt, this opportunity provided the foundation for this research
endeavour. We are therefore very thankful to him, his team and colleagues
in the Department for providing an atmosphere conducive to research.
At every turn we received help from people too numerou-s to men
tion. We value such people and appreciate their assistance, support and
encouragement.
Our immediate families are commended for enduring the ‘pains’ of
research with us and hope they fnd fulflment in the realisation of the goal.
Above all, we give all glory and honour to God Almighty for enabling
us accomplish this milestone. May His name be praised forever.
Femi Omotoso, PhD
&
Michael Kehinde, PhD
February 2016
xviFOREWORD
Rotimi Suberu
igeria is in the throes of a momentous but precarious and endangered N political evolution. Te period since the transition from military to
civilian rule in 1999 has witnessed the longest phase of uninterr - upted civil
ian rule in Nigeria’s history, defying the country’s past record of disruptive
military interventionism and chronic civilian instability. Te unprecedented
inter-party alternation in the federal presidency in the 2015 g - eneral elec
tions represents a political milestone, highlighting the country’s prospects
for democratic renewal and consolidation. At the same time, Nigeria faces
enormous and onerous challenges to its political integration, stabilization
and consolidation, leading one of the editors of this volume to surmise,
“Nigeria has never been a united country [and]…could best be described
as a country at the edge of a precipice.”
Essentially, Nigeria’s current political trajectories provide multiple
grounds for both cautious optimism and reasonable pessimism about
the country’s future political development. Several elements nurture and
inspire optimism about Nigeria’s democratic promise. For starters, the
country’s past history of failed democratisations constitutes an important
stock of experiential political capital, helping to inoculate the curr - ent dis
pensation against some of the mistakes of the past, including Nigerians’
misplaced expectations regarding the corrective capacities of military
rule. Additionally, the relative longevity of the current dispensation has
facilitated the institutional growth and development of key agencies of
restraint, including the legislature, the judiciary, and the national electoral
commission. Te National Assembly’s resounding defeat of President
Obasanjo’s third term agenda, the Supreme Court’s judicious arbitration
of several sensitive inter-governmental and electoral conficts, and the
national electoral commission’s successful umpiring of the historic 2015
xviipresidential elections, are emblematic of this democratic institutional
development and resilience.
Nigeria’s civil society has also been an important driver of
democratic progress, playing an increasingly sophisticated and efective role
in monitoring the country’s elections, in particular, and in exposing and
challenging an elite political culture of corruption and impunity, in
general. A supportive international environment has aided such domestic
civic activism on behalf of democratization. Especially noteworthy are the
crystallization of strong norms against military rule by African regional
and sub-regional organizations, and the implementation of elaborate,
multifaceted, programs of democracy assistance, including the use of the
bully pulpit, by advanced liberal democracies like the United States, the
United Kingdom, and the states of the European Union.
Acknowledgement of these drivers of democratic progress and
institutionalization in Nigeria must, however, be balanced and nuanced by frank
recognition of the multiplicity and enormity of challenges that assail the
country’s democratization. Tis edited volume is replete with analyses of
the variegated “strains and stresses” of Nigeria’s contempor-ary govern
ance and politics. A persistent challenge involves an unresolved national
question, which highlights Nigeria’s failure to promote, attain and sustain
the stable and equitable accommodation, inclusion and integration of its
multiple ethnic, regional and religious communities. Te fragility of the
project of multi-ethnic integration is evident in the rise of violent Islamic
extremism in the Muslim far north, the proliferation of deadly
indigenesettler conficts in the religiously mixed Middle Belt, and the resurgence
of regional secessionist, ethnic revivalist, and resource control movements
in the predominantly Christian south.
Political corruption, including the unconscionable looting of billions of
US dollars in security budgets, represents another monumental challenge
to Nigerian democracy. Te challenge is compounded by the institutional
underdevelopment and political manipulation of the country’s various
anti-corruption institutions. Corruption has eroded public trust in the
legitimacy of the country’s democratic institutions, despite the public’s
robust rejection of authoritarian alternatives to democracy. Te gap in
Nigeria between the demand for democracy, on the one hand, and the
supply of, and satisfaction with, democracy, on the other, is compounded
xviiiFOREWORD
by the failure of the civilian dispensation to deliver many of the
anticipated dividends of democracy, especially pro-poor economic growth and
opportunities, and delivery of basic public services and infrastructures in
security, education, health and transportation, among others. A particularly
egregious failure of Nigerian governance is the inability of the country’s
political leadership to wean the country’s public fnancial system from its
overdependence on volatile oil revenues.
Te multiple failures of Nigeria’s democratic governance refect the
underdevelopment of the political institutions designed to make
political elites accountable to mass-based constituencies. Indeed, despite the
aforementioned growth in the quality and maturity of some of Nigeria’s
democratic institutions, many of the county’s political institutions remain
in various stages of disrepair, dysfunction or disintegration. Examples
include the political parties, local governments, the bureaucracy,
subnational legislatures, the lower tiers of the judicature, and key agencies of
restraint like the anti-corruption commissions and ofces of
auditorgeneral at national and subnational levels. Nigeria cannot experience
sustainable and stable democratic consolidation without popular civic
initiatives and/or a political elite constitutional settlement for reforming
and developing these institutions.
In essence, Nigeria’s project of democratic political development
remains a work in progress, with major unfnished, onerous and
contentious tasks in the realms of state and nation building, the development
of the rule of law, and the institutionalization of truly accountable- , trans
parent and representative governance. Despite monumental faws and
challenges in its evolution and operation, the current civilian dispensation
provides a genuine historic opportunity for advancing the struggles for
good stable democratic governance in the country. Whether Nigeria’s
political leadership, civic groups, and international partners will fully seize
this momentous opportunity remains to be seen.
xixLIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Abegunde, Ola obtained his doctorate degree in Political Science from
Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. He was a post-doctoral fellow
in the Department of Politics, Peace Studies and International Relations
at the North West University, Mafkeng Campus, South Africa between
July 2012 and June 2013. He was a member of the African Union Election
Monitoring Team (Long-Term-Observer) during the 2013 Zimbabwe
General Election. Dr Abegunde is presently a senior lecturer in Political
Science at Ekiti State University. He has published over twenty articles
in both local and international journals.
Agagu, A. A. is a Professor of Political Science. He received all his degrees
from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. He is currently the Head of
Department of Political Science at Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti. He
has published extensively, both in local and international journals on the
subject of public administration.
Akindele, Sunday T . is an Associate Professor of Political Science in the
Department of Political Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.
His areas of research interest include Public Administration, Research
Methods, Local Government Studies and Development issues.
Ajinde, Olushakin teaches Political Science at Afe Babalola University,
Nigeria. He holds a PhD degree in Political Science from the University
of Ibadan in Nigeria. He has published extensively on Nigeria’s foreign
policy and international relations.
Amaraegbu, Declan A. is the author of Analysis of Anti-Corruption Policies
in Africa: Te Cases of Nigeria and Ghana and Political Corruption and the
Liberian Crisis: Te Role of Tubman and His Two Whig Party Government.
xxLIST OF Contributors
His educational background in International Relations, Politics and
Government has given him a broad base from which to approach many topics
in the Social Sciences. He is a motivational speaker who delivers seminars
and presents conference papers on Corruption, Good Governance,
Terrorism and general political science topics. He has published many papers
in reputable peer-reviewed academic journals and an editorial reviewer
to many academic publishers. Dr. Amaraegbu lives in Durham, United
Kingdom.
Amusan, Lere is Professor and Head of Department of Politics and
International Relations, North West University, South Africa. He has
published widely on challenges to African development such as
environmental politics, foreign policy, human security and international politics.
He is currently working on African and International Economic Relations.
Asaolu, T. O. holds an M.Phil. and Ph.D. in Business Administration
from Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria. He is a Fellow of
the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN). He has been
Head, Department of Management and Accounting, Vice-Dean and
Dean, Faculty of Administration, OAU, and member of the Governing
Board of Administrative Staf College of Nigeria (ASCON), among
others. Prof. Asaolu has published over 60 articles in reputable local and
foreign journals.
Awosika, Felix Olanrewaju is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of
Political Science, University of Lagos in Nigeria. He received his Ph.D.
in Political Science from the University of Lagos. He has seventeen years’
University teaching experience. He specializes in Public Administration
and Environmental Studies.
Babatunde, Shade is a PhD student and lecturer in the Department of
Sociology, Landmark University.
Bamgbose, Jimoh Adele, Ph.D. is a senior lecturer in the Political Science
Department, Lagos State University, Ojo, Nigeria. Prior to his current
position, he held various positions at the Ojo Local Government and
xxiLIST OF Contributors
Customary Court from 1980 – 1985, and a coordinator of Diploma in
Refugee Studies at Lagos State University. He was educated at Lagos
State University and the University of Lagos and the University of Ibadan.
Elegbeleye, O. S. teaches Psychology in the Department of Psychology
at both the graduate and undergraduate levOels at the bafemi Awolowo
University, lle lfe, Nigeria. He has been a full faculty member in the Social
Sciences Faculty for over two decades. During this period, he has been
actively engaged in teaching, research and community service both within
and outside the university.
Dr. Joseph Olayinka Fashagba obtained his Ph.D. degree in Political
Science from the University of Ilorin, Nigeria. Dr. Fashagba is Senior
Lecturer and former Head of Department of Political Science and
International Relations, Landmark University, Nigeria and currently with the
Department of Political Science, Federal University Lokoja, Nigeria. Dr.
Fashagba is coeditor with Professors Carl LeVan of American University,
Washington DC and Edward Macmahon of University of Vermont,
Burlington, of a book entitled ‘African State Governance: Subnational Politics
and National Power’. He coedited two books with Professor Rotimi Ajayi,
former Vice Chancellor of Landmark University and current- ly Profes
sor of Political Science in the Department of Political Science, Federal
University Lokoja, entitled ‘Understanding Government and Politics in
Nigeria’ and ‘Introductory Text in Political Science’.
Idowu, Omokayode H. holds an MBA as well as a Master of Science
degree in Business Administration from Obafemi Awolowo University.
He is a member of the Chartered Institute of Personnel Management in
Nigeria (CIPMN) and the Nigerian of Training and
Development (NITD). He heads the administrative unit of the Centre for Energy
Research and Development (CERD) as Administrative Secretary but
currently engages in teaching activities on part-time basis at the Imo State
University (defunct Akure Centre) and Wesley University of Science and
Technology, Ondo. He has attended and presented papers at academic
conferences within and outside Nigeria and had published articles in both
local and international journals.
xxiiLIST OF Contributors
Innocent, Patrick Alfa is a lecturer at Federal Polytechnic Idah. He
obtained his MSc in Political Science from Kogi State University and
BSc in Political Science from the University of Maiduguri.
Itugbu, Steve obtained his Ph.D. from SOAS, the University of London.
He is a well-travelled journalist and academic. He was also a presidential
aide to Nigeria’s former president, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo. Dr. Itugbu,
the author of America’s War on Teis prrror esently a Teaching Fellow with
the Politics Department and also at the Centre for International Studies
and Diplomacy at SOAS, the University of London.
Kehinde, Michael is the principal consultant at Tower Bridge Consult
and lead of diversity and Inclusion at the Ontario Ministry of
Government and Consumer Services, Toronto, Canada. Prior to this role, Dr.
Kehinde taught Political Science at universities in Nigeria and England.
He was a postdoctoral fellow at Pennsylvania State University in the
US. Dr. Kehinde received his doctoral degree in Politics from Durham
University, UK.
Mudasiru,Surajudeen O. is a Senior Lecturer and Head of Department
of Political Science at Lagos State University, Nigeria. He has attended
local and international conferences and also published widely in the area of
peace and confict studies. He was a laureate of the Social Science Research
Council (SSRC) on Collaborative research. He was a participant at the
Summer School of the Bulgarian Academy of Science in 2002. He is a
member of various professional bodies such as the International
Political Science Association (IPSA), African Association of Political Science
(AAPS), Nigerian Political Science Association (NPSA), and Nigerian
Institute of International Afairs (NIIA).
Nwozor, Agaptus is a senior lecturer in the Department of Political
Science and International Relations, Landmark University, Omu Aran,
Nigeria. He has contributed chapters in peer reviewed books as well as
national and international Journals. His recent articles have appeared
in African Renaissance (2013), Confict Trends  (2013), Te Journal of
Pan African Studies (2014), Political Science Review (2014) and African
xxiiiLIST OF Contributors
Study Monographs (2014).
Oladeji, Isaac Olayide is a Doctoral student/Researcher at Ekiti State
University. He holds a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees
in Political Science from the University of Ado-Ekiti and the University
of Ibadan respectively, graduating top of his class. He research interests
span the feld of federalism, governance and political behaviour.
A. O. Olaleye is currently a Professor of Public Administration at Joseph
Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji Arakeji, Nigeria. He has held sever-al posi
tions in the institution including Head of Department, Department of
Political Science and Public Administration. His research interests are
in the areas of Public Administration, Public Policy and Development
Administration. He has published extensively in both local and
international outlets.
Olaopa, Olawale R. is a Principal Research Ofcer with National Centre
for Technology Management (NACETEM), a research Agency under
the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology and Zonal Coordinator
of the North Central ofce of the Agency. He earned a BSc in Politics,
Philosophy and Economics (PPE) and an MSc in Political Science from
the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife and holds a Ph.D. degree in
Public Policy at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Olawale
is currently a Post-Doctoral Fellow in the Department of Politics and
International Relations, North-West University, Mafkeng Campus, South
Africa. He is widely published in the felds of Public Policy, Economic
Planning, Sustainable Development and Governance issues in Nigeria
and Africa.
Oluwaniyi O. Oluwatoyin is a lecturer in the Department of History
and International Studies, Redeemer’s University, Ede, Osun State,
Nigeria. She holds a Ph.D. in International Relations from the University of
Ibadan. She is a Cadbury Fellow at the Centre of West African Studies,
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. She is also a fellow of West
African Research Association (WARA), and laureate of the Youth and
Child Studies institute, CODESRIA, Dakar, Senegal and a scholar of
xxivLIST OF Contributors
the Department for Peace and Confict Research, Uppsala University,
Sweden. Her research interests include Confict and Confict Studies,
Post-Confict Peacebuilding, and Gender and Youth Studies.
Omotoso, Femi obtained his Ph.D. degree in Political Science from
University of Ibadan. He is currently an Associate Professor of Political
Science at Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. He was formerly a
Visiting Associate Professor, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria.
His research focuses on political behaviour, federalism and governance.
His papers have appeared in several reputable local and international
journals and edited books.
Oshewolo, Segun is a doctoral research candidate in the Department
of Political Science, University of Ilorin. He currently lectures in the
Department of Political Science and International Relations, Landmark
University, Nigeria. His research areas include foreign policy and
diplomacy, democratisation, environmental politics and gender studies.
Tar, Usman A. is the Head, Department of Political Science and Defence
and Defence Studies, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna. He obtained
his Ph.D. in Peace and Confict Resolution from the University of Br- ad
ford, UK. He is the author of Te Politics of Neoliberal Democracy in Africa
(IB Tauris, London, 2009). He is a Contributing Editor at the Review of
African Political Economy
xxv1
DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE AND POLITICAL
PARTICIPATION: INTRODUCTION TO THE ISSUES
Femi Omotoso
introDuction
Democracy is spreading like a wildfre worldwide as a process of g - overn
ment capable of guaranteeing good governance. It is the beautiful bride
as it is attractive to nations, regardless of the nature and character of
the system of government in operation. It is adjudged the best form of
government because of its defning attributes, particularly f- or guarantee
ing individual freedom in the political system and for allowing popular
participation in governance. Since independence, Nigeria has passed
through diferent stages in its political development as political power
oscillated between the military institution and the civilian populace, with
the latter gaining the upper hand. Tis has posed putative problems to the
nation, afected its growth and constrained its development. Te military
ruled with an iron hand and curtailed peoples’ freedom. Te year 1999
was a watershed in the history of the country, as it witnessed the military
institution cedes power to the political class. Against this background of
the nation’s past experience, this development seems the frst ‘genuine’
transition that saw the military ruling elite transferring political power to
civilians without it itching to stage a comeback, despite obvious lapse in
the political system from the period till now. In other words, since 1999,
Nigeria has been enjoying a ‘stable’ democratic government.
Despite the ‘stability’ in the system, the nation and its people are
labouring under severe strains and stresses to adequately and efectively
1