The Resurgence of Sea Piracy in Southeast Asia
131 Pages
English

The Resurgence of Sea Piracy in Southeast Asia

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Eric Frécon's study starkly reveals the fragility of the internal societies and the inadequate regulation of the Asian region by boldly plunging into a reality- that of piracy- that during the Cold War had been habitually restricted to notes of secret agents or for the reports of some original journalists. The study is an interesting approach. The development of terrorism has in fact confirmed it: a major part of the current scenario which matters now is that of the underground, economic, mafia-like or terrorist forces, forces that are beyond control and of which sometimes the nations are fully aware. Piracy is therefore an important phenomenon today; its analysis allows us to measure the power of the nations and the regulation of international zones. But the investigation is difficult and calls for intelligence, passion, the audacity to search in the dark and the courage to not be taken in: these are the very qualities that this work embodies. This book constitutes an excellent photograph of the weaknesses but also of the recovery of the Asians. It explains how piracy reappeared massively after the Cold War, firstly on account of the general deficiencies of the region and the weaknesses (or tactics) of some nations. But it also shows that the region has evolved. When I brought it up in 1998 in “L'Asie en danger”, piracy was partially imputable to the internal situation and to the foreign policy of China. Since then, the collapse of Indonesia and the recovery of the Chinese regime have pushed it back towards the Straits of Southeast Asia. Eric Frécon's book also describes how the efforts of regional coordination and the policies of certain big nations like Japan and India acted upon piracy, in order to contain it, on the whole. The problem seems to have, since then, been identified and to a large extent handled; one may hope that it will be resolved in the years to come, even though the Indonesian crisis may seriously impede regulation efforts.


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Published 03 July 2018
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The Resurgence of Sea Piracy in Southeast Asia
Eric Frécon
DOI: 10.4000/books.irasec.457 Publisher: Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine Year of publication: 2008 Published on OpenEdition Books: 3 July 2018 Serie: Carnets de l’Irasec Electronic ISBN: 9782956447047
http://books.openedition.org
Printed version Number of pages: 131
Electronic reference FRÉCON, Eric.The Resurgence of Sea Piracy in Southeast Asia.New edition [online]. Bangkok: Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine, 2008 (generated 05 juillet 2018). Available on the Internet: . ISBN: 9782956447047. DOI: 10.4000/books.irasec.457.
This text was automatically generated on 5 July 2018.
© Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine, 2008 Terms of use: http://www.openedition.org/6540
Eric Frécon's study starkly reveals the frag ility o f the internal societies and the inadequate reg ulation of the Asian reg ion by boldly plung ing into a reality- that of piracy- that during the Cold War had been habitually restricted to note s of secret ag ents or for the reports of som e orig inal journalists. The study is an interest ing approach. The developm ent of terrorism has in fact confirm ed it: a m ajor part of the current scenario which m atters now is that of the underg round, econom ic, m afia-like or terrorist forces, forces that are beyond control and of which som etim es the nations are full y aware. Piracy is therefore an im portant phenom enon today; its analysis allows us to m easure the power of the nations and the reg ulation of international zones. But the investig ation is difficult and calls for intellig ence, passion, the audacity to search in the dark and the courag e to not be taken in: these are the very qualities that this work em bodies. This book constitutes an excellent photog raph of the weaknesses but also of the recovery of the Asians. It explains how piracy reappeared m assi vely after the Cold War, firstly on account of the g eneral deficiencies of the reg ion a nd the weaknesses (or tactics) of som e nations. But it also shows that the reg ion has evol ved. When I broug ht it up in 1998 in L'Asie en danger”, piracy was partially im putable to the internal situation and to the foreig n policy of China. Since then, the collapse of Indone sia and the recovery of the Chinese reg im e have pushed it back towards the Straits of Southeast Asia. Eric Frécon's book also describes how the efforts o f reg ional coordination and the policies of certain big nations like Japan and India acted upon piracy, in order to contain it, on the whole. The problem seem s to have, since then, been identified and to a larg e extent handled; one m ay hope that it will be resolved in t he years to com e, even thoug h the Indonesian crisis m ay seriously im pede reg ulation efforts.
ERIC FRÉCON
Éric Frécon is an assistant professor at the French Naval Academ y, where he teaches classes on law and institutions, international relations as well as g eopolitics. He is also the coordinator of the observatory on Southeast Asia within the Asia Centre, in Paris. In 2011-2012, he worked as a deputy chief editor of the bim onthly m ag azine Diplom atie. Previously, he served as a post-doctoral fellow within Ecole norm ale supérieure (ENS) de Lyon - Institut d’Asie orientale (IAO) and as a research fellow within the Indonesia Prog ram m e of the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (Sing apore), where he stayed for three years. He com pleted his Ph.D. in political science at Sciences Po (Paris) in 2007. He holds a Master’s Deg ree in International Relations from Sorbonne University (Paris) and a Bachelor’s Deg ree in Law and Political Science. He has conducted courses and lectures at Sciences Po (Paris), Sciences Po (Lyon), IRIS (Institut de relations internationales et stratég iques, in Paris) and Lyon Lum ière University.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgements
Preface Jean-Luc Domenach
Introduction
Chapter I. From Myths to Historical Reality 1.1. Mediterranean Piracy: From Ulysses To Barberousse 1.2. Ocean Piracy: From the Atlantic Coasts to Madag ascar 1.3. Is History Going Backwards? From the Networks of the Malay Archipelag o to the Brig ands of Southeast Asia
Chapter 2. Conditions Favouring the Emergence of Piracy 2.1. Causes Related to the Milieu 2.2. Political Causes 2.3. Socio-economic causes 2.4. Leg al Causes
Chapter 3. The Various Manifestations of Maritime Piracy in Southeast Asia 3.1. Minor Piracy (“Minor Armed Robbery”-MAR) 3.2. Org anised Piracy (“Armed Robbery and Ag ression of Intermediate Deg ree”-ARAID) 3.3. International Piracy (“Serious Criminal Hijacking ”-SCH) 3.4. Para-Piracy
Chapter 4. The Stakes of Piracy in Southeast Asia 4.1. Economic and Commercial Stakes 4.2. The Diplomatic Stakes 4.3. Environmental and Human stakes
Chapter 5. The Ever Rebellious Pirate Against a Legal Order That Is Often Biased 5.1. The Diverg ence of Interests, Main Reason for the Lack of Leg al Uniformity 5.2. Towards a (Re-) Definition of Criteria
Chapter 6. Initial Reactions of the Multi-Lateral Players 6.1. Informative Approach 6.2. The Violent Approach: Resorting to the “New Mercenaries”
Chapter 7. Delayed Reactions from Countries 7.1. Obstacles Disappear, Countries Appear 7.2. Unilateral Initiatives of the Nations 7.3. Bi-or Trilateral Initiatives 7.4. Multilateral Initiatives
Conclusion
Bibliographie
Index
Acknowledgements
This book is the result of a research prog ram m e und ertaken by IRASEC which g oes tog ether with m y doctoral thesis at the Institute of Political Studies in Paris. It has received the support of the French Em bassy in Malaysia. Here, I warm ly thank Xavier Driencourt, the French Am bassador, as also Gilles Huberson, Chief C ounsellor, and Michel Pasquier, Cooperation and Cultural Counsellor. I also wish to extend m y g ratitude to the LVMH g rou p, to Henri-Claude de Bettig nies (INSEAD-Stanford) and to the Hachette Foundation wh ose g rants perm itted m e to m ake various visits to Southeast Asia. I should also thank Jean-Luc Dom enach (CERI-Political Sciences), for his confidence, as well as the Terrorism Group (TE) of Interpol and the Centre for Hig her Naval Studies (CESM) for their help. I wish to extend m y g ratitude to Sebastien Brunel a nd also to the Yukulele studio for the m aps and drawing s and also to the proof-readers of the m anuscript for their patience.
INDEX
Mots-clés :Asie du Sud-Est
Preface
Jean-Luc Domenach
Southeast Asia
Important data regarding the main countries dealt w ith in this study
Source: Asian Development Bank,Outlook2002 * year 2000
What is the world and how does one read it? Which facts are to be studied in order to understand it better? An age-old question to which answers have evolved in tandem with the international situation. During the Cold War, the focus was on facts, which were official so to speak; that is to say on facts which propaganda and diplomats recognized as such. The world that was being analysed was generally the one, which the nations knew and dominated, it was essentially a strategic world. The end of the Cold War brought about a complete change in perspective. Rendered powerless by the superiority of the Capitalist world, the Communist powers of Central and Eastern Europe were forced to allow the reappearance of a social and cultural reality that they had claimed in vain to have abolished. The disappearance of the Soviet Union led, not to the “New World Order” that President Bush senior wished for, but to a much more confused situation in which the developed nations of the world find themselves threatened by new challenges which arise exactly where one did not expect them: on the periphery of their domination. As a result, a series of economic and political accidents have revealed an international reality far more complex than before, that the nations find hard to check: a more and more social reality. Asia has been in the forefront of this evolution. Chronologically, of course, because the Communist regimes and parties here weakened much earlier than elsewhere, beginning in the mid-70s. But also because during the nineties, Asia harboured the early signs of various orders and disorders possible. Let us not forget, after having exaggerated it, the contribution of the Asian economies to the formation ofa new global commercial order. Let us also not forget the tentative efforts of some officials of Southeast Asia towards a regionalisation founded on the voluntary construction of an “Asiatist” idealogy. These were incontestable contributions to the reorganization of the post Cold War world. But they wrongly eclipsed the fragility of the internal societies, and the inadequate regulation of the Asian region. This fragility aggravated the financial crisis that developed in the entire region in 1997-1998. The crisis, that has today been checked although not completely eradicated, has made the fragility more evident and has, in turn, aggravated it. But this fragility also compelled the Governments of the region to undertake efforts to reduce it, leading to some internal stabilisation and the revival of a more substantial process of regionalisation than before1. Eric Frécon’s study starkly reveals this fragility by boldly plunging into a reality-that of piracy-that during the Cold War had been habitually restricted to notes of secret agents or for the reports of some original journalists. The study is an interesting approach. The development of terrorism has in fact confirmed it: a major part of the current scenario which matters now is that of the underground, economic, mafia-like or terrorist forces, forces that are beyond control and of which sometimes the nations are fully aware. Piracy is therefore an important phenomenon today; its analysis allows us to measure the power of the nations and the regulation of international zones.