374 Pages
English

Land and Agrarian Reform in Zimbabwe

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The Fast Track Land Reform Programme implemented during the 2000s in Zimbabwe represents the only instance of radical redistributive land reforms since the end of the Cold War. It reversed the racially-skewed agrarian structure and discriminatory land tenures inherited from colonial rule. The land reform also radicalised the state towards a nationalist, introverted accumulation strategy, against a broad array of unilateral Western sanctions. Indeed, Zimbabwe's land reform, in its social and political dynamics, must be compared to the leading land reforms of the twentieth century, which include those of Mexico, Russia, China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Cuba and Mozambique. The fact that the Zimbabwe case has not been recognised as vanguard nationalism has much to do with the 'intellectual structural adjustment' which has accompanied neoliberalism and a hostile media campaign. This has entailed dubious theories of 'neopatrimonialism', which reduce African politics and the state to endemic 'corruption', 'patronage', and 'tribalism' while overstating the virtues of neoliberal good governance. Under this racist repertoire, it has been impossible to see class politics, mass mobilisation and resistance, let alone believe that something progressive can occur in Africa.
This book comes to a conclusion that the Zimbabwe land reform represents a new form of resistance with distinct and innovative characteristics when compared to other cases of radicalisation, reform and resistance. The process of reform and resistance has entailed the deliberate creation of a tri-modal agrarian structure to accommodate and balance the interests of various domestic classes, the progressive restructuring of labour relations and agrarian markets, the continuing pressures for radical reforms (through the indigenisation of mining and other sectors), and the rise of extensive, albeit relatively weak, producer cooperative structures. The book also highlights some of the resonances between the Zimbabwean land struggles and those on the continent, as well as in the South in general, arguing that there are some convergences and divergences worthy of intellectual attention. The book thus calls for greater endogenous empirical research which overcomes the pre-occupation with failed interpretations of the nature of the state and agency in Africa.

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Published 13 May 2013
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EAN13 9782869785724
Language English
Document size 2 MB

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Land and Agrarian Reform in Zimbabwe
This book is a product of CODESRIA National Working Group on Zimbabwe
Land and Agrarian Reform in Zimbabwe
Beyond White-Settler Capitalism
Edited by
Sam Moyo Walter Chambati
African Institute for Agrarian Studies  HARARE
Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa DAKAR
©CODESRIA 2013 Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa Avenue Cheikh Anta Diop, Angle Canal IV BP 3304 Dakar, CP 18524, Senegal Website: www.codesria.org
ISBN: 978-2-86978-553-3 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage or retrieval system without prior permission from CODESRIA.
Typesetting: Alpha Ousmane Dia Cover Design: Ibrahima Fofana
Distributed in Africa by CODESRIA Distributed elsewhere by African Books Collective, Oxford, UK Website: www.africanbookscollective.com
The Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA) is an independent organisation whose principal objectives are to facilitate research, promote research-based publishing and create multiple forums geared towards the exchange of views and information among African researchers. All these are aimed at reducing the fragmentation of research in the continent through the creation of thematic research networks that cut across linguistic and regional boundaries.
CODESRIA publishesAfrica Development, the longest standing Africa based social science journal;Afrika Zamani, a journal of history; theAfrican Sociological Review; the African Journal of International Affairs;Africa Review of Booksand theJournal of Higher Education in Africa. The Council also co-publishes theAfrica Media Review;Identity, Culture and Politics: An Afro-Asian Dialogue;The African Anthropologistand theAfro-Arab Selections for Social Sciences. The results of its research and other activities are also disseminated through its Working Paper Series, Green Book Series, Monograph Series, Book Series, Policy Briefs and the CODESRIA Bulletin. Select CODESRIA publications are also accessible online at www.codesria.org.
CODESRIA would like to express its gratitude to the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA/SAREC), the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Ford Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation, the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NOR AD), the Danish Agency for International Development (DANIDA), the French Ministry of Cooperation, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Rockefeller Foundation, FINIDA, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Open Society Foundations (OSFs), TrustAfrica, UN/UNICEF, the African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF) and the Government of Senegal for supporting its research, training and publication programmes.
Contents
List of Abbreviationsvii .................................................................................................................................................................... List of Table, Figures and Boxesix ......................................................................................................................................... Acknowledgementsxi .......................................................................................................................................................................... Notes on Contributorsxiii ............................................................................................................................................................
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Introduction: Roots of the Fast Track Land Reform Sam Moyo and Walter Chambati1 ......................................................................................................................
Land Reform and Redistribution in Zimbabwe Since 1980 Sam Moyo29 ................................................................................................................................................................................
A decade of Zimbabwe’s Land Revolution: The Politics of the War Veteran Vanguard ZvakanyorwaWilbert Sadomba79 ....................................................................................................................
Nyabira-Mazowe War Veterans’ Association: A Microcosm of the National Land Occupation Movement Louis Masuko123 ...................................................................................................................................................................
Changing Agrarian Labour Relations after Land Reform in Zimbabwe Walter Chambati157 ..........................................................................................................................................................
Changing Agrarian Relations after Redistributive Land Reform in Zimbabwe Sam Moyo and Ndabezinhle Nyoni195 ........................................................................................................
Social Organisation in the Aftermath of ‘Fast Track’: An Analysis of Emerging Forms of Local Authority, Platforms of Mobilisation and Local Cooperation Tendai Murisa251 ...............................................................................................................................................................
Media Framing of Land Reform in Zimbabwe Tendai Chari291 ...................................................................................................................................................................
The Zimbabwe Model: Radicalisation, Reform and Resistance Sam Moyo and Paris Yeros331 ................................................................................................................................
List of Abbreviations
A1 small-scale family farms A2 smaller-sized capitalist farms AIAS African Institute for Agrarian Studies ARDA Agricultural and Rural Development Authority AREX Department of Agricultural Research and Extension ASPEF Agricultural Sector Productivity Enhancement Facility BIPPA Bilateral Investment Protection and Promotion Agreement CA Communal Area CFU Commercial Farmers Union CSC Cold Storage Commission CSO Central Statistical Office DCC District Coordination Committee DTZ Development Trust of Zimbabwe ESAP Economic Structural Adjustment Programme FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (United Nations) FCTZ Farm Community Trust of Zimbabwe FTLRP Fast Track Land Reform Programme GAPWUZ General Plantation and Agriculture Workers Union of Zimbabwe GMB Grain Marketing Board GoZ Government of Zimbabwe IMF International Monetary Fund ISI Import Substitution Industrialisation JAG Justice for Agriculture LSCF Large-Scale Commercial Farms MAEMI Ministry of Agricultural Engineering, Mechanisation and Irrigation MAMID Ministry of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation Development MDC Movement for Democratic Change MLLR Ministry of Lands and Rural Resettlement NCA National Constitutional Assembly
viii
Land and Agrarian Reform in Zimbabwe: Beyond White-Settler Capitalism
NGO Non Governmental Organisation NRA New Resettlement Area PDL Poverty Datum Line RBZ Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe RDC Rural District Council SADC Southern African Development Community SSCF Small-Scale Commercial Farms UNDP United Nations Development Programme USAID United States of America Aid ZANU-PF Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front ZCTU Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions ZIPRA Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army ZNLWVA Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association ZRP Zimbabwe Republic Police
List of Tables, Figures and Boxes
Tables Table 2.1 – Periodisation of the Fast Track Land Reform Programme  2000-201236 .................................................................................................................................................. Table 2.2 – Structure of agricultural landholdings and farms,  1980 to 201043 .......................................................................................................................................... Table 4.1 – Class structure of the NMWVA farm occupiers and land  beneficiaries128 ........................................................................................................................................... Table 4.2 – Origin of land occupiers: NMWVA and national129 .............................. Table 4.3 – Source of information on land occupations: NMWVA and  national sample134 ................................................................................................................................. Table 4.4 – Land ownership prior to occupation142 .................................................................... Table 4.5 – Selective allocation of land by the District Land  Committee142 ............................................................................................................................................ . Table 4.6 – Year when last meeting of the association was attended 146 ......................... Table 5.1 – Changing agrarian (labour) policy regime, 2000-2011 163 ............................ Table 5.2 – Changing Agrarian Employment Structure, 2000-2010 167 ........................ Table 5.3 – Emergent Structure of Rural Labour in New Resettlement  Areas 175 ................................................................................................................................................................ Table 5.4 – Labour Intensities by Farm Sizes 175 ...................................................................................... Table 5.5 – Level of labour use vs. capital intensity 178 ..................................................................... Table 6.1 – Agrarian structure: estimated landholdings from  1980 to 2010 202 ........................................................................................................................................... Table 6.2 – Coverage of RBZ agricultural financing schemes 206 ......................................... Table 6.3 – Agricultural production trends (crops 000 tonnes): 1990s  average versus 2000s 212 ...................................................................................................................... Table 6.4 – Estate agro-fuel production 219 ................................................................................................ Table 6.5 – Cattle numbers by farming sector: 2001 – 2012 221 .................................. Table 6.6 – Total cropped area by farm size in selected new  resettlement areas 224 .............................................................................................................................. Table 6.7 – Maize seed delivery patterns, 2000 - 2011 228 ...................................................... Table 6.8 – Productive investment in newly resettled areas 230 ......................................... Table 6.9 – Investments made by farmers – Qualified gross table  (excluding shelter) 231 ............................................................................................................................