Knowledge Production and Contradictory Functions in African Higher Education

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"This volume brings together excellent scholarship and innovative policy discussion to demonstrate the essential role of higher education in the development of Africa and of the world at large. Based on deep knowledge of the university system in several African countries, this book will reshape the debate on development in the global information economy for years to come. It should be mandatory reading for academics, policy-makers and concerned citizens, in Africa and elsewhere.” - Manuel Castells, Professor Emeritus, University of California at Berkeley, Laureate of the Holberg Prize 2012 and of the Balzan Prize 2013.

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Published 01 March 2015
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EAN13 9781920677879
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A NOTE ABOUT THE PEER REVIEW PROCESS
is open access publication forms part of the African Minds peer reviewed, academic books list, the broad
mission of which is to support the dissemination of African scholarship and to foster access, openness and
debate in the pursuit of growing and deepening the African knowledge base. Knowledge Production and
Contradictory Functions in African Higher Education was reviewed by two external peers with expert
knowledge in higher education in general and in African higher education in particular. Copies of the
reviews are available from the publisher on request.
First published in 2015 by African Minds
4 Eccleston Place, Somerset West 7130, Cape Town, South Africa
info@africanminds.org.za
www.africanminds.org.za
2015 African Minds
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ISBN: 978-1-920677-85-5
eBook edition: 978-1-920677-86-2
ePub edition: 978-1-920677-87-9
ORDERS:
African Minds
4 Eccleston Place, Somerset West, 7130, South Africa
info@africanminds.org.za
www.africanminds.org.za
For orders from outside Africa:
African Books Collective
PO Box 721, Oxford OX1 9EN, UK
orders@africanbookscollective.comCONTENTS
List of tables, figures and appendix tables
Acronyms and abbreviations
Acknowledgements
Foreword
Chapter 1 Roles of Universities and the African Context
Nico Cloete and Peter Maassen
CChhaapptteerr 22 Research Universities in Africa: An empirical overview of eight flagship universities
Nico Cloete, Ian Bunting and Peter Maassen
Chapter 3 Assessing the Performance of African Flagship Universities
Ian Bunting, Nico Cloete, Henri Li Kam Wah and Florence Nakayiwa-Mayega
CChhaapptteerr 44 Research Output and International Research Cooperation in African Flagship Universities
Robert Tijssen
Chapter 5 South Africa as a PhD Hub in Africa?
Nico Cloete, Charles Sheppard and Tracy Bailey
CChhaapptteerr 66 Faculty Perceptions of the Factors that Influence Research Productivity at Makerere
University
Gordon Musiige and Peter Maassen
Chapter 7 Academic Incentives for Knowledge Production in Africa: Case studies of Mozambique
and Kenya
Gerald Wangenge-Ouma, Agnes Lutomiah and Patrício Langa
Chapter 8 Functions of Science Granting Councils in Sub-Saharan Africa
Johann Mouton, Jacques Gaillard and Milandré van Lill
Chapter 9 The Roles of National Councils and Commissions in African Higher Education System
Governance
Tracy Bailey
Chapter 10 University Engagement as Interconnectedness: Indicators and insights
François van Schalkwyk
Chapter 11 Student Engagement and Citizenship Competences in African Universities
Thierry M Luescher-Mamashela, Vincent Ssembatya, Edwina Brooks, Randall S Lange, Taabo
Mugume and Samantha Richmond
Chapter 12 Managing Contradictory Functions and Related Policy Issues
Nico Cloete, Peter Maassen, Ian Bunting, Tracy Bailey, Gerald Wangenge-Ouma and
François van Schalkwyk
About the authors
List of contributorsLIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Chapter 2
Figure 2.1 Proportion of FTE academics with doctoral degrees (2011) (%)
Figure 2.2 Academic staff by seniority (2011) (%)
Figure 2.3 Masters graduates (2001, 2007, 2011)
Figure 2.4 Doctoral graduates (2001, 2007, 2011)
Figure 2.5 Research articles (2001, 2007, 2011)
Figure 2.6 Senior academic staff and doctoral graduates as predictors of publication output
Chapter 3
Table 3.1 2011 proposals on goals and targets for flagship universities
Table 3.2 Assessing two universities on 2011 goals and targets
Table 3.3 Goals and targets for flagship universities
Table 3.4 Indicator scores: Relating data averages to targets on a four-point scale
Figure 3.1 Performance against targets: Input and output averages for the flagship universities
Figure 3.2 University of Cape Town (2009–2011)
Figure 3.3 University of Botswana (2009–2011)
Figure 3.4 University of Dar es Salaam (2009–2011)
Figure 3.5 Eduardo Mondlane University (2009–2011)
Figure 3.6 University of Ghana (2009–2011)
Figure 3.7 Makerere University (2009–2011)
Figure 3.8 University of Mauritius (2009–2011)
Figure 3.9 University of Nairobi (2009–2011)
Table A3.1 University of Botswana: Academic core and comparative university scores
Table A3.2 Example of application of extended academic core goals and targets
Table A3.3 Mandates for South African traditional universities
Table A3.4 Output goals and targets for South African traditional universities
Table A3.5 Data averages for 2009–2011 for flagship universities
Table A3.6 Masters enrolments for the five-year period 2007–2011
Table A3.7 Masters graduates for the five-year period 2007–2011
Table A3.8 Doctoral enrolments for the five-year period 2007–2011
Table A3.9 Doctoral graduates for the five-year period 2007–2011
Table A3.10 Total permanent academics for the five-year period 2007–2011
Table A3.11 Permanent academics with doctoral degrees for the five-year period 2007–2011
Table A3.12 Proportion of academics with doctoral degrees for the five-year period 2007–2011
Table A3.13 Research publications for the five-year period 2007–2011
CChhaapptteerr 44
Table 4.1 Largest research fields of international cooperation (2006–2012)Table 4.2 Most highly cited fields of international cooperation (2006–2012)
Table 4.3a Research internationalisation profile of the University of Mauritius
Table 4.3b Research internationalisation profile of Eduardo Mondlane University
Table 4.3c Research internationalisation profile of the University of Dar es Salaam
Table 4.3d Research internationalisation profile of the University of Ghana
Table 4.3e Research internationalisation profile of the University of Botswana
Table 4.3f Research internationalisation profile of Makerere University
Table 4.3g Research internationalisation profile of the University of Nairobi
Table 4.3h Research internationalisation profile of the University of Cape Town
Figure 4.1 Annual trends in publication output of African flagship universities (1996–2013)
Chapter 5
Table 5.1 International PhD graduates per university (2000–2012)
Table 5.2 Top 20 countries of origin of the 2012 international PhD graduates
Figure 5.1 PhD enrolments and graduates (1996–2012)
Figure 5.2 PhD enrolments by nationality (2000, 2004, 2008, 2012)
Figure 5.3 Average annual growth rate of PhD enrolments by nationality (2000–2012)
Figure 5.4 PhD graduates by nationality (2000, 2004, 2008, 2012)
Figure 5.5 Average annual growth rate of PhD graduates by nationality (2000–2012)
Figure 5.6 Average annual growth rates by nationality and gender (2000–2012)
Figure 5.7 South African doctoral graduates by race (1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012)
Figure 5.8 South African-African and rest of Africa enrolments and graduates (2000, 2004, 2008,
2012)
Figure 5.9 South African-African and rest of Africa enrolments and graduates: Average annual growth
rate (2000–2010)
Table A5.1 The 59 countries of origin of the 2012 international PhD graduates
Table A5.2 PhD graduates of 2012 according to nationality and gender as a percentage of the total (1
879) graduates
Chapter 6
Figure 6.1 Makerere and Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University: Research project funding by
funding type (2013)
CChhaapptteerr 77
Table 7.1 Average basic salaries of academics and permanent secretaries in Kenya
Figure 7.1 Ratios of high-level knowledge outputs to professors and
associate professors
Table A7.1 Basic salaries of academic staff (2013) (in USD)
Table A7.2 Basic salaries of professionals in diplomatic careers (2013) (in USD)
Table A7.3 Basic salaries of professionals from the tax authorities (2013) (in USD)
Table A7.4 Basic salaries of professionals in the judicial system (2013) (in USD)
Table A7.5 Basic salaries of researchers in public universities and research centres (2013) (in USD)
CChhaapptteerr 88
Table 8.1 Gross domestic expenditure on R& D (GERD)Table 8.2 Dependency on foreign funding for R& D in 2010 (%) (sub-Saharan Africa only)
Table A8.1 Selected ‘milestones’ in science and technology governance and policy-making, by
country
Table A8.2 Funding bodies in the 17 selected countries
Table A8.3 The rise of science granting councils and competitive research funds in sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 9
Table 9.1 Establishment of the councils/commissions
Table 9.2 Council/commission composition and appointments (2012/2013)
Table 9.3 Sources of funding for councils/commissions (2012) (%)
Table 9.4 Functions associated with different tertiary/higher education system governance roles
Table 9.5 Overview of governance roles fulfilled by councils/commissions (2012/2013)
Table 9.6 Regulatory functions undertaken by councils/commissions (2012/2013)
Table 9.7 Distributive functions mandated for and/or undertaken by councils/commissions (2012)
Table 9.8 Monitoring and data functions undertaken by councils/commissions (2012/2013)
Table 9.9 Advisory functions undertaken by councils/commissions (2012/2013)
Table 9.10 Coordination functions undertaken by the councils/commissions (2012/2013)
Table A9.1 Examples of council/commission monitoring activities
Table A9.2 Examples of council/commission coordination activities
Chapter 10
Table 10.1 Indicators of interconnectedness and scores per indicator
Figure 10.1 Engagement as connectedness between external constituents and the academic core
Figure 10.2 Articulation and linking to the academic core as dimensions of interconnectedness
Figure 10.3 The distribution of interconnectedness scores at two universities (n=99)
Figure 10.4 The interconnectedness of engagement projects at Makerere University
Figure 10.5 The interconnectedness of engagement projects at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan
University
Figure 10.6 Weighted proportional funding sources of engagement projects
Figure 10.7a Current shape of engagement activities at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
Figure 10.7b Proposed shape of engagement activities at a comprehensive university
Chapter 11
Table 11.1 Demographic background of students
Table 11.2 Predictors of citizenship competences
Table 11.3 The probabilities of student engagement contributing to citizenship competences
Figure 11.1 Schematic concept map of the HERANA Citizenship Module
Figure 11.2 Schematic concept map of the revised HERANA Citizenship Module
Chapter 12
Table 12.1 HERANA data on masters and doctoral enrolments (2011)
Table 12.2 HERANA data on full-time academic staff (2011)ACRONYMS AND
ABBREVIATIONS
AOSTI African Observatory of Science, Technology and Innovation
BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
B-TEC Botswana Tertiary Education Council
CHET Centre for Higher Education Transformation
COSTECH Commission for Science and Technology (Tanzania)
CREST Centre for Research on Evaluation, Science and Technology
CSHE Centre for Studies in Higher Education (University of California, Berkeley)
CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (Ghana)
DFID Department for International Development (United Kingdom)
DHET Department of Higher Education and Training (South Africa)
DST Department of Science and Technology (South Africa)
FIRCA Inter-professional Fund for Agricultural Research and Council (Côte d’Ivoire)
FONRID National Fund for Research and Innovation for Development (Burkina Faso)
FTE full-time equivalent
GDP gross domestic product
GERD gross domestic expenditure on research and development
G-NCTE Ghana National Council for Tertiary Education
HEMIS higher education management information system
HERANA Higher Education Research and Advocacy Network in Africa
IAU International Association of Universities
ISI Institute for Scientific Information
K-CHE Kenya Commission for Higher Education
MAK Makerere University (Uganda)
M-CNAQ Mozambique National Council for Quality Assurance
M-TEC Mauritius Tertiary Education Commission
NCHE National Commission on Higher Education
NDP National Development Plan
NEPAD New Partnership for Africa’s Development
NMMU Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (South Africa)
NRF National Research Foundation (South Africa)
NSTC National Science and Technology Council (Zambia)
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
PANGeA Partnership for Africa’s Next Generation of Academics
R&D research and development
RCZ Research Council of Zimbabwe
S&T science and technology
SA-Africans South African Africans
SA-CHE South African Council on Higher Education
SADC South African Development CommunitySARUA Southern African Regional Universities Association
SERU Student Experience in the Research University (survey)
SET science, engineering and technology
SGC science granting council
STEM science, technology, engineering and mathematics
STI science, technology and innovation
TCU Tanzania Commission for Universities
TE/HE tertiary or higher education
TEMIS tertiary education management information system
UCT University of Cape Town (South Africa)
U-NCHE Uganda National Council for Higher Education
UNCST Uganda National Council for Science and Technology
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UoN University of Nairobi (Kenya)
USD United States dollars
WoS Web of Science