Grid-locked African Economic Sovereignty
654 Pages
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Grid-locked African Economic Sovereignty


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Learn more
654 Pages


The emergent so-called “Fourth Industrial Revolution” is regarded by some as a panacea for bringing about development to Africans. This book dismisses this flawed reasoning. Surfacing how “investors” are actually looting and plundering Africa; how the industrial internet of things, the gig economies, digital economies and cryptocurrencies breach African political and economic sovereignty, the book pioneers what can be called anticipatory economics – which anticipate the future of economies. It is argued that the future of Africans does not necessarily require degrowth, postgrowth, postdevelopment, postcapitalism or sharing/solidarity economies: it requires attention to age-old questions about African ownership and control of their resources. Investors have to invest in ensuring that Africans own and control their resources. Further, it is pointed out that the historical imperial structural creation of forced labour is increasingly morphing into what we call the structural creation of forced leisure which is no less lethal for Africans. Because both the structural creation of forced labour and the structural creation of forced leisure are undergirded by transnational neo-imperial plunder, theft, robbery, looting and dispossession of Africans, this book goes beyond the simplistic arguments that Euro-America developed due to the industrial revolutions.



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Published 06 February 2019
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EAN13 9789956550203
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-Imperial -Economic andLegal orce-fields in the 21st y
apiwa Victor arikandwa, Nhemachena, Nkosinothando & Howard
Decolonising the Neo-Imperial Socio-Economic and Legal Force-fields in the 21st Century
EDITEDBY Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa, Artwell Nhemachena, Nkosinothando Mpofu & Howard Chitimira
Grid-locked African Economic Sovereignty: Decolonising the Neo-Imperial Socio-Economic and Legal Force-fields in the 21st Century Edited by Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa, Artwell Nhemachena, Nkosinothando Mpofu & Howard Chitimira L a ng a a R esea rch & P u blishing CIG Mankon, Bamenda
Publisher:LangaaRPCIG Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group P.O. Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon Distributed in and outside N. America by African Books Collective
ISBN-10: 9956-550-30-2 ISBN-13: 978-9956-550-30-2 ©Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa, Artwell Nhemachena, Nkosinothando Mpofu & Howard Chitimira 2019
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical or electronic, including photocopying and recording, or be stored in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher
About the Authors Tapiwa Victor Warikandwaholds a Doctor of Laws in International Trade Law. He is a Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Law at the University of Namibia. He specialises in International Trade Law, Labour Law, Indigenisation Laws, Mining Law and Constitutional Law amongst other disciplines. Prior to coming to Namibia, Dr. Warikandwa worked as a legal officer and later legal advisor in the Ministry of Public Service Labour and Social Welfare in Zimbabwe. Key amongst his duties was legal drafting. Dr Warikandwa worked with the law reviser of the Ministry of Justice in Zimbabwe in reviewing laws administered by the Ministry of Public Service Labour and Social Welfare. Dr Warikandwa also completed an ordinary and advanced training in Labour Law Making at the International Labour Organization’s International Training Centre in Turin Italy. On numerous occasions, Dr. Warikandwa was actively involved in the activities of the Cabinet Committee on Legislation on behalf of the Ministry of Public Service Labour and Social Welfare. Dr. Warikandwa has since written books on labour law and women’s rights in South Africa and Namibia amongst others, as well as publishing articles in accredited peer reviewed journals such as Law, Development and Democracy, Speculum Juris, Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, Comparative International Law Journal for Southern Africa and the African Journal of International and Comparative Law, Juridical Tribune, amongst others. He was also a Post-doctoral Fellow and has also worked as a senior lecturer at the University of Fort Hare in South Africa. Dr Warikandwa studied for his Bachelor of Laws, Master’s degree and Doctoral degree at the University of Fort Hare in South Africa. He currently is the Advisory Editor of the Namibian Law Journal and the Managing Editor of the SADC Law Journal. Artwell Nhemachenaholds a PhD in Social Anthropology; MSc in Sociology and Social Anthropology, BSc Honours Degree in Sociology. In addition to having a good mix of social science and law courses in his undergraduate studies, he also has a Certificate in Law. He has lectured in Zimbabwe before pursuing his PhD studies in South Africa. His current areas of research interest are Knowledge Studies; Development Studies; Environment; Resilience; Food Security and Food Sovereignty; Industrial Sociology; Sociology and Social Anthropology of Conflict and Peace; Transformation; Sociology and Social Anthropology of Science and Technology Studies, Democracy and Governance; Relational Ontologies; Decoloniality and Anthropological/Sociological Jurisprudence. He has published over 80 book chapters and journal articles in accredited and peer-reviewed platforms. Nhemachena has also published over ten authored/co-authored books including the following:Relationality and
st Resilience in a Not So Relational World? Knowledge, Chivanhu and (De-)Coloniality in 21 Century Conflict-Torn Zimbabwe. Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG; (2017)Africa at the st Crossroads: Theorising Fundamentalism and Fetishism in the 21 Century. Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG; (2017)Mining Africa: Law, Environment, Society and Politics in Historical and Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG; (2017)Death of a Discipline? Reflections of the History, State and Future of Social Anthropology in Zimbabwe. Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG (2017);GMOs, Consumerism and the Global st Politics of Biotechnology: Rethinking Food, Bodies and Identities in Africa’s 21 Century. Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG (2017);Transnational Land Grabs and Restitution in an Age of the (De-)Militarised New Scramble for Africa: A Pan African Socio-Legal Perspective.Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG (2017);Decolonisation of Materialities or Materialisation of (Re-)Colonisation? Symbolisms, Languages, Ecocriticism and st (Non)Representationalism in 21 Century Africa. Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG (2018); Social and Legal Theory in the Age of Decoloniality: (Re-)Envisioning Pan-African st Jurisprudence in the 21 Century. Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG (2018);Rethinking Securities in an Emergent Technoscientific New World Order: Retracing the Contours for Africa’s Hi-Jacked Futures. Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG (2018);Theory, Knowledge, Development and Politics: What Role for the Academy in the Sustainability of Africa?Bamenda: Langaa Publishers (2016). He is an active member of the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA). Nkosinothando Mpofu holds a PhD in Communication Studies and is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Communication, Faculty of Human Sciences at the Namibia University of Science and Technology. She completed Postdoctoral research at Rhodes University where she explored the concept of ‘place’ and how the integration of ‘place’ in a Journalism curriculum would impact on teaching and learning processes. She currently teaches various communication and media subjects to both undergraduate and postgraduate students. She also supervises postgraduate students in the Department of Communication. Her research interests are in development communication, new media and health communication, ethics and the media, indigenous st knowledge systems and educational practices in the 21 century. Howard Chitimirais a Professor of Law. Heteaches at the Faculty of Law of North-West University. He is also an advocate of the High Court of South Africa and a National Research Foundation (NRF) rated legal scholar. Prof Chitimira holds the degrees LLBcum laude(UFH), LLM (UFH) and LLD (NMMU). For his doctorate, he specialised in securities and financial markets law. To date, he has published two books and over twenty journal articles in this field. Prof Chitimira is a reviewer and editorial board member of several law
journals in South Africa and elsewhere, as well as an external examiner for LLB, LLM and LLD degrees at several universities. Lere Amusana Professor and Head, Department of Political Studies and is International Relations, North West University, South Africa. He is head of the Food Security and Safety Niche Area at the North West University where his areas of research focuses on food, water and nutrition security. His bias for food security covers drugs and the activities of multinational pharmaceutical companies in developing areas, with emphasis on Africa. He has published widely on politics of development and underdevelopment in Africa. Professor Amusan is a member of BRICS think tank where he has been working on political economy of water and food security among the member states of the international organisation. Some of his recent publications include but are not limited to the following: 1) Development from the Bottom: Small and Medium Farm Holders Empowerment and Challenges of Food Security in Zimbabwe; 2) Multinational Corporations’ (MNCs) Engagement in Africa: Messiahs or Hypocrites?; 3) The Menace of the Fall Armyworm; Contexualising African Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture: Challenges from Climate Change and Mineral Extraction Perspectives; and 4) Politics of Biopiracy: An Adventure into Hoodia/Xhoba Patenting in Southern Africa. His ongoing research focus is BRICS in the Indian Ocean Rims and politics of food security with emphasis on China and fishing activities in the Ocean. Oliver Mtapuriis a Professor in Development Studies at the School of Built Environment and Development in the College of Humanities at the University of KwaZulu Natal (UKZN), Durban South Africa. He has a PhD in Development Studies (UKZN) and an MBA degree from the University of Zimbabwe. He is an Associate of the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators. Oliver’s areas of research interest include poverty, redistribution and inequality, community-based tourism, public employment programmes, research methodologies, financial management, climate change and project management. Peter Mukarumbwaa PhD in Agricultural Economics from the holds University of Fort Hare, South Africa. He is a full-time lecturer in the Department of Agribusiness Management at Marondera University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Zimbabwe. Currently, he has been teaching several courses in agricultural economics and has engaged in the supervision of research projects for the students in the same department. His major research interests include Rural Development, Agricultural Economics, Energy Economics, Macroeconomics and Sustainable Agriculture. He has over
a decade of researching and working with marginalised communities in different countries from Southern Africa. To date, Dr Mukarumbwa has co-authored and published several articles in peer-reviewed journals focusing on his research interests. Dr Mukarumbwa has vast experience of fusing academic research with practical experience. This emanates from different countries such as Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa and Namibia. He has also participated in a number of conferences which include experts from the region and beyond to address key issues such as climate change, food security, global financial crisis and innovative farming methods for the rural poor in Africa. Ndatega Victoria Asheelaa lecturer and Head of the Commercial Law is Department at the University of Namibia. She holds the following qualifications: Doctor of Laws and Master of Laws from the University of Pretoria, Bachelor of Laws and a Baccalaureus Juris from the University of Namibia. She joined the Faculty of Law of the University of Namibia in February 2013. Her research focus is on consumer protection, consumer credit law and insolvency law. Simbarashe Tatsvareian agricultural economist who has worked in is diversified sub-sectors of agriculture. He holds a BSc and MSc in Agricultural and Applied Economics and MBA from the University of Zimbabwe. He has just completed PhD studies in Agricultural Economics from University of Fort Hare. Simbarashe has 15 years working experience in the fields of agriculture, finance, and in the academia. Previously, he worked for Zimbabwe Farmers Union, Ministry of Agriculture and Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe. He is currently employed as a lecturer with a local state university and is a consultant. Simbarashe has nine journal publications. Julius Niringiyimanaa PhD Candidate (Political Science) and Assistant is Lecturer in the Department of Political Science and Public Administration at Makerere University. He is a CODESRIA member and a mentee, under the College of Academic Mentors Institute. He has attended various international conferences, trainings and summer schools including the recent conference organised by African Studies and Research Forum at the University of West Georgia, USA. His research interests include global political economy, geopolitics of natural resources, inclusive development, social justice, NGOs and Human rights.
Muhumuza Williamis a Professor in the Department of Political (PhD) Science and Public Administration, School of Social Sciences, Makerere University in Uganda. He has lectured at the University since 1996, done several researches and published many articles in local and internationally recognised journals and books. His research interests include political economy of development, governance, public sector reforms, NGOs and conflicts among others. Murindwa RutangaJanavpur University) is a Professor in the (PhD, Department of Political Science and Public Administration, School of Social Sciences, Makerere University in Uganda. He has lectured at the University for many years, researched and published many books and articles with locally and internationally recognised publishers. He has supervised hundreds of graduate and undergraduate students and externally examined in over ten African universities. One of the books he authored is “Politics, Religion and Power in the Great Lakes Region”-CODESRIA. He is the founder member and a senior research fellow of the Centre for Basic Research (CBR), a member of CODESRIA and OSSREA. His research interests include political economy, political theory, social movements, democracy, labour studies, and social history among others. Clifton Makateis a multi-disciplinary research professional with academic and research work experiences in agricultural and applied economics, sustainable agriculture and environmental management. His research work mainly focuses on socioeconomic aspects of the adoption of innovative technologies, value chain analysis, agricultural policy analysis, agricultural market systems analysis, natural resource management and sustainable rural livelihoods. He has strong interest in discovering new knowledge in economic, environmental and social aspects of the adoption of climate-smart agricultural innovations and scaling at farm and landscape level. Everisto Benyeraan Associate Professor of African Politics in the is Department of Political Sciences at the University of South Africa in Pretoria, South Africa. He is a decolonial reader and holds an MSc in International Relations from the University of Zimbabwe and a PhD in African Politics from the same university. He researches on transitology and transitional justice focusing on indigenous, traditional and non-state reconciliation, peacebuilding and healing mechanisms. He is the editor of the journalPoliteia, Journal of Political Sciences and Public Administration and Management. His publications are accessible via and
Talkmore Chidedeis a Doctoral Candidate in investment law at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. He holds a Master of Laws (LLM) degree (Cum Laude) by research in international investment law and a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree from the University of Fort Hare, South Africa. Talkmore has done extensive research in foreign investment law in Southern Africa, international trade law, human rights, African regional economic integration and international commercial arbitration in Southern Africa. Gift Mupambwaholds a PhD in Sociology from the North West University in South Africa, a Bachelor’s degree of Social Science in Human Resources Management, a Bachelor of Social Science Honours (Sociology) and a Master’s degree in Sociology from the University of Fort Hare (South Africa). He specialises in power and politics, human settlements, urban spatial politics, social theory, communities in transition, democratisation and development issues to name a few. He is an NRF/DST postdoctoral fellow and an adjunct lecturer for the Sociology Department at the North West University in South Africa. Mzingaye Brilliant Xabahas a Bachelor’s degree of Social Science from the University of Fort Hare and a Master’s degree from Rhodes University. He is interested in development, poverty, livelihoods and decoloniality studies. He is a PhD candidate at the Sociology department at Rhodes University. His PhD on land reform is funded by the DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Human Development. Phefumula Nyoni is an anthropology and sociology lecturer and researcher who is attached to the University of Johannesburg as a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the Ali Mazrui Centre for Higher Education. He is involved in research projects under the theme of “A Median approach to higher education transformation”. His current work also covers issues of artisanal mining and the question of kinship and business in urban settings. He has also been involved in a team that is consulting on the organisational forms of waste pickers and how capacity building can be achieved. He has researched on urban women artisanal miners in various sites within Johannesburg and Kimberly. Dr Nyoni’s research interests are on a wide range of issues that are of multidisciplinary nature. They include reconfiguration of urban spaces through access to socio-economic amenities for marginalised migrant and local communities; poverty alleviation and human rights for marginalised communities; community development; urban workers experiences; urban artisanal mining and agriculture; women and harmful cultural practices; promotion of entrepreneurship and reinvention of post-colonial identities in African cities. He
has combined research and policy advocacy. The researches have led to the publication of several book chapters, journal articles and reports. Tembo Momenta researcher who specialises in Corporate Social is Responsibility (CSR) and business ethics. His main research area is mining and development focusing on the impact of Corporate Social Investment of the mining industry on communities. Dr. Tembo is a holder of a Bachelor of Sociology (HON) from the University of Fort Hare, a Masters in Development Studies from Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University and a PhD in Development and Management CSR from the North West University. Dr. Tembo is currently a private consultant on CSR and business ethics in the mining sector. Sibonokuhle Ndlovuis a post-doctoral fellow at Ali Mazrui Centre for higher Education Studies, University of Johannesburg. Her research interests are in inclusion of students with disabilities in higher learning and transformation in higher education. Her research interests also include inclusive education in basic education, and teaching and learning of disadvantaged learners in disadvantaged rural contexts. She completed her PhD at the University of Witwatersrand in 2017. She has been a research intern at the University of Kwazulu Natal, researching for the national project,and Emancipation. Education Her current research will focus on faculty members’ experiences in including students with disabilities in teaching in the programme of Education, in South African higher learning. Moffat Maitele Ndou was born in Thohoyandou, South Africa. He began schooling in 1993 and obtained a first school leaving certificate in 2004 from Rakgatla High School. He obtained an LLB from the University of Johannesburg in 2009. He further obtained an LLM in 2015 from the North West University. He started his career as a Candidate Attorney at Bell Dewar Inc. (now Fasken), Sandton in 2010. In 2012, he was appointed as a law researcher for judges at the Department of Justice (now Office of the Chief Justice), stationed at the North West High Court in South Africa. Between 2015 and 2017, he was a law reports editor for the Industrial Law Journal. In 2016 he was appointed as a lecturer at the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein. Currently, he is a lecturer at the North West University. He publishes in Labour Law, Mental Health Law, Criminal Procedure and Insolvency Law. He supervises Masters Students. He is an internal and external examiner at Masters Level.