64 Pages


Leading international voices condemn the brutalities of the Kashmir occupation.

At home, the Kashmiri people’s ongoing quest for justice and self-determination is as much ignored by their venal politicians as it is rejected by Pakistan. Internationally, their struggle is forgotten, as the West refuses to bring pressure to bear on its regional ally India. Kashmir: The Case for Freedom is an impassioned attempt to redress this imbalance and to fill the gap in our moral imagination. Covering Kashmir’s past and present and the occupation’s causes and consequences, the authors issue a clarion call for the withdrawal of Indian troops and for Kashmir’s right to self-determination.



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Published 21 September 2011
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EAN13 9781781684191
Language English

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Chronology: 1947–2010
Introduction by Pankaj Mishra The Story of Kashmir by Tariq Ali Azadi: The Only Thing Kashmiris Want by Arundhati Roy Poems by a Queen of Kashmir by Habbah Khatun Fayazabad 31223 by Hilal Bhatt The Militarized Zone by Angana P. Chatterji Seditious Nehru by Arundhati Roy Afterword: Not Crushed, Merely Ignored by Tariq Ali About the Authors
Chronology: 1947–2010
15 August 1947: British India is partitioned into the independent nation-states of India and Pakistan. The rulers of ‘princely states’, bearing in mind the wishes of their people, are to choose whether to accede to India or Pakistan. The Maharaja Hari Singh, Hindu ruler of Muslim-majority Kashmir, delays his decision.
October 1947: Armed tribesmen from Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province enter Kashmir to join an internal revolt in the Poonch region. The tribesmen go on the rampage, looting and raping locals.
26 October 1947: Requesting help from India in quelling the revolt and invasion, the Maharaja signs the Instrument of Accession, acceding Kashmir to India. The accession is seen as provisional pending a plebiscite to determine the will of the Kashmiri people.
27 October 1947: Indian forces are airlifted into Srinagar to repel the Pakistani militias. The fighting escalates into the first Indo-Pakistan war, with Pakistan disputing the accession and eventually sending in regular forces.
1 January 1948: India formally refers the Kashmir situation to the United Nations.
5 February 1948: A UN resolution calls for an immediate cease-fire and a plebiscite.
1 January 1949: The UN-brokered cease-fire ends the first Indo-Pakistan war, with India and Pakistan agreeing to a plebiscite and the withdrawal of troops behind the cease-fire line, leaving two-thirds of Kashmir under Indian control.
26 January 1950: The constitution of India comes into effect. Article 370 accords autonomous status to Jammu and Kashmir, with Indian jurisdiction restricted to defence, foreign affairs and communications.
October 1950: The National Conference party, led by Sheikh Abudullah, calls for elections in Jammu and Kashmir to create a constituent assembly to determine the future of Kashmir.
30 March 1951: A UN Security Council resolution rejects elections as a substitute for a plebiscite to determine the future status of Kashmir and appoints a representative to effect demilitarization, which is unsuccessful.
September 1951: Amid allegations of vote rigging, National Conference wins all seventy-five seats unopposed in Constituent Assembly elections.
31 October 1951: In his first speech to the assembly, Sheikh Abdullah argues for accession to India. July 1952Abdullah signs the Delhi Agreement, providing for autonomy for Jammu and: Sheikh Kashmir within India. July 1953: The development of the Prasad protest movement (led by Syama Prasad Mookerjee) in 1952, calling for the complete accession and integration of Kashmir into India, pushes Abdullah to make proposals for independence.
8 August 1953: Abdullah is dismissed as prime minister and arrested and imprisoned by India. Bhashi Ghulam Mohammad takes his place. Protests are put down with force.
17–20 August 1953: Indian and Pakistani prime ministers meet in New Delhi and agree to the appointment of a plebiscite administrator by the end of April 1954. However, as the alliance between Pakistan and the US deepens, Indian considerations over Kashmir become coloured by the Cold War and the plebiscite is off the table.