The State and Nation-Building Processes in Kenya since Independence
238 Pages
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The State and Nation-Building Processes in Kenya since Independence


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238 Pages


Kenya’s nationalism during the colonial period was marked by two main characteristics that feature in this book. First, the struggle for independence that was mainly characterized by the claim for land that had been taken away by the colonizers. Second was the struggle for autonomy and self-determination, mainly through political resistance. The authors in this book analyse historical trajectories of Kenya's nationalism trends while highlighting the role of political leaders, large as well as small ethnic groups, perennial conflicts, community as well as religious leaders, among others. The discussions demonstrate that quest for a national identity that is inclusive at all levels – whether politically, economically, religiously and ethnically – has marked Kenya's struggle for nationalism, sometimes leading to violence, especially during election periods, national unity through political coalitions and reconciliation, as well as institutional reforms. In conclusion, the authors demonstrate that while Kenya is gradually advancing towards national cohesion, there are still many challenges yet to be surmounted.



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Published 25 June 2019
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perennial conflicts, community as well as religious leaders,
and International Relations(HIPSIR) and holds a PhD in Peace and Conflict
THE STATE AND NATION-BUILDING PROCESSES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE: Remembering the Marginalised and Forgotten Issues and Actors
Susan Waiyego Mwangi, Elias Omondi
Susan Waiyego Mwangi Elias Omondi Opongo Ephraim Wachira Wahome
The State andNation-Building ProcessesinKenyasince Independence: Remembering the Marginalised and Forgotten Issues and Actors Edited by Susan Waiyego Mwangi Elias Omondi Opongo Ephraim Wachira Wahome L a ng a a R esea rch & P u blishing CIG Mankon, Bamenda
Publisher:LangaaRPCIG Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group P.O. Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon Distributed in and outside N. America by African Books Collective
ISBN-10: 9956-550-34-5
ISBN-13: 978-9956-550-34-0 ©Susan Waiyego Mwangi Elias Omondi Opongo Ephraim Wachira Wahome 2019 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical or electronic, including photocopying and recording, or be stored in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher
List of Contributors Susan Waiyego Mwangi is a lecturer of Political History and International Relations at Kenyatta University. She holds a PhD in Political HistoryPau Universit from yFrance and MA de in gree in Gender and Politics from Kenyatta University. She works at the Department of History, International relations, Peace and Securityand Political studies. She has vast research experience in securityand political studies,gender and conflict, transitionaljustice, state fragilityand proliferation of arms, and democratic transitions in Africa. Elias Omondi Opongois the Director of Hekima Institute of Peace Studies and International Relations(HIPSIR) and holds a PhD in Peace and Conflict studies from the Universityof Bradford, UK and an MA in International Peace studies from the Universityof Notre Dame, USA. His research focuses on transitionaljustice andpost conflict reconstruction. He haspublished books, contributed book chapters and articles on conflict resolution, transitionaljustice,peace building and catholic social teaching. He is a Jesuit priest from Kenya. Peter Wafula Wekesaa Senior Lecturer in the De is partment of History, Archaeology and Political studies at Kenyatta University, Nairobi. He teaches and researches on African Political Historywith a special bias in border issues, identity politics and international relations Bethwel Ogotwas educated at Maseno High School and at Makerere Universitywhere he studied mathematics and history. After teachingbrieflyat Alliance High School in Kenya he enrolled at the Universityof St. Andrews where he studied historyandphilosophy. He returned to East Africa as a historytutor at Makerere, and then went to the U.K. to the School of Oriental and African Studies as a Ph.D. student. In the late 1960s and early1970s he was instrumental as a facultymember and chair in makingthe historydepartment of the new Universityof Nairobi. Ogot was also the long-termpresident of the Historical Association of Kenya where he did agreat deal to stimulate the publication of new research in the Kenya Historical
Review, Hadithi, and the Trans AfricanJournal of History. His edited collection,Zamani(1968) was a keyin the develo text pment of research and teachingon East Africa. Later he was instrumental in the creation andpublication of the UNESCO General History of Africa. He was the dean at the Universityof Nairobi, Director of the Louis LeakeyInstitute for African Prehistor Memorial y, and professor of Historyat Kenyatta Universityand Director of research at Maseno UniversityCollege. In 2003 he was appointed Chancellor at Moi University. In his career he has served on a series of important official commissions and boards. In addition he has been an influential and often controversial contributor to national debates about the role of Kenya’spast in itspresent and future. A Fellow of the Kenya National Academyof Sciences, in 2008 Ogot received the African Studies Association, Distinguished Africanist Award. Ephraim Wachira Wahomeis an Associate Professor in the Department of Historyand Archaeologyat the Universityof Nairobi. His area of research interest is cultural heritage conservation. He has alsopublished in the areas of culture and human rights, amongother areas. His current research covers diverse areas include cultural tourism,prehistory, culture and human rights, and architectural heritage. He is also Associate Dean of the Facultyof Arts. He is also a former Chairman of Department of History at the same university. Christian Thibonis Professor of contemporaryhistory, Universityof Pau and Pays de l’Adour, former Director of the IFRA 2010-14, specialist of the Great Lakes Region, political history and demographical history. Felix Kiruthuis Senior Lecturer and head of Public Policy and Administration Department at Kenyatta University in Nairobi, Kenya. He is a historian specializing in economic and political History of Africa. Since 1997, Felix has taught in the Department of History, Archaeology, and Political Studies at Kenyatta University. His main research focus is in the history of political economy, and has researched on the urban history of Africa with special focus on labour relations, as well as on the history informal enterprises. His other research interests include: Biographies of prominent
individuals; pedagogical methods in the study of history; as well as Peace and Conflict studies. Francis M. Muchokiholds a bachelor’s degree in education from the Universityof Nairobi. He also has a masters and a PhD in historyfrom Kenyatta University. He is currentlya Senior Lecturer at The Catholic University. Muchoki was first appointed as an Assistant Lecturer at Egerton Universityin 1989 where he rose to the level of lecturer and Associate Chairman of the History Department. He joined Catholic University1995 as a lecturer. At The Catholic in University, he has served as a head of historyDepartment, a Dean of Facultyand as a DeputyVice-Chancellor. He has conducted research and published articles and book chapters in areas of his interest. Albert Okinda is a Doctor of Philosophy candidate in the Department of DiplomacyInternational Relations at Ken and yatta University. Albert is a buddingwriter with interest in topical issues touchingon International Relations, National security, Governance, Political Economy and Comparative Politics. Zarina Patelis a writer, artist, human rights and race relations activist, environmentalist and campaigner for socialjustice. She played a major role in savingtheJeevanjee Gardens in Nairobi. She has also authored a number of books including: Challenge to Colonialism, AlibhaiMullaJevanjee and Manilal Ambalal Desai: The Stormy Petrel among others. Gordon Omenyaobtained his PhD in Historyfrom Université de Pau in France. He is currentlylecturer in the De a partment of History, Archaeologyand Political Studies- Kenyatta University. His areas of interest include race relations,gender history,global history, popular culture and historyof international relations. Dr Omenya is also a member of the French Institute of Research in Africa(IFRA), the British Institute of Research in East Africa(BIEA) and the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA).
Dorothy A. Nyakwaka, B.Ed.(University), M.Phil.(Moi University), Ph.D.(Egerton University). She is a senior lecturer at Egerton Universityin the Department of History. She is a Fulbright fellow and a member of CODESRIA and OSSREA. Most of her publications are ongender andgovernance, regionalism and conflict, including: ‘The Challenges of Piracy in African Maritime Zones’ in Africa InsightsVol. 39 (3) November 2009. Mildred A.J. Ndeda, B.Ed., M.A.(UniversityNairobi of ), PhD. (Kenyatta University). She is an associateprofessor of historyat the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Universityof Science and Technology. She taught at Kenyatta University for 28years and also became chairperson of the Department of History, archaeologyand Political Studies. She is a specialist in labour,gender and women’s histories and studies and haspublished extensively. Amongst herpublications is: ‘The struggle for Sexual Rights among the Kikuyu Women of Central Kenya, 1918-2002,’ in Toyin Falola and Nana A. Amponsah (Eds.),Women, Gender and Sexualityin Africa, CAP Africa World Series (Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 2013). Washington Ndiiriis atpresent a senior lecturer in the Department of History, Archaeologyand Political Studies at Kenyatta University. He served as the chairperson of the Department between 2012 and 2016. He haspublished widelyin other related areas of Historyand Archaeology in a number of many professional bodies within and beyond the country. Babere Kerata Chacha is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Public Affairs and Environmental Studies at Laikipia University. He has a PhD in History from Egerton University. He is currently a Global VisitingFellow, School of Social Sciences, Universityof New South Wales, Australia. He is Co-ordinator Directorate of External Linkages and Human Rights at Laikipia University. In thepast he has been a fellow of St. Antony’s College Oxford, and Wolfson College Cambridge. In thepast he has taught as an Adjunct Lecturer in historyand development Studies at the Universityof Eastern Africa, Baraton and Kamagambo Adventist College. His research interest includes social history, environmental history, sexuality and rural
studies. Chacha has also been engaged in teaching Military History and Military Thought at the Kenya Military Academy in Lanet. GodfreyMuriukiis a distinguishedprofessor, in the Department of Historyand Archaeology, Universityof Nairobi. His areas of interest include human migration and settlement, economic development and political organisation. He is keen on colonial andpostcolonial history, and his work,The History of the Kikuyu, 1550 – 1900,represents his interest in political, oral, social, and economic aspects of African history.
Table of Contents Acknowledgements .............................................................. xi Foreword .............................................................................. xiii 1. General Introduction ........................................................ 1Susan Waiyego Mwangi and Elias Omondi Opongo 2. The Nation-State and the Border Question in East Africa: Old Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities ............................................ 15 Peter Wafula Wekesa 3. The Kenyan Nation and the Historiography of Nationalism........................................... 33 Bethwell A. Ogot 4. Tourism and Liberation Struggles in Kenya: Ensuring Sustainability in the Conservation of Mau Mau Heritage .......................... 49 Ephraim W. Wahome 5. Commémorer Les Indépendances et Écrire Le Fait National Au Kenya, En Afrique ................... 69 Christian Thibon 6. Nationalism and the Nation-Building Project in Kenya, 1963-2014: An Appraisal ........................... 93 SusanWaiyego Mwangi, Felix Kiruthu, Francis Muchoki7. The International Criminal Court and the Nation-Building Project in Kenya .......................... 115Albert Okinda and Susan Waiyego Mwangi 8. The Marginalized, Forgotten and Revived Political Actors in Kenya’s Nation Building.......... 127 Zarina Patel and Gordon Omenya