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USA, India, Africa During and After the Cold War

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The Cold War period witnessed competition from political, economic, ideological, diplomatic, military and social dimensions between the United States of America (USA), and the then Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). In the superpower rivalries, India and Africa were adversely affected in many ways. The situation did not change for the better in the post-Cold War period, which has witnessed the domination of the world by the US and its allies, the Group of Eight (G-8) industrialised countries. This domination has been characterised by the process of Americanization of the worlds, otherwise termed globalisation, in virtually all spheres of life. USA, India, Africa During and After the Cold War demonstrates that both the United States and The Soviet Union used African States, India and other Third World countries for their own geopolitical considerations; that the foreign policy and foreign relations of the US were meant to subject Africa and India to the dictates of US imperialism. The book assesses the impact of the Cold War and the post-Cold War order on Africa, India and the entire world and argues that the Non Aligned Movement is still relevant to the Third World countries despite the demise of the Cold War. The book analyses issues from the African point of view as opposed to hitherto Western view points but provides a balanced appreciation of the complex forces that shape foreign policies and foreign relations globally. It is a valuable contribution to modern diplomatic history and targets university students, researchers, foreign affairs ministries, and practising diplomats.

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Published 29 December 2010
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EAN13 9789966792495
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USA, INDIA, AFRICA DURING AND AFTER THE COLD WAR
USA, INDIA, AFRICA DURING AND AFTER THE COLD WAR
Pontian Godfrey Okoth
University of Nairobi Press
First published 2010 by University of Nairobi Press Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library, University of Nairobi P.O. Box 30197 – 00100 Nairobi E-mail: nup@uonbi.ac.ke http://www.uonbi.ac.ke/press/
The University of Nairobi Press supports and promotes University of Nairobi objectives of discovery, dissemination and preservation of knowledge, and stimulation of intellectual and cultural life by publishing works of highest quality in association with partners in different parts of the world. In doing so, it adheres to the University’s tradition of excellence, innovation and scholarship. The moral rights of the author have been asserted. © The University of Nairobi Press
All rights reserved. Except for the quotation of fully acknowledged short passages for the purposes of criticism, review, research or teaching, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or means without a prior written permission from the University of Nairobi Press.
University of Nairobi CIP Data
Okoth, Pontian Godfrey USA, India, Africa During and After the Cold War / by P.G. Okoth. – D Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press, 2010 843 420p.: ill .O39 1. Cold War. 2. United States—Foreign relations. 3. India—Foreign relations. 4. Africa—Foreign relations. I. Title ISBN 9966 846 96 4 Printed by Downtown Printing Works Limited P.O. Box 75207 – 00200 Nairobi, Kenya
Dedicated to my wife, Rhovina and my children – Jimmy, Regina, Cecilia and Assumpta.
Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................ xi
Acknowledgements....................................................................................... xv
1:
2:
3:
4
:
Part I:
Foreign Policies......................................1
Nature of Foreign Policy......................................................................... 1Notes .................................................................................................................................9
US Foreign Policy .................................................................................. 11Ideology and the American Self-Image...........................................................................11 The American World View: Historical Dimensions........................................................18 US Double Standards .....................................................................................................22 Rise and Challenge to US Pre-eminence ........................................................................24 Economic Cost of Military Dominance, Loss of Credibility at Home and Abroad and Power without Virtue ...........................................................................26 Notes ...............................................................................................................................28
Indian Foreign Policy............................................................................ 33The Concept of Great, Middle and Small Power ............................................................33 India as an International Actor ......................................................................................34 The Origin of India’s Foreign Policy .............................................................................37 Indian Foreign Policy and National Interest..................................................................38 Aims and Objectives of Indian Foreign Policy ...............................................................39 Major Principles of Indian Foreign Policy ....................................................................40 Non-Alignment................................................................................................................40 Reappraisal of Non-alignment........................................................................................43 Peaceful Co-existence.....................................................................................................46 Indian Policy in Relation to the United Nations .............................................................48 Indian Policy of Anti-Colonialism and Anti-Racialism ..................................................49 India’s Commonwealth Ties ...........................................................................................50 Indian Foreign Policy in the Post Nehru Epoch.............................................................51 Notes ...............................................................................................................................56
African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy ............................................... 63The Cardinal Principles and Factors in African Foreign Policy ...................................63 Brief History of African Diplomacy................................................................................69 Salient Attributes of African Diplomacy .........................................................................71
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6:
“African Unity” and the Joint Diplomacy of the OAU .................................................. 74 The Major Trend of African Diplomacy ......................................................................... 76 Non-Alignment and African Diplomacy ......................................................................... 79 Conclusion...................................................................................................................... 81 Notes............................................................................................................................... 82
Part II:
Bilateral Relations ................................. 87
US-Indian Relations...............................................................................89Similarities between the US and India............................................................................ 91 Differences between the US and India............................................................................ 92 Colonialism and Racialism............................................................................................. 95 The Chinese Invasion and US-Indian Relations ............................................................. 96 US Policy and Chinese Aggression .............................................................................. 100 Indo-Pakistan Relations ............................................................................................... 105 The US and the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent.............................................................. 107 US Military Aid to India, 1962 ..................................................................................... 108 India, US and Kashmir ................................................................................................. 112 The US and Indo-Pakistan War, 1965 .......................................................................... 117 Arms Sale Resumption by Washington ......................................................................... 122 The US and Indo-Pakistan War, 1971 and the Emergence of India as a Dominant Power........................................................................................................... 124 US Presence in the Indian Ocean and US Attitude Towards India’s Nuclear Policy .............................................................................................................. 126 Fresh American Military Aid to Pakistan and its Regional Implications..................... 127 Conclusion.................................................................................................................... 128 Notes............................................................................................................................. 130
US-African Relations ...........................................................................139African Perceptions of the US ...................................................................................... 139 The Historical Determinants ........................................................................................ 140 The Political Determinants........................................................................................... 140 The Racial Determinants .............................................................................................. 142 The Economic Determinants ........................................................................................ 142 African Ambivalence about the US............................................................................... 144 The Historical Legacy of US-African Relations, 1776-1959 ........................................ 145 US-African Relations in the 1960s ............................................................................... 153 US-African Relations from Nixon to the End of the Cold War ..................................... 169 US-African Relations and the End of the Cold War ..................................................... 187 Notes............................................................................................................................. 192
viii
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Shapers and movers .......................................... 215Selected personalities ...................................................................................................215
Indo-African Relations ....................................................................... 227The Historical Legacy of Indo-African Relations .........................................................227 British, Indian and African Politico-Economic Relations ............................................232 Indo-African Relations, 1945-1965 ..............................................................................234 Indo-African Politico-Diplomatic Relations Since 1965 ..............................................250 Indo-African Economic-Diplomatic Relations Since 1965 ...........................................260 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................270 Notes .............................................................................................................................271
Part III:
Relations in the Post-Cold War World Order ..................................... 281
Africa and The Post-Cold War World Order .................................. 283 GlobalApartheid..........................................................................................................283 Africa and Global Apartheid ........................................................................................286 Options for Africa.........................................................................................................290 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................297 Notes .............................................................................................................................298
India and The Post-Cold War World Order .................................... 301Ideology, Policy and Politics of the Post-Cold War World Order ...............................301 Globalization, Liberalization and Structural/Mutual Adjustment ................................322 Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear Diplomacy ..................................................................332 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................343 Advantages of a “New” World Order for the US .........................................................345 Disadvantages of a “New” World Order for the US ....................................................346 Advantages of a “New” World Order for India ...........................................................347 Disadvantages of a “New” World Order for India ......................................................348 Notes .............................................................................................................................349
Bibliography ............................................................................................... 357
Index ............................................................................................................ 391
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