South African Foreign Policy Review: Volume 1
310 Pages
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South African Foreign Policy Review: Volume 1


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Learn more
310 Pages


The richness of public and academic discourses on the past, present and future direction of South Africa�s role in Africa and the world suggests that as a sub-discipline of politics, South African foreign policy is ready for a systematic and regular appraisal in the form of a series of publications that the Institute for Global Dialogue will call South African Foreign Policy Review. This is also because constant changes in international and domestic circumstances impinge on the management and analysis of South Africa�s foreign policy. This, the first review provides an important opportunity to build on existing foreign policy works in order to take stock of the road already travelled in the past decade or so. This is crucial in laying some basis for anticipating the country�s future role, and considering the opportunities and challenges, which future volumes of the review will consider. This volume provides a wide-ranging appraisal of the relationship between stated foreign policy goals and actual outputs and outcomes, an assessment of how foreign policy has actually been operationalized and implemented. To this end, common themes in South African foreign policy provide the framework for the first review. These include foreign policy decision-making; soft power dynamics in the foreign policy�s strategic calculus; diplomatic tools used � economic diplomacy, peace diplomacy and paradiplomacy; South Africa�s relations with key states in Africa, in the global south and in the global north; South Africa�s approach to Africa multilateral, global multilateralism/governance. The review hopes to stimulate further discussion and thinking on the challenges confronted, and the future shape and direction of South Africa�s foreign policy.



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Published 27 December 2012
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EAN13 9780798302586
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South African Foreign PoLicy Review – VoLume 1 Edited by Chris Landsberg and Jo-Ansie van Wyk
Fîrst copublîshed în 2012 by the Arîca Instîtute o South Arîca PO Box 630 Pretorîa 0001 South Arîca
and the Instîtute or Global Dîalogue PO Box 14349 The Tramshed 0126
ISBN: 9780798302913
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TabLe of Contents
About the contributors
Abbreviations and acronyms
CHAPTER 1 Towards a post-apartheid South African foreign policy review Chris Landsberg
Context and background Approach and content Notes
CHAPTER 2 Opening the ‘black box’: South African foreign policy-making Lesley Masters
Introductîon The concentrîc cîrces of decîsîonmakîng At the centre: from Mandea to Zuma Party poîtîcs: The roe of the ANC The foreîgn poîcy bureaucracy From DFA to DIRCO The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) The Department of Defence (DoD) Parîament Domestîc nongovernmenta sources of foreîgn poîcy decîsîonmakîng Concusîon: A mutîstakehoder foreîgn poîcy decîsîonmakîng process? Notes
CHAPTER 3 The international relations of South African provinces and municipalities: An appraisal of federated diplomacy Siphamandla Zondi
Introductîon Perforated sovereîgnty and the federaîsatîon of înternatîona reatîons: A conceptua framework
4 12 17
20 20 21 26 27 27 29 30 32 33 37 37
The extent and nature of South Afrîcan paradîpomacy Internatîona vîsîts and trade mîssîons Internatîona cooperatîon agreements Partîcîpatîon în, and reatîonshîps wîth, înternatîona organîzatîons Internatîona deveopment cooperatîon Internatîona marketîng TABLE OF CONTENTS Why do provînces and munîcîpaîtîes undertake paradîpomacy? Changîng înternatîona reatîons Goba ambîtîons Goba megacîtîes Regîona întegratîon and crossborder expansîon The constîtutîona framework and the îdea of reatîve autonomy of subnatîona entîtîes Intergovernmenta reatîons, the bureaucracy and paradîpomacy The reatîonshîp between foreîgn poîcy and paradîpomacy Towards a poîcy framework for South Afrîcan paradîpomacy Key chaenges for South Afrîca’s paradîpomacy Concusîon Notes
CHAPTER 4 Soft power: The essence of South Africa’s foreign policy Karen Smith
Introductîon The soft sîde of power The retreat of hard power? South Afrîca’s post1994 foreîgn poîcy and soft power The regîona dîmensîon The way forward: chaenges and opportunîtîes Notes
CHAPTER 5 A review of South Africa’s peace diplomacy since 1994 Anthoni van Nieuwkerk
44 44 45 46 47 48 48 48 49 49 50
51 53 54 55 58 63 64
68 69 71 72 75 77 81
Introductîon: deinîng peace dîpomacy 84 South Afrîca’s contînenta peace dîpomacy 85 Framîng the debate: the contested nature of peace and conlîct resoutîon 87 Conlîct, conlîct resoutîon toos and technîques, and the Afrîcan experîence 88
Peace dîpomacy: the record Peace dîpomacy: toos of the trade Current and future prospects Concusîon: Peace dîpomacy în servîce of the natîon or the eîte? Postscrîpt: the Lîbyan chaenge to South Afrîca’s peace dîpomacy Notes
CHAPTER 6 South Africa’s economic diplomacy in a changing global order Brendan Vickers
Introductîon The shîftîng goba and regîona contexts for South Afrîca’s economîc dîpomacy The domestîc sources of South Afrîca’s economîc dîpomacy Recaîbratîng the compass: South Afrîca’s economîc dîpomacy Consoîdatîng hîstorîca connectîons: the EU and the US ‘Lîons on the move’: South Afrîca and Afrîca South Afrîca and ‘Asîa rîsîng’ South Afrîca and the ‘Latîn Amerîcan Jaguars’ Mutîatera economîc dîpomacy Concusîon and recommendatîons Notes
CHAPTER 7 The evolving ‘doctrine’ of multilateralism in South Africa’s Africa policy David Monyae
Introductîon Hîstorîca background South Afrîca as a reaîst mîdde power South Afrîca as a puraîst mîdde power Transformîng SADC The OAUAU transîtîon and Nepad’s emergence Concusîon: Chaîrîng the AU and the Ivoîrîan and Lîbyan dîemmas Notes
CHAPTER 8 South Africa’s relations with African anchor states Nomfundo Xenia Ngwenya
90 95 97 103 105 107
113 115 117 120 121 125 127 128 130 134
139 140 141 143 147 149 151 151
The concept of anchor states Typoogy of Afrîcan anchor states Strategîes for South Afrîcan engagement per category Genera factors South Afrîca shoud consîder when engagîng wîth Afrîcan anchor states Acceptance of regîona întegratîon as a common objectîve TABLE OF CONTENTS Interna and externa factors Makîng room for maeabîîty The împortance of externa powers South Afrîca’s înterests and the roe of anchor states Dîversîicatîon of strategîc powers An evauatîon of South Afrîca’s anchor state engagement sînce 1994 West Afrîca East Afrîca North Afrîca Centra Afrîca Concusîon Notes
CHAPTER 9 South Africa’s foreign policy towards the global North Gerrit Olivier
Introductîon The emergence of a new South Afrîcan foreîgn poîcy orîentatîon and îdentîicatîon ‘The strugge contînues’ as South Afrîca turns truy Afrîcan The Zuma presîdency: contînuîty and change DIRCO’S strategîc posîtîonîng of the goba North and the goba South Reatîons wîth the Unîted States Dependabe Europe The Russîan Federatîon and Eastern Europe Concusîon Notes
CHAPTER 10 South Africa and emerging powers Francis Kornegay
Introductîon South Afrîca: Afrîca’s defaut eader
154 155 157
158 159 160 161 161 162 163 164 165 167 168 169 169 170
174 175 180 181 182 186 190 192 195
198 200
The emergîng power dîpomacy of Afrîca’s ‘great power’ Goba South and emergîng power aîances The înstîtutîona împeratîves of a competîtîve terraîn Concusîon Notes
CHAPTER 11 South Africa and East Asia: Missed opportunities Garth Shelton
Introductîon South Afrîca’s natîona înterests East Asîa and South Afrîca’s natîona înterests Japanese trade and technoogy transfer South Korea: a deveopment mode for South Afrîca? The dîpomatîc chaenge of North Korea Chîna: a partner for growth and deveopment? Concusîon: A ‘comprehensîve ookeast poîcy’ Notes
CHAPTER 12 South Africa–North African relations: Revisiting the bridging of a continent Iqbal Jhazbhay
Introductîon Background: Cape to Caîro revîsîted North Afrîca: MandeaMbekîZuma Egypt: Workîng wîth the regîona mîîtary gîant postMubarak Tunîsîa: postBen Aî Lîbya: postGaddai Agerîa and Morocco revîsîted Revîsîtîng the Mîdde East and the Horn of Afrîca nexus Notes
CHAPTER 13 Chasing after shadows or strategic integration? South Africa and global economic governance Mzukisi Qobo
Introductîon Goba governance: Settîng the scene Hegemonîc settîng
203 204 209 212 213
215 216 219 220 223 226 228 235 236
239 241 243 245 247 248 250 253 253
257 258 259
South Afrîca’s partîcîpatîon în the system of goba governance South Afrîca and the goba governance of trade Goba întegratîon and deveopment împeratîves The G20: Pursuîng an eusîve deveopmenta agenda South Afrîca and the G20 deveopment agenda Concusîon TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes
261 262 265 265 268 271 272
CHAPTER 14 Reflections on South Africa’s post-apartheid foreign policy and preliminary comments on future foreign policy274 JoAnsie van Wyk
Introductîon Revîewîng South Afrîca’s postapartheîd foreîgn poîcy The study of South Afrîca’s postapartheîd foreîgn poîcy Maîn indîngs of theReviewContrîbutîons of theReviewEpîstemoogîca contrîbutîons of theReviewPractîca împîcatîons of the indîngs of theReviewConcudîng remarks and recommendatîons for future research Notes
274 275 276 278 285 286 287 287 288
The Institute for Global Dialogue (IGD) has taken a timely and invaluable initiative to produce a series of volumes on ‘The Review of South African Foreign policy’. The first volume largely deals with foreign policy since 1999. Since the establishment of the first democratic government in 1994, many experts and academics in South Africa and internationally have written about South Africa’s foreign policy. Unfortunately, most of these articles were based on wishful thinking about some ‘unique nonwestern foreign policy’ that was expected from a democratic South African gov ernment. Much of the criticism was based on the government’s failure to sustain a ‘human rights perspective’ on foreign policy. A lot of the analysis was done too early and was not based on policy documentation of the African National Congress (ANC). An ANCled govern ment’s foreign policy could not suddenly appear in 1994; it has its roots in the history of the ANC since its formation in 1912. These documents will help to explain why our foreign policy since 1994 is driven by an Africanist, anticolonial and antiimperialist perspective. It is also unfortunate that very little reference was made to documents in the archives of the then Department of Foreign Affairs and little, if any, interviews were conducted with people involved in foreign policy formula tion and implementation, as these would have helped to explain why, in relation to specific country issues whether bilaterally or multilaterally, the government took the positions it took, which were always driven by our perspective of ‘A Better South Africa, A Better Africa and A Better World’. There was also little attempt to analyse South Africa’s foreign policy in the context of the fundamentally transformed international relations environment, largely characterised by the fall of the Berlin Wall, the end of the Cold War and the emergence of a unipolar world dominated by the US. The foreign relations of all countries had to grapple with this reality. South Africa was no exception. Twenty years into our democracy, experts and academics have access to ANC and foreign affairs documentation and can interview many role players. This provides an opportunity for a constructively critical analysis and review of South African foreign policy. Volume I deals with important subjects in foreign policy, including for eign policymaking and stakeholder interface; soft power and diplomacy; diplomacy of provinces and municipalities; economic diplomacy and ne gotiations; peace diplomacy; South Africa and the Middle East and North Africa; South Africa and Asia; South Africa and the global North; South