This book is the direct outcome of a panel on Timor-Leste entitled «How to build a new nation?» and organized in September 2007 in the framework of the EUROSEAS Congress in Naples. Among the more than 40 panels held, Timor-Leste's had been remarkably dense, with 20 presentations given by American, Australian, Brazilian, East-Timorese, French, German, Portuguese and Spanish researchers. At the time of this congress, the major event of 2006, which two years after continued to be called “the crisis”, was still foremost in people's minds, conversations, and researches. While other events or forewarning episodes had taken place before that date, no doubt that the crisis of 2006/2007 had finally prove to be a turning point, for the country itself, and maybe even more so for international actors. Though presented at first as a United Nations' success story, especially when the territory was under UN management from October 1999 (withdrawal of the Indonesian army) until 20 May 2002 (independence of the country), the unity of Timor-Leste was then in peril, deceiving the expectations that had prevailed during the resistance years. Its climax was the conflict between “those from the West” and “those from the East” (“Loromonu-Lorosae” or Firaku-Kaladi), and a violence which caused a wave of internal refugees (around 150,000 IDP- Internally Displaced People). Beyond the causes and effects of this political and military crisis which had then spread to civil society, the “crisis” had also directly or indirectly revealed a certain number of dysfunctions, notably the deficiencies of the UN preparations of independence and of the capacity of East Timorese governing bodies to manage and organize the country.



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East-Timor st How to Build a New Nation in Southeast Asia in the 21 Century?
Frédéric Durand and Christine Cabasset-Semedo (dir.)
DOI: 10.4000/books.irasec.632 Publisher: Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine Year of publication: 2009 Published on OpenEdition Books: 3 July 2018 Serie: Carnets de l’Irasec Electronic ISBN: 9782956447085
Printed version ISBN: 9786119028203 Number of pages: 304
Electronic reference DURAND, Frédéric (ed.) ; CABASSET-SEMEDO, Christine (ed.).East-Timor: How to Build a st New Nation in Southeast Asia in the 21 Century?New edition [online]. Bangkok: Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine, 2009 (generated 06 juillet 2018). Available on the Internet: . ISBN: 9782956447085. DOI: 10.4000/books.irasec.632.
This text was automatically generated on 6 July 2018.
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This book is the direct outcom e of a paHel oH Tim or -Leste eHtitled «ow to build a Hew HatioH?» aHd org aHized iH Septem ber 2007 iH the fram ework of the EUROSEAS CoHg ress iH Naples. Am oHg the m ore thaH 40 paHels held, Tim or-L este's had beeH rem arkably deHse, with 20 preseHtatioHs g iveH by Am ericaH, AustraliaH , BraziliaH, East-Tim orese, FreHch, Germ aH, Portug uese aHd SpaHish researchers. At the tim e of this coHg ress, the m ajor eveHt of 2006, which two years after coHtiHued to be call ed “the crisis”, was still forem ost iH people's m iHds, coHversatioHs, aHd researches. While other eveHts or forewarHiHg episodes had takeH place before that date, Ho doubt that the crisis of 2006/2007 had fiHally prove to be a turHiHg poiHt, for the couHtry itself, aHd m aybe eveH m ore so for iHterHatioHal actors. Thoug h preseHted at first as a UHited NatioHs' success story, especially wheH the territory was uHder UN m aHag em eHt from October 1999 (withdraw al of the IHdoHesiaH arm y) uHtil 20 May 2002 (iHdepeHdeHce of the couHtry), the uHit y of Tim or-Leste was theH iH peril, deceiviHg the expectatioHs that had prevailed duriH g the resistaHce years. Its clim ax was the coHflict betweeH “those from the West” aHd “tho se from the East” (“Lorom oHu-Lorosae” or Firaku-Kaladi), aHd a violeHce which ca used a wave of iHterHal refug ees (arouHd 150,000 IDP- IHterHally Displaced People). BeyoHd the causes aHd effects of this political aHd m ilitary crisis which had theH spread to civil society, the “crisis” had also directly or iHdirectly revealed a certaiH Hum ber of dysfuHctioHs, Hotably the deficieHcies of the UN preparatioHs of iHdepeHdeHce aHd of the capa city of East Tim orese g overHiHg bodies to m aHag e aHd org aHize the couHtry.
Frédéric DuraHd is Associate-Professor iH Geog raphy at UHiversity Toulouse II-Le Mirail, m em ber of the CNRS CeHter for Southeast AsiaH Studies iH Paris (UMR 8170), aHd curreHtly Director of the Malaysia-FraHce UHiversity CeHter iH Kuala Lum pur. Author of m ore thaH teH books oH Southeast Asia, the Malay World aHd IHdoHesia, he published four books oH Tim or: a g eo-historical atlas of East-Tim or iH 2002 (traHslated iHto EHg lish iH 2006), aH history of ChristiaHism iH East aHd West Tim or (iH 2004), aH history of cartog raphy aHd travel to Tim or IslaHd (iH 2006), aHd a study oH coHtem porary situatioH iH the couHtry (Tim or-Leste iH search of refereHce m arks. EcoHom ic aHd political perspectives, aHd reg ioHal iHteg ratioH 1999-2050), iH 2008.
ChristiHe Cabasset-Sem edo holds a PhD iH Geog raphy aHd PlaHHiHg (Paris-SorboHHe), she's part-tim e uHiversity lecturer iH several FreHch uHiversities, aHd works also as aH expert aHd adviser oH tourism . For the last 15 years, her academ ic research focused oH differeHt aspects of tourism aHd Hotably: socio-ecoHom ic iHteg ratioH, spatial coHceHtratioH / exteHsioH, coHtributioH to HatioHal uHity... er m aiH field surveys were uHdertakeH iH Southeast Asia, aHd particularly iH IHdoHesia aHd Tim or-Leste, topics aHd couHtries oH which she published m aHy articles. For the past teH years, she visits alm ost aHHually Tim or- Leste. er 2007 aHd 2008 m issioHs to eHhaHce teachiHg of tourism at the NatioHal UHiversity of Tim or Lorosa'e were supported by the FraHce Em bassy iH IHdoHesia aHd East-Tim or.
Introduction Christine Cabasset-Semedo and Frédéric Durand
Part 1. A Difficult Transition toward a New Nation
Multidimensional identity construction: Challenges for State-building in East Timor Nuno Canas Mendes 1 - Boundaries and cultural roots 2 - Pre-Independence Ways and means of collective mobilization 3 - Post-Independence Diffusion and inculcation of the representations of a national project Concluding remarks
Negotiating statehood and humanitarian assistance in Timor-Leste: an incompatible pair? Christine Schenk 1-Needs assessment missions as part of a peace-building strateg y 2-Theoretical framework: Neg otiating statehood 3-Evaluation of needs assessment mission and subsequent aid implementation 4-Needs assessment as element of neg otiating statehood Conclusions
Reconciliation in Timor-Leste and the Role of the Media: The Casa de Produção Audiovisual Henriette Sachse 1 - Reconciliation and the media 2 - The Casa de Produção Audiovisual 3 - Truth seeking 4. Education Conclusion
Part 2. Socio-cultural identities and factors in question
Translation in Crisis, Crisis as Translation Paulo Castro Seixas 1-Introduction 2-The Crisis of 2006: The ‘first ritual war’ after independence 3-The anthropolog ical structures 4-Crisis as translation
"Ema Lorosa’e", "Ema Loromonu":Identity and Politics in Timor-Leste David Hicks
Nation building at the village level: First the house, then the Church and finally a modern state
Alexander Loch 1 - Imag ined modern communities, traditional structures and a powerful Church 2 - (In)compatibilities, symbols and narratives Conclusion
Denying peripheral status, claiming a role in the nation: sacred words and ritual practices as legitimating identity of a local community in the context of the new nation Lúcio Sousa 1 - The renewal of ritual practice in East Timor: periphery or core of the nation? 2 - The role of local communities and traditional rulers in the context of the nation (emic vision) 3 – Tradition -adatmanifold dimensions 4 - Claiming centrality to the interior: the case of a Bunak domain Conclusion: disputed centres of East Timor – roots of a nation?
Part 3. Politics, legitimacy and electoral processes
Elections and Social Dimensions of Democracy, Lessons from Timor-Leste Rui Graça Feijó 1 - From 1975 to the Independence 2 - The electoral cycle of 2007: a systemic perspective 3 - The 2007 electoral cycle: clear electoral choices 4 - After the Vote Conclusion
Suffering, Dignity and Recognition. Sources of political legitimacy in independent East Timor Kelly Silva 1 - Context 2 - Campaig n 3 - Final Perspectives
Crisis and Nation-building in Timor-Leste Sara Gonzalez Devant 1 - The crisis and nation-building : the top-down approach 2 - Locating crisis knowledg e along a hierarchy of credibility 3 - The role of personal loyalties and violence experts 4 - Sovereig nty, impersonality and leg itimacy—The three crises of the Timorese State Conclusion
Part 4. Tracks for the construction of the future
Crisis and uncertainties as a sign of a lack of Timorese project of society Frédéric Durand
1 - Pertinence and ambig uity in concepts of “viability” and “poverty” 2 - A country destroyed and rebuilt “from scratch”? 3 - 1999-2006: a problematic transition between aid with ambig uous effects and political crisis 4 - 2007-2008: elections and rebellious attacks revealing instability 5 - Ideolog ically contradictory and sometimes naïve visions 6 - Which “project of society” for the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste?
Human safety, security and resilience: Making narrative spaces for dissent in Timor-Leste Jacqueline Aquino Siapno 1-New methods of local and international collaboration not based on domination? 2-New Methods of learning about Human Safety, Security and Resilience: From “Hig h-Level” to “Common Sense” Conclusion
Thinking about tourism in Timor-Leste in the era of sustainable development. A tourism policy emerging from grass-roots levels Christine Cabasset-Semedo 1 - Tourism: a political and socio-economic stake 2 - Initiatives of private entrepreneurs in tourism 3 - The emerg ence of community eco-lodg es Conclusion: what kind of tourism for what local project?
Chronology 1974-2009
Glossary and list of acronyms
Timor-Leste in Southeast Asia
Main towns transportation infrastructure of Timor-L este
Districts and Subdistricts of Timor-Leste
Main local languages spoken in 2004