Investigating the Grey Areas of the Chinese Communities in Southeast Asia

Investigating the Grey Areas of the Chinese Communities in Southeast Asia

English
168 Pages

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In most Southeast Asian countries, the members of the Chinese Diaspora have secured important position in the fields of administration, education and religion. Thanks to their capacity to work and to adapt as well as their frugality, their cultural influence continues to grow. Clans and factions form the essential structure of the ancient Chinese society. If Imperial China never developed a Civil Law, it's probably because the ancient Chinese society never really saw the need for it. This structure of relations could also explain why the Chinese civilisation didn't develop a real territorial reference. The Chinese Diaspora today covers different political and economical realities which could be conflicting. What primarily characterises the Diaspora is apparently its great capacity to organise itself in any economical, political, social or cultural environment. The capacity if its economic and administrative elites had been the determining factor of their development. However, the existence of informal and trans-national networks can also help the development of criminal activities. The presence of mafia groups and gangs of Chinese origin and their collusion with the world of finance and politics are historical facts in the region and could represent today a real threat for its stability. These criminal networks tend to forge business link with their Japanese, Russian, Korea, Italian or South American counterparts and sometimes could interfere with the process of political decision making.


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Investigating the Grey Areas of the Chinese Communities in Southeast Asia th Proceedings of the Symposium organised by IRASEC at the Hotel Sofitel Silom (Bangkok) on January 2005, 6 th and 7
Arnaud Leveau (dir.)
DOI: 10.4000/books.irasec.300 Publisher: Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine Year of publication: 2007 Published on OpenEdition Books: 3 July 2018 Serie: Carnets de l’Irasec Electronic ISBN: 9782956447009
http://books.openedition.org
Printed version ISBN: 9789747709407 Number of pages: 168
Electronic reference LEVEAU, Arnaud (ed.).Investigating the Grey Areas of the Chinese Communities in Southeast Asia: Proceedings of the Symposium organised by IRASEC at the Hotel Sofitel th th Silom (Bangkok) on January 2005, 6 and 7 .New edition [online]. Bangkok: Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine, 2007 (generated 05 juillet 2018). Available on the Internet: . ISBN: 9782956447009. DOI: 10.4000/books.irasec.300.
This text was automatically generated on 5 July 2018.
© Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine, 2007 Terms of use: http://www.openedition.org/6540
In m ost Southeast Asian countries, the m em bers of the Chinese Diaspora have secured im portant position in the fields of adm inistration, education and relig ion. Thanks to their capacity to work and to adapt as well as their frug ality, their cultural influence continues to g row. Clans and factions form the essential structu re of the ancient Chinese society. If Im perial China never developed a Civil Law, it's pr obably because the ancient Chinese society never really saw the need for it. This structure of relations could also explain why the Chinese civilisation didn't develop a real terr itorial reference. The Chinese Diaspora today covers different political and econom ical rea lities which could be conflicting . What prim arily characterises the Diaspora is apparently its g reat capacity to org anise itself in any econom ical, political, social or cultural environm e nt. The capacity if its econom ic and adm inistrative elites had been the determ ining factor of their developm ent. However, the existence of inform al and trans-national networks c an also help the developm ent of crim inal activities. The presence of m afia g roups a nd g ang s of Chinese orig in and their collusion with the world of finance and politics ar e historical facts in the reg ion and could represent today a real threat for its stability. Th ese crim inal networks tend to forg e business link with their Japanese, Russian, Korea, Italian or South Am erican counterparts and som etim es could interfere with the process of political decision m aking .
ARNAUD LEVEAU
Il a effectué une partie de ses études à Beijing avant de débuter sa carrière professionnelle à Hong Kong et à Hô Chi Minh Ville. Il a été responsable du départem ent Asie de l’Icosi (Institut de coopération sociale internationale) et a cofondé l’association Asie Pacifique Recherche. Basé en Asie du Sud-Est, il a été correspondant de presse pour plusieurs titres français et internationaux avant d’être directeur adjoint de l’Irasec de 2006 à 2010. Il est l’auteur de Le Destin des fils du drag on (L’Harm attan-Irasec, 2003). Actuellem ent à Séoul, il finalise une thèse de doctorat (Institut d’Asie orientale-École norm ale supérieure de Lyon) sur les relations entre la Corée du Sud et l’Asie du Sud-Est avec une bourse de terrain de la Korean Foundation et le soutien d’Eads.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword Arnaud Leveau
The Papers
TheAng-yior Chinese Secret Societies of Thailand. Understanding a Total Social Phenomenon Jean Baffie The Triad-Century. The official history of the triads in Thailand (Second-sixth reig ns of th th Rattanakosin: early 19 -early 20 centuries) Ang-yias a first type of trade union Ang-yias a welfare association Ang-yiand relig ion Ang -yi as a political association Theang-yiand the economy Opium, illeg al alcohol, g ambling , prostitution Mauss and theang-yias total social fact or phenomenon What is left is a – of course illeg al – mafia
The Triads: Past and Present T. A. Bancroft Overview Orig ins of the Triads Hong Kong Recent Triad Activities of Interest Threat to Public Security Summary Conclusion
Political influences of the Chinese communities Ratanaporn Dhammakosol Overview The Chinese Diaspora in South-East Asia China and Thailand Political Relations of Chinese in Thailand Macro and Micro Chinese influences Conclusion
Grey Side of Chinese Community in Indonesia Frans Hendra Winarta
Triad Involvement in the Sex Service Industry in Hong Kong and Its Impacts on Southeast Asia Chu Yiu Kong
1. Hong Kong Triads 2. The Sex Service Industry in Hong Kong 3. Triads and the Supply of Sex Workers 4. Triads, Ownership and Protection Services 5. Triads, Callg irl Services and the Horseman System 6. The New Trend: The One-station Operation 7. The Impacts on Southeast Asia
The Chinese diaspora and prostitution at the Thai-Malay frontier (Hat Yai, Sadao-Dannok, Betong and Sungai Kolok) Emmanuel Dialma and Pierre Le Roux Summary Chinese diaspora in Thailand, “condemned” to the “g rey areas”? Hug e Compatibility between business and the Chinese The success of the Chinese when compared to other ethnic g roups: example of the Betong triang le Networks and g rey areas, necessarily arcane in the Chinese immig ration in Thailand Flesh trade, prominent “g rey area” The “taokhae”, g drug s and debt: basic and mysterious institutions of sex tradeold, g ambling , A “sexual” frontier between Thailand and Malaysia The paradox of the flesh trade: forbidden here, flourishing there
Triads: From street level to transnational crime Peter Michael
Debates
Notes on the Chinese communities in Burma and Thailand Guy Lubeigt
Notes on the foreign mafias in Thailand Jean Baffie
Historical memorandum on the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia Alain Forest
Links between Organized Crime and terrorist networks Philippe Migaux What is terrorism? It’s a strateg y and it’s a method Question
General Bibliography
Foreword
Arnaud Leveau
 Am ong all the m inorities in South East Asia, the C hinese Diaspora is by far the m ost influential. Its centuries-old presence, its dem og r aphic weig ht, the richness of its transnational network, its cultural, econom ical and political influence in som e countries in the zone raise a series of question. The Diaspora role is essentially a political question. Who really are they? Who is Chinese and how integ r ated in their host country could they be? Does the m ulti dim ensional influence of these g roups pose a threat to the reg ional stability or is it a m ajor advantag e for the econom ic integ ration and the ASEAN’s relations with China and the Chinese world. The activity of the Diaspora and its integ ration in their host countries are two questions profoundly linked to the evolution and the chang e in China. With its opening up and its econom ic g rowth, China is once ag ain, in a certain way, bring ing up the question of the role and alleg iance of its “expatriates”.  In m ost south-east Asian countries, the m em bers of the Chinese Diaspora have secured im portant position in the fields of adm inistration, education and relig ion. Thanks to their capacity to work and to adapt as well as their frug ality, their cultural influence continues to g row.  Clans and factions form the essential structure of the ancient Chinese society. If Im perial China never developed a Civil Law, it’s probably be cause the ancient Chinese society never really saw the need for it. This structure of relat ions could also explain why the Chinese civilisation didn’t develop a real territorial reference. The Chinese Diaspora today covers different political and econom ical realities which could be conflicting . What prim arily characterises the Diaspora is apparently its g reat capacity to org anise itself in any econom ical, political, social or cultural en vironm ent. The capacity if its econom ic and adm inistrative elites had been the determ ining factor of their developm ent.  However, the existence of inform al and trans-natio nal networks can also help the developm ent of crim inal activities. The presence of m afia g roups and g ang s of Chinese orig in and their collusion with the world of finance and politics are historical facts in the reg ion and could represent today a real threat for its stability. These crim inal networks tend to forg e business lin k with their Japanese, Russian, Korean, Italian or South Am erican counterparts and som etim e s could interfere with the process of political decision m aking . The recent appearance of links between these m afia and the Islam ic separatist m ovem ents in the Philippines, in Indonesia or in the South of Thailand is a new illustration if the threat these g ang s could represent in a g lobal level.
 The papers in this volum e com prise contributions t o the conference “investig ating the th g rey area if the Chinese com m unities in South-East Asia” held in Bang kok on January 6 -th 7 2005. For this sym posium we had chosen to focus on the presentation on the shadow area of the Chinese Diaspora in South-East Asia.
List of Contributors
Jean Baffie is a sociolog ist and an historian. He published se veral papers on the Chinese com m unities in Thailand and South-East Asia. He is a m em ber of the CNRS and teaches at the Institute of Research on South-East Asia (IRSEA) and at the House of Asia and Pacific. His paper explains very clearly the roots and the orig i ns of the Ang -Yi (the Chinese secret societies in Thailand). He also offers a note on the foreig n m afias operating in Thailand. Todd Bancrofthas been em ployed by the Hong Kong Police for the past 14 years, where he has perform ed a wide rang e of duties relating to th e investig ation and prosecution of org anized and serious crim e. He is currently the of ficer in charg e of Interpol Hong Kong ’s Extradition Unit. He has a MSc on Forensic and Leg al Psycholog y, University of Leicester. His presentation of the m ain honking based triads shows us how difficult the eradication of these g ang s is difficult while som e people in the a uthorities still believe that they are ‘patriots’ Ratanaporn Dham m akosolnd illustrates, counsellor to several political parties in Thaila the links between the Chinese com m unities in Southe ast Asia with China and focus on the political influences of these com m unities in Thaila nd as well as in Myanm ar. Her lecture exam ines how of the Chinese g overnm ent tries to use these com m unities to develop its own influence in the reg ion. Frans Winarta is an em inent international lawyer. He is Founder of the Indonesian Anti Discrim ination Movem ent (GANDI) and the Cofounder o f International Cham ber of Com m erce of Indonesia. He is a Perm anent Lecturer at the Law Faculty of the University of Pelita Harapan, Karawaci – Tang erang , since 1996 an d Mem ber of the Board the Hum an Rig hts Institute established by the Council of the International Bar Association. He describes the political influences of the Chinese com m unities in Indonesia and the recent im provem ent of this influence am ong the local busin ess and political elite despites ancient seg reg ation. Yiu Chu Kongty of Exeter in the UK inhis PhD in Police Studies in the Universi  received 1997. He is currently an Assistant Professor in the Departm ent of Sociolog y and a Fellow in the Centre for Crim inolog y at the University of Hon g Kong . He is also one of the founding m em bers of the Asian Association of Police Studies (AAPS) and the Hong Kong Juvenile Delinquency Research Society (HKJDRS). He has been invited by various police forces in Asia and Europe to g ive g uest lectures on Chinese org ani zed crim e and policing . Yiu Chu Kong writes a clear introduction on the current triad’s situation and use the field of prostitution as an exam ple to show their participation in the bu siness in Hong kong and it im pacts in South-East Asia. He exam ines the networks establish ing by the triads all over South-East Asia to recruit those im plicated in this business and how the business is ruling . Pierre LerouxandDialm aEm m anuel , researcher at the AFESIP in Cam bodia com pleted the presentation of professor Chu by focussing on the sex business at the border between Thailand and Malaysia and how som e Chinese roots g a ng s are taking benefit of this
business in the kind of under law or no m an’s land zone. Peter Michael, journalist specialized on org ed very inform ativeanised crim e, provid elem ents on the triads and how they develop their b usiness from the street level to the transnational crim e. Guy Lubeightory on Illeg of the IRASEC and researcher at Observat em ber , a m al Mig rations and Hum an Traffic in Southeast Asia writ es a stylish board of the Chinese influence in Myanm ar. Alain Forestakes a Historical, historian and professor at the University Paris V II m m em orandum on the Chinese com m unities in South-East Asia. Philippe Migauxbassy in Malaysia and isis a Chef Police Superintendent at the French Em a well-known export on terrorism . His im provised pa per explains the im possible relationship between terrorism and professional m afia g ang s. Bring ing tog ether specialists from different fields (from history to sociolog y, politics and law, NGO and police) broug ht a real intellectual ad dition to this subject which can not be held by a sing le discipline.
INDEX
Mots-clés:Asie du Sud-Est, com diaspora, Chine, prostitution, crim m unautés, ues,e, drog m afia, crim e org anisé, China, société secrète, triades, transnational, trafic Keywords:s, sexSoutheast Asia, com m unities, secret society, triads, org anized crim e, drug trade, trafficking