Forum on China-Africa Cooperation
374 Pages
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As the Chinese economy continues to grow, increased commercial engagement with Africa will offer the continent new and rewarding prospects for trade, investment and economic development. The challenge is for Africa to grasp these opportunities and take full advantage of China's friendship and willingness to co-operate. The Forum on China-Africa Co-operation (FOCAC) provides a mechanism for all-inclusive diplomatic consultation to advance China Africa co-operation and to effectively manage expanding economic inter-dependence. FOCAC is a political arena for developing Sino-African co-operation and problem solving. FOCAC also provides an important framework for developing a common development agenda. Given new global trends towards antiglobalisation, FOCAC's importance is expected to increase in the years ahead. This book seeks to strengthen the China-Africa relationship and offer new suggestions for both policy makers and scholars seeking to understand and advance FOCAC for mutual benefit. FOCAC holds the key to Africa's development and long-term prosperity. The new policy initiatives and proposals outlined in this study make a very valuable contribution to strengthening FOCAC and advancing Africa's economic development.



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Published 14 December 2014
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Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Industrialisation and Agricultural Modernisation
Funeka Yazini April, Garth Shelton, Chris Alden and Biliang Hu (eds.)
Forum on ChinaAfrica Cooperation Industrialisation and Agricultural Modernisation
EDItOrS: Dr Funeka Yazini April Professor Garth Shelton Professor Chris Alden Professor Biliang Hu
FOrUm ON ChîNa-Afrîca COOperatîON ïNdUstrîalîsatîON & AgrîcUltUral MOderNîsatîON
First Published in 2018 by the Africa Institute of South Africa PO Box 630 Pretoria 0001 South Africa
ISBN: 978-0-7983-0522-8
© Copyright Africa Institute of South Africa 2018
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The Africa Institute of South Africa is a think tank and research organisation, focusing on political, socio-economic, international and development issues in contemporary Africa. The Institute conducts research, publishes books, monographs, occasional papers, policy briefs and a quarterly journal – Africa Insight. The Institute holds regular seminars on issues of topical interest. It is also home to one of the best library and documentation centres world-wide, with materials on every African country.
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Preface AckNOwledgemeNts
AbOUt the cONtrîbUtOrs
AbbrevîatîONs aNd AcrONyms
Lîst Of Tables
AbbrevîatîONs aNd AcrONyms
Table of Contents
PART 1: Keynote Addresses
Dr Claudious Chikozho, AISA Executive Director, Human Science Research Council Ambassador Tian Xuejun, Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in South Africa Ambassador Ji Peiding, Foreign Policy Advisory Group of the Chinese Ministry
PART 2: Introduction
Chapter 1 TOwards FoCAC 2018: StreNghteNîNg the FoCAC ageNda ON ïNdUstrîalîsatîON aNd AgrîcUltUral MOderNîsatîON Yazini April, Garth Shelton and Biliang Hu
PART 3: ChinaAfrica Industrial Cooperation
Chapter 2 ChîNa’s Specîal EcONOmîc ZONes: Best Practîces fOr ïNdUstrîal COOperatîON betweeN ChîNa aNd Afrîca Tang Xiaoyang
Chapter 3 ChîNa’s EcONOmîc aNd Trade COOperatîON ZONes îN Afrîca: A Vîable MOdel Of DevelOpmeNt? Chris Alden and Ana Cristina Dias Alves
Chapter 4 ChîNa aNd Afrîca’s ïNdUstrîalîsatîON: The CUrreNt SîtUatîON, ChalleNges, Fears aNd POlîcy optîONs Ukertor Gabriel Moti
xxv xxvî xxvîî
Chapter 5 Afrîca’s ïNdUstrîalîsatîON aNd ChîNa’s oFDï îN the MaNUfactUrîNg SectOr: RatîONale aNd Practîces LU Feng
Chapter 6 Afrîca’s MîNeral ResOUrces SectOr aNd EvOlvîNg RelatîONs wîth ChîNa: TraNsîtîONîNg frOm ResOUrces DepeNdeNcy tO EcONOmîc DîversîIcatîON thrOUgh MîNeral BeNeIcîatîON Sizwe Phakathi
Chapter 7 The Realîtîes Of îNdUstrîal 1.0 îN Afrîca thrOUgh FoCAC Yazini April and Zukiswa Mpiyakhe
Chapter 8 ChîNa’s îNward lOOkîNg îNdUstrîalîsatîON: AN ïNspîratîON fOr West Afrîca tO establîsh RegîONal ValUe ChaîNs? Maxime Weigert135
PART 4: ChinaAfrica Agricultural Cooperation and Food Security in Africa156
Chapter 9 FOOd secUrîty îN Afrîca PrOblems aNd SOlUtîONs Biliang Hu and MA Yue
Chapter 10 AgrîcUltUral COOperatîON betweeN ChîNa aNd MOzambîqUe: The SîtUatîON aNd the PrOblems LIU Weicai
Chapter 11 BetweeN PrOmîse aNd PrOIt : ChîNese AgrO-ïNvestmeNt aNd the ChalleNges Of operatîNg îN SOUth Afrîca Angela Harding, Chris Alden, Lu Jiang and Ward Anseeuw
Chapter 12 FOcac, AgrîcUltUral DevelOpmeNt aNd ChîNa-Afrîca COOperatîON Garth Shelton
Chapter 13 The POlîtîcal EcONOmy Of ïNdUstrîalîsatîON aNd AgrîcUltUral DevelOpmeNt îN Afrîca Mxolisi Notshulwana
Chapter 14 Afrîca-ChîNa AgrîcUltUre MOderNîsatîON COOperatîON: ApprOaches, ChalleNges aNd oppOrtUNîtîes
Gedion Jalata
PART 5: Enhancing Synergies in ChinaAfrica Development and Cooperation 277
Chapter 15 AlîgNîNg ChîNa-Afrîca COOperatîON wîth the un 2030 AgeNda fOr SUstaîNable DevelOpmeNt Zhang Chun
Chapter 16 The ROle Of ChîNa-Afrîca RelatîONs îN the PrOmOtîON Of the Rîght tO DevelOpmeNt îN Afrîca Rita Ozoemena
Chapter 17 POst FoCAC Vï – SyNergy Or ANergy îN the ChîNa-Afrîca COOperatîON Paul Tembe
PART 6: Conclusion
Chapter 18 A New FoCAC AgeNda fOr AgrîcUltUral MOderNîsatîON aNd ïNdUstrîalîsatîON Garth Shelton, Yazini April, Biliang Hu and Chris Alden
The new comprehensive and inspiring roadmap for strengthened China-Africa co-operation was outlined at the December 2015 Forum on China-Africa Co-operation (FOCAC VI) Summit in Johannesburg. It confirmed the win-win approach of this relationship and detailed five key pillars of co-operation, along with ten specific plans to strengthen this process. This study investigates the (arguably) two most important elements of the current FOCAC agen-da – industrialisation and agricultural modernisation – with a view to identifying specific policy proposals, new ideas and suggestions that could be incorporated into the evolving FOCAC agenda. Numerous studies have confirmed that successful industrialisation and agricultural modernisation are critical for poverty reduction, job creation and economic growth. The next phase of Africa’s economic development requires a shift from over-reliance on raw material and oil exports to domestic economic transformation. Through the FOCAC mechanism and related bilateral interactions, China is the ideal development partner to assist Africa in this process. Over the last two decades or so, FOCAC has strengthened and confirmed the comprehensive China-Africa co-operation strategy, with increasingly positive outcomes for both sides. Since 2000, FOCAC has become the most important multilateral mechanism that is driv-ing, managing and facilitating this creative and mutually beneficial China-Africa interaction. FOCAC has evolved to become the ‘core platform’ of debate and diplomatic collaboration between China and Africa. To date, the FOCAC process and its outcomes have been strongly supported and endorsed by Africa’s leadership, confirming the mutually beneficial nature of this process. The new challenge, following the conclusion of FOCAC VI, is for China and Africa is to continue to build a sustainable, long-term relationship that produces specific and quantifiable economic development benefits for both sides. The FOCAC VI Declaration and three-year Action Plan offers a comprehensive agenda for broadening and strength-ening political and commercial co-operation and outlines a long-term vision to advance a practical development partnership. Moreover, FOCAC is expected to become more important as a process for advancing global co-operation and harmony, in response to the emerging anti-globalisation forces represented by Brexit and the new administration in the USA. This study provides unique insight, policy proposals and agenda suggestions for the evolving FOCAC process. Policy practitioners, students and scholars of China’s foreign policy and China’s engagement with Africa will find this volume interesting, informative and essential reading in the quest to better understand Sino-African relations, while providing new ideas to advance the FOCAC agenda and related policy processes. The creative and innovative pol-icy proposals and research conclusions outlined in the various chapters of this study offer new counsel and encouragement to advance and strengthen FOCAC towards a sustainable, long-term diplomatic mechanism that will advance both China-Africa relations and common
economic prosperity. This book is dedicated to strengthening the China-Africa friendship relationship and ongoing diplomatic interaction for mutually beneficial co-operation and common development. It is hoped that the ideas, suggestions and proposals contained in this study will make a positive and meaningful contribution to FOCAC, China-Africa rela-tions and shared economic prosperity.
Professor Garth Shelton Associate Professor, University of Witwatersrand
The editors of this book would like to acknowledge the financial support of theChina Africa Research Joint Exchange Program, which made the publication of this book possible. This book is a compilation of conference proceedings by Chinese and African scholars at theChinaAfrica Industrialization and Agricultural Modernization Seminar, which was held on November 9-10, 2016. Also included in the book are the keynote speeches made during this event. We also acknowledge all the authors who contributed to the success of this project.Chapter 7 is dedicated to the late Ms Zukiswa Mpiyakhe who served as a co-author, and a Research Assistant for the book production. The Editors also acknowledge Ms Siphokazi Mdidimba, AISA Publications, for managing the editorial processes of this book project. Special thanks go to the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in South Africa, for its support, patience and oversight in this process.
About the Editors
Dr Funeka Yazini Aprilworks at the Human Science Research Council as a research spe-cialist with expertise in industrialisation between China and South Africa, and China and Africa. Dr April is a distinguished scholar with several publications, including the following 3 edited books:FOCAC 2015:A New Beginning of China-Africa Relations, Perspectives on South Africa-China Relations, and the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation: The Politics of Human Resource Development. Dr April has also published over 40 book chapters and journal articles, such as: ‘Prospective Mining Industrialisation Partnerships between South Africa and China’; ‘The United States, China and Mineral Resource Extraction: The Case of the Democratic Republic of Congo’; ‘Rethinking Africa’s Development Through Science and Technology: A Partnership Opportunity for South Africa and China’; ‘Sino-Africa Dynamics of Joint Knowledge Production: Prospects and Challenges’; ‘Understanding An Aspect of the Red Dragon’s Governance and Economic Growth, and Assessing Local Governance between South Africa and China’. She has also done government research projects, such as ‘Proposed Special Economic Zones: One-Stop Shop for South Africa’, a consultative document for the Department of Trade and Industry, and a mining research project on ‘Assessing Mineral Trade: The Case of ASA Metals in South Africa’ for the Department of International Relations and Cooperation.
Professor Garth Sheltonis an Associate Professor at the University of the Witwatersrand, in Johannesburg, South Africa. His academic and professional qualifications include: PhD, Wits University (thesis entitled ‘Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence and Non-proliferation: The Case of South Africa’); National Security Certificate, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany; MA (Distinction), Wits University (dissertation entitled ‘United States – South Africa Relations 1974-1979’). He was Visiting Bradlow Fellow at the South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) in 2002. Since 2003, he has been an Associate Professor, Department of International Relations, Wits University, Johannesburg, South Africa. He has published 5 books (on China and Africa) and 57 articles and academic papers (on East Asian topics and security-related issues) in national and international journals, including journals published in the USA, the UK, China, Japan, France, Switzerland and Australia. He has presented academic papers on East Asian and security-related topics at over 40 national and international conferences.
Professor Chris Aldenteaches International Relations at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) and is a research associate with the Global Powers and Africa Programme, South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA). He is: author/co-au-thor of numerous books, including ‘Mozambique and the Construction of the New African