Forging Two Nations Insights on Sudan and South Sudan

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English
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Most of the papers in this book were presented during the 9th International South Sudan and Sudan Studies Conference of the Sudan Studies Association USA and the Sudan Studies Society UK. 150 scholars from numerous academic disciplines, experts in conflict transformation and development, staff of non-governmental organisations (NGOs), former and current senior officers from ministries and military institutions from Sudan, South Sudan, and seventeen further countries participated in the conference. They engaged in vivid discussions on historical and recent cleavages in the societies of Sudan and South Sudan, inequality and exclusion in numerous variations, and on rapid social change accompanied by urbanisation and land conflicts. The severe economic crisis following the separation and the importance of creating political solutions instead of using technical approaches to work on the multitude of challenges affecting each of the two countries and the interrelations between them were also scrutinised. The participants intensely exchanged views and experiences on the difficulties and successes in taking responsibility rather than being dependent on foreign assistance. Discussions revealed strong potentials in both societies to overcome such problems; to initiate processes of reconciliation, and to consolidate peace. They shed light on the complex processes of nation-building and the creation of meaningful constitutions. This book attempts to capture at least some of this multitude of insights and aspects that had shaped the conference.

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Published 29 December 2013
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EAN13 9789994455799
Language English
Document size 4 MB

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in conLict transformation and development, staff of non-governmental organisations (NGOs), former and current senior ofIcers from ministries and military institutions from Sudan, South Sudan, and seventeen further countries participated in the conference. They engaged in vivid discussions on historical and recent cleavages in the societies of Sudan and South Sudan, inequality and exclusion in numerous variations, and on rapid social change accompanied by urbanisation and land conLicts. The severe economic
The participants intensely exchanged views and experiences on the difIculties and
Discussions revealed strong potentials in both societies to overcome such problems;
complex processes of nation-building and the creation of meaningful constitutions. This
Forging Two Nations Insights on Sudan and South Sudan
Elke Grawert
Forging Two Nations Insights on Sudan and South Sudan
Forging Two Nations Insights on Sudan and South Sudan
Edited by Elke Grawert
Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA)
© 2013 Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa  (OSSREA)
OSSREA acknowledges the support of Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida), Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation (NORAD) and Danish Development Agency (DANIDA).
Published 2013 Printed in Ethiopia ISBN: 978-99944-55-73-7 All rights reserved.
Layout: F5 Mediengestaltung, Bonn, Ralf Kolmsee
Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa P.O. Box 31971, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Fax: 251-11-1223921 Tel: 251-11-1239484 E-mail: info@ossrea.net Website: www.ossrea.net
Foreword
Sudan after South Sudan’s independence: Breaking up or holding together Yasir Awad A. Eltahir The changing nature of political activism in Sudan: Women and youth ‘activists’ as catalysts in civil societySondra Hale & Gada Kadoda ‘Negotiating change’: Discourses, politics, and practices of Serau Village Youth Center in Omdurman, SudanSalma Mohamed Abdalla Post-referendum South Sudan: Political drivers of violence and the challenge of democratic nation-building Christopher Zambakari
II. Contested resources: Common practices, means of exclusion
IntroductionElke Grawert
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Contents
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List of tables, maps and figures
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I. Dispersed violence in the process of forging two nations
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Gold mining concessions in Sudan’s written laws, and practices of gold extraction in the Nuba Mountains Enrico Ille & Sandra Calkins Negotiations of power and responsibilities in Khartoum’s shantytowns Mohamed A.G. Bakhit New forms of exclusion in Torit: Contestation over urban land Timm Sureau
Acronyms and abbreviations
Executive summary Elke Grawert
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III. Co-opted, side-lined, appropriated—or constructive? International assistance in Sudan and South Sudan
The co-option of humanitarian assistance in Darfur Elis Schmeer How can development cooperation contribute to peaceful conflict resolution in South Sudan? Elisabeth Hartwig & Tinega G. Ong’ondi Post-war governance and the impact of international aid in South Sudan Sarah Lykes Washburne The challenge of increasing the security of the people in South Sudan Marius Kahl
IV. Sudan and South Sudan: Aspects of interdependence
Is peace not for everyone? Margret Verwijk South Sudan in volatilities of sharing the Nile basin resources Samson S. Wassara Sudan and South Sudan in the East African Community: An option? Dirk Hansohm
Glossary
Notes on the contributors
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List of tables, maps and figures
Tables
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3 4
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Sudan and South Sudan: DataKhartoum state population census according to localities and administrative unitsNumber and percentage of each incident characteristicFrequency and percent distribution of incidents resulting in deaths reported by stateRatio of person(s) killed to number of incidentsForeign actors in South Sudan operating in the promotion of security (late 2010–2011)Percentage of women in formal peace processes (1992–2008)Spatial profile of the Nile basin countriesHydrological factors of the three sub-basinsNile basin countries’ energy supply compared (2010)Basis data on EAC, South Sudan and Sudan
Maps
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Sudan and South Sudan: capitals, states, and river NileLocation of Serau village in Khartoum StateDevelopment of Serau village between 1984 and 2010Urbanization process in ToritWarrap State in South Sudan
Figures
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Sketch of the expansion of UNMISS compoundThe missing link
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203 221 237 238 240 258
17 82 84 154 177
148 156
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Acronyms and abbreviations
ADRA AUHIP BCSSAC CBO CBP CFA CIDA COMESA CoTAL CPA CSO CSSAC DPA DDR EAC EES ENTRO EPA ESA ESPA EU FAO GAFTA GIZ GoNU GoS
GoSS
GRED HAC HCA HCDC HIV ICC ICG ICRC IDDRS IDP IGAD IMF INGO IOM
Adventist Development and Relief Agency African Union High Implementation Panel Bureau for Community Security and Small Arms Control Community-based organization Community based policing Cooperative Framework Agreement Canadian International Development Agency Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Council of Traditional Authority Leaders of Warrap State Comprehensive Peace Agreement Civil society organization Community security and small arms control Darfur Peace Agreement Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration East African Community Eastern Equatoria State East Nile Technical Regional Office Economic Partnership Agreement Eastern and Southern Africa Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement European Union Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Greater Arab Free Trade Area Deutsche Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit Government of National Unity Government of Sudan (before independence)—Government of the Republic of Sudan (after independence) Government of Southern Sudan (before independence)—Government of the Republic of South Sudan (after independence) Grand Renaissance Ethiopian Dam Humanitarian Affairs Commission Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement UK House of Commons Development Committee Human immunodeficiency virus International Criminal Court International Crisis Group International Committee of the Red Cross UN Integrated DDR Standards Internally displaced person Intergovernmental Authority on Development International Monetary fund International non-governmental organization International Organization for Migration
JEM JIU LAPSSET LRA MDGs MDTF MRMDA NBI NCP NDDRC
NELSAP-CU NGO NIF NSAA NTB NuWEDA OLS P.A.R.I.S. PDF REC RI RIA RMG RRP RSS RTA SADC SALW SAF SAP SCR SD SECS SIHA SLA SLM/A SPLA SPLM SRF SRF SSDDRC
Justice and Equality Movement Joint Integrated Units Lamu Port–South Sudan–Ethiopia Lord Resistance Army Millennium Development Goals Multi-Donor Trust Fund Mineral Resource and Mining Development Act Nile Basin Initiative National Congress Party Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration Commission of South Sudan (since mid-2013) Nile Equatorial Lakes Action Programme -Coordinating Unit Non-governmental organization National Islamic Front Non-state armed actors Non-trade barrier Nuba Women’s Education and Development Association Operation Lifeline Sudan Productive Asset Recovery and Institutional Strengthening-Project Popular Defense Force Regional economic community Regional integration Regional integration agreements Rebel militia groups Recovery and Rehabilitation Project Republic of South Sudan Regional trade agreement Southern African Development Community Small arms and light weapons Sudan Armed Forces Subsidiary Action Program UN Security Council Resolution Sudanese Pound Sudan Environmental Conservation Society Strategic Initiative for Women in the Horn of Africa Sudan Liberation Army Sudan Liberation Movement/Army Sudan People’s Liberation Army Sudan People’s Liberation Movement Sudan Revolutionary Front Sudan Recovery Fund Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration Commission of South Sudan (until mid-2013)
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