Policies of the Thai State towards the Malay Muslim South (1978-2010)

Policies of the Thai State towards the Malay Muslim South (1978-2010)

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English
112 Pages

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It was one of these landmark special programs at the Foreign Correspondents Club of Thailand, on the top floor of the Maneeya Centre Building, in the upscale commercial heart of Bangkok, where Major General Pichet Wisaijorn was the exclusive guest speaker on that evening of November 2009. Many of the journalists, both Thai and Foreign, were present and Khun Roong and the other staff at the bar were working non-stop, dropping pizza here and glasses of dark beer there. Expectations were high. Pichet was the Fourth Army Region commander, which includes the three “problematic provinces” of Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat, plus a few unruly districts in the Songkhla province. Since 2003, thousands of people, rubber tappers, insurgents, traders, school teachers, civil servants, police officers, military personnel and some foreigners had been killed in a maelstrom of violence linked to what was officially called the “separatist insurgency” by the authorities as well as linked to the mafia culture prevailing in this region. The trafficking of women, drug peddling, extortion, smuggling of palm oil and cheap electronic items from Malaysia have always been rife in the deep South. This mafia culture is prevailing in many of Thailand's 77 provinces, but the total breakdown of law and order in the South makes it worse. Many in the audience were thinking that General Pichet would deliver some answers to the most important questions which have puzzled journalists, businessmen and other residents for years: who leads the insurgency? What are their objectives? How the movement is structured, or is it even structured at all? What is the division of power between the Southern Border Provincial Administrative Committee, the armed forces, the local administration and the central government? Have there been any attempts to negotiate with the insurgents? But the presentation of Pichet was rather disappointing. What is the direction of their policy? Pichet repeated the royally endorsed recipe: khao chai, khao teung, pattana (“understand, reach out and develop”). With its supreme and unquestioned wisdom, this “magic formula” is supposed to throw the listeners in deep awe and reverence. But the mantra had long become a poor PR tool to answer the questions of journalists and diplomats on field visits in sam changwat pak tai, the three provinces of the South.


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Published 03 July 2018
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Policies of the Thai State towards the Malay Muslim South (1978-2010)
Sor Rattanamanee Polkla and Arnaud Dubus
DOI: 10.4000/books.irasec.833 Publisher: Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine Year of publication: 2011 Published on OpenEdition Books: 3 July 2018 Serie: Carnets de l’Irasec Electronic ISBN: 9782355960048
http://books.openedition.org
Printed version ISBN: 9786167571003 Number of pages: 112
Electronic reference RATTANAMANEE POLKLA, Sor ; DUBUS, Arnaud.Policies of the Thai State towards the Malay Muslim South (1978-2010).New edition [online]. Bangkok: Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine, 2011 (generated 06 juillet 2018). Available on the Internet: . ISBN: 9782355960048. DOI: 10.4000/books.irasec.833.
This text was automatically generated on 6 July 2018.
© Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine, 2011 Terms of use: http://www.openedition.org/6540
It was one of these landm ark special prog ram s at th e Foreig n Correspondents Club of Thailand, on the top floor of the Maneeya Centre Building , in the upscale com m ercial heart of Bang kok, where Major General Pichet Wisaijorn wa s the exclusive g uest speaker on that evening of Novem ber 2009. Many of the journalists, both Thai and Foreig n, were present and Khun Roong and the other staff at the bar were working non-stop, dropping pizza here and g lasses of dark beer there. Expectations were hig h. Pichet was the Fourth Arm y Reg ion com m ander, which includes the three “problem atic pr ovinces” of Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat, plus a few unruly districts in the Song khla province. Since 2003, thousands of people, rubber tappers, insurg ents, traders, school teachers, civil servants, police officers, m ilitary personnel and som e foreig ners had been kil led in a m aelstrom of violence linked to what was officially called the “separatist insurg ency” by the authorities as well as linked to the m afia culture prevailing in this reg ion. The trafficking of wom en, drug peddling , extortion, sm ug g ling of palm oil and cheap electron ic item s from Malaysia have always been rife in the deep South. This m afia culture is prevailing in m any of Thailand's 77 provinces, but the total breakdown of law and order in the South m akes it worse. Many in the audience were thinking that General Pichet would deliver som e answers to the m ost im portant questions which have puzzled journalists, businessm en and other residents for years: who leads the insurg ency? What are their objectives? How the m ovem ent is structured, or is it even structured at all? What i s the division of power between the Southern Border Provincial Adm inistrative Com m ittee , the arm ed forces, the local adm inistration and the central g overnm ent? Have the re been any attem pts to neg otiate with the insurg ents? But the presentation of Pichet was rather disappointing . What is the direction of their policy? Pichet repeated the royally endorsed recipe:khao chai, khao teung, pattanae and unquestioned wisdom ,(“understand, reach out and develop”). With its suprem this “m ag ic form ula” is supposed to throw the listeners in deep awe and reverence. But the m antra had long becom e a poor PR tool to answer the questions of journalists and diplom ats on field visits insam changwat pak tai, the three provinces of the South.
SOR RATTANAMANEE POLKLA
Sor Rattanam anee Polkla is a lawyer working in the Hum an rig hts field since 2001. Rattanam anee has been especially involved with justice issues in the Southern border provinces and is the coordinator of Com m unity Resource Centre (CRC), an NGO based in Thailand which is a local partner of the Asian Hum an Rig ht Com m ission (AHRC) based in Hong Kong . She g raduated from the Faculty of Law at Tham m asat University, Bang kok.
ARNAUD DUBUS
Arnaud Dubus has been working in Thailand since 1989 as a correspondent for Radio France Internationale, the French daily,Libérationand the Swiss daily,Le Temps. Arnaud has been following the situation in Southern border provinces since 1993 and has written several Thai cultural books, am ong which areArmée du Peuple, Armée du Roi(with Nicolas Revise, Irasec/L’Harm attan, 2002) andThaïlande. Histoire, société, culture(La Découverte, 2011).
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Authors
Introduction
Chapter One. Historical Background and Organizational Framework 1 - The Historical Context and the Seven Demands of Haji Sulong 2 - The Administrative, Political and Relig ious Structure between the Central and the Local Levels
Chapter Two. The National Security Policy (1978–1998) 1 - The Policy Documents 2 - Analysis of the Policies’ Implementation
Chapter Three. The National Security Policy (1999-2003) 1 - The Policy Document 2 - Analysis of the Policy’s Implementation
Chapter Four. The South under Thaksin Shinawatra’s governments (2001-2006) 1 - The Policy documents 2 - Analysis of the Policies’ Implementation
Chapter Five. The South after Thaksin’s Government (2006-2010) 1 - Surayud Chulanont’s Government (2006-2007) 2 - Abhisit Vejjajiva’s g overnment (2008-2011)
Chapter Six. The Civil Society Perspective 1 - The Strateg ic Non-Violence Commission 2 - A Proposal of “Special Local Governance”
Conclusion
Bibliography
Tne Autnors
Arnaud DubusbeeN workiNg iN TnailaNd siNce 1989 as a corre spoNdeNt for Radio nas FraNce INterNatioNale, tne FreNcn daily,LibérationaNd tne Swiss daily,Le Temps. ArNaud nas beeN followiNg tne situatioN iN SoutnerN border pro viNces siNce 1993 aNd nas writteN several Tnai cultural books, am oNg wnicn aredu Peuple, Armée du Roi Armée icolas (witn Revise, Irasec/L’Harm attaN, 2002) aNdThaïlande. Histoire, société, culture(La Découverte, 2011). Sor Rattanam anee Polkla is a lawyer workiNg iN tne Hum aN rig nts field siNc e 2001. RattaNam aNee nas beeN especially iNvolved witn just ice issues iN tne SoutnerN border proviNces aNd is tne coordiNator of Com m uNity Resou rce CeNtre (CRC), aN GO based iN TnailaNd wnicn is a local partNer of tne AsiaN Hum a N Rig nt Com m issioN (AHRC) based iN HoNg KoNg . Sne g raduated from tne Faculty of Law at Tnam m asat UNiversity, BaNg kok.
I
troduction
Thailand
The Southern Border Provinces of Thailand (Songkla, Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat)
Main Incidents in Southern Thailand
It was one of these landmark special prog rams at th e Foreig n Correspondents Club of Thailand, on the top floor of the Maneeya Centre Building , in the upscale commercial heart of Bang kok, where Major General Pichet Wisaijorn wa s the exclusive g uest speaker on that