One World, Many Knowledges

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Various forms of academic co-operation criss-cross the modern university system in a bewildering number of ways, from the open exchange of ideas and knowledge, to the sharing of research results, and frank discussions about research challenges. Embedded in these scholarly networks is the question of whether a ‘global template’ for the management of both higher education and national research organisations is necessary, and if so, must institutions slavishly follow the high-flown language of the global ‘knowledge society’ or risk falling behind in the ubiquitous university ranking system? Or are there alternatives that can achieve a better, ‘more ethically inclined, world? Basing their observations on their own experiences, an interesting mix of seasoned scholars and new voices from southern Africa and the Nordic region offer critical perspectives on issues of inter- and cross-regional academic co-operation. Several of the chapters also touch on the evolution of the higher education sector in the two regions. An absorbing and intelligent study, this book will be invaluable for anyone interested in the strategies scholars are using to adapt to the interconnectedness of the modern world. It offers fresh insights into how academics are attempting to protect the spaces in which they can freely and openly debate the challenges they face, while aiming to transform higher education, and foster scholarly collaboration. The Southern African-Nordic Centre (SANORD) is a partnership of higher education institutions from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Botswana, Namibia, Malawi, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. SANORD’s primary aim is to promote multilateral research co-operation on matters of importance to the development of both regions. Our activities are based on the values of democracy, equity, and mutually beneficial academic engagement.

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One world, many knowledges
Edited by Tor Halvorsen and Peter Vale
Regional experiences and cross-regional links in higher education
One world, many knowledges
Regional experiences and cross-regional links in higher education
Various forms of academic co-operation criss-cross the modern university system in a
bewildering number of ways, from the open exchange of ideas and knowledge, to the
sharing of research results, and frank discussions about research challenges. Embedded
in these scholarly networks is the question of whether a ‘global template’ for the
management of both higher education and national research organisations is necessary,
and if so, must institutions slavishly follow the high-fown language of the global
‘knowledge society’ or risk falling behind in the ubiquitous university ranking system?
Or are there alternatives that can achieve a better, ‘more ethically inclined, world’?
Basing their observations on their own experiences, an interesting mix of seasoned
scholars and new voices from southern Africa and the Nordic region ofer critical
perspectives on issues of inter- and cross-regional academic co-operation. Several of the
chapters also touch on the evolution of the higher education sector in the two regions.
One world, many knowledges
An absorbing and intelligent study, this book will be invaluable for anyone interested
in the strategies scholars are using to adapt to the interconnectedness of the modern Regional experiences and cross-regional links in higher education
world. It ofers fresh insights into how academics are attempting to protect the spaces
in which they can freely and openly debate the challenges they face, while aiming to
transform higher education, and foster scholarly collaboration.

The Southern African-Nordic Centre (SANORD) is a partnership of higher education institutions
from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Botswana, Namibia, Malawi, South Africa,
Zambia and Zimbabwe. SANORD’s primary aim is to promote multilateral research co-operation
on matters of importance to the development of both regions. Our activities are based on the
values of democracy, equity, and mutually benefcial academic engagement. Universities in
the southern African and Nordic regions that are not yet members are encouraged to join.
ISBN 978-0-620-55789-4
AFRICAN
MINDS Edited by Tor Halvorsen and Peter ValeAFRICAN
MINDS
www.sanord.net
www.sanord.netOne wor ld, many knowledges
Regional experiences and cross-regional links in higher educationOne wor ld, many knowledges
Regional experiences and cross-regional links in higher education
Edited by Tor Halvorsen and Peter Vale
AFRICAN
MINDSFirst published 2012 by the Southern African–Nordic Centre
University of the Western Cape
Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535
Tel: +27 21 959 3802
http://sanord.net
© 2012 Southern African–Nordic Centre
Te views expressed in this publication are those of the authors. In quoting from
this publication, readers are requested to attribute the source of the information to
the relevant author.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior
permission, in writing, from the publisher or as expressly permitted by law.
ISBN: 978-0-620-55789-4 (print)
ISBN: 978-0-620-55788-7 (PDF)
ISBN: 978-0-620-55787-0 (ebook)
Copyediting and production management: Mary Ralphs
Design and typesetting: Scone-i
Cover artwork: Scone-i
Printing: Creda Communications (Pty) Ltd
Copies of this book are available for free download at http://sanord.netd at
www.africanminds.org.za and http://sanord.net
 
ORDERS
For orders from Africa, please contact:
African Minds
Email: info@africanminds.org.za
 
For orders from outside Africa, please contact:
African Books Collective
PO Box 721, Oxford OX1 9EN, UK
Email: orders@africanbookscollective.com Contents
Acronyms and abbreviations vii
Introduction: why this book, and what it’s about 1
Tor Halvorsen and Peter Vale
Part I: BACKGROUND
1 Te Southern African–Nordic Centre: from conception
to realisation 9
Stanley GM Ridge
2 Drivers and challenges in the internationalisation of higher
education and research: the case of the Southern African–
Nordic Centre 21
Anne Sørensen
Part II: DILEMMAS OF CHANGE
3 Changes in higher education policy and the Nordic model 39
Risto Rinne
4 University transformation: a crisis for the social sciences and
the humanities 55
Tor Halvorsen
5 Redressing apartheid’s legacy of social exclusion: social equity,
redress and admission to higher education in South Africa 71
Saleem Badat
Part III: INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION
6 Te struggle, global challenges and international strategies in the
University of Fort Hare’s music department 103
Bernhard Bleibinger
7 Te migration of African students to South Africa: motivations,
integration and prospects for return 119
Gabriel Tati
8 Te experiences of Deaf students at a South African university 155
Lucas Magongwa





9 Tradition and modernity: the inclusion and exclusion of
traditional voices and other actors in archaeological heritage
management in Mozambique and Zimbabwe 175
Albino Jopela, Ancila Nhamo and Seke Katsamudanga
10 Steering from a distance: improving access to higher education in
South Africa via the funding formula 193
Pieter le Roux and Mignonne Breier
Part IV: CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES
11 Cultural heritage and social context: research and management in
Mozambique 249
Anne Bang and Tore Sætersdal
12 Academic co-operation in a bipolar world:
where does SANORD ft in? 265
Tor Halvorsen
13 Whatever happened to imagination? 267
Peter Vale
About the contributors 303


Frequently used acronyms and abbreviations
CHE Council on Higher Education
CHET Centre for Higher Education Transformation
DDRN Danish Development Research Network
DEAFSA Deaf Federation of South Africa
DHET Department of Higher Education and Training
EHEA European Higher Education Area
GATS General Agreements on Trade in Services
HEMIS Higher Education Management Information System
HSRC Human Sciences Research Council
IAU International Association of Universities
ICT information and communication technologies
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NCHE National Commission on Higher Education
NORAD Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation
NSFAS National Student Financial Aid Scheme
SADC Southern African Development Community
SANORD Southern African–Nordic Centre
SAPSE South African post-secondary education
SASL Sican Sign Language
SIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
TBVC Transkei, Bophutatswana, Venda and Ciskei
UK United Kingdom
US/USA United States of America
WTO World Trade Organisation
viiIntroduction: why this book, and what is it about?
Tor Halvorsen and Peter Vale
This book builds on the Southern African–Nordic Centre (SANORD)
conference, held at Rhodes University, Grahamstown, in December 2009,
on the theme ‘Inclusion and Exclusion in Higher Education’. Its contents,
however, do not simply replicate the proceedings of that event. Instead,
although the bulk of the chapters were delivered as papers at the conference,
one of the chapters derives from an earlier SANORD conference and others,
including those written by Stanly Ridge and the two co-editors, were written
especially for this book. Tis collection thus stands apart from, and gestures
towards, the themes raised at the 2009 event.
Unsurprisingly, given its title, this book considers the value of academic
cooperation – a notion that has been at the heart of conversations about higher
education since the early 1990s. What is its purpose? Why is it necessary?
What form should it take? And, central to the theme of the Grahamstown
gathering, who benefts, and why?
Tese questions cannot be answered until it is understood that academic
co-operation encompasses an array of interlinked networks that run from
the minor to the meso. Tese criss-cross the modern university system in a
bewildering number of ways: from the open exchange of ideas and knowledge;
to the sharing of research results; frank discussions about research challenges;
and (to pinpoint an increasingly threatened feature of university life) the
creation of cross-regional academic communities, characterised by open
dialogue about the challenges posed by the notion of the global ‘knowledge
society’. In other words, the contributors to this book are interested in the
strategies that universities, in the North and the South, have adopted to deal
with the time–space compression – to use David Harvey’s helpful term –
represented by the interconnected world that has been loosely (and recklessly)
described as globalised.
Hovering in the background, during the three days of the 2009 conference
as well as during the process of compiling this volume, is the question of
whether a ‘global template’ for the management of both higher education
1n
s
and national research organisations emerged after the Cold War. And,
if it did, must institutions slavishly follow its high-fown language or risk
falling further and further behind in relation to its regime of ‘excellence’ and
ubiquitous university ranking system? It is, therefore, not wholly surprising
that these issues arise within the book, too.
Te theme of how the global discourse of higher education and research
is infuenced by the concept of competitiveness appears again and again
throughout these chapters. Competitiveness is said to be essential to the
economic and social health of nations (and indeed the world), but are there
alternatives that can achieve a better, more ethically inclined world than the
supposedly endless growth required to feed the market? Are there other
ways of recruiting students are to higher education? Can new governance
systems be linked to the will of academics, rather than planners, as they
work together across regions to shape alternative forms of knowledge? Will,
for instance, alternative curricula produce diferent outcomes? Can these
change our understandings of the challenges of growing global poverty?
How can universities reach society beyond the formalised and increasingly
institutionalised ‘corporate social responsibility’ model which, because it is
copied from the business world, is preoccupied with the bottom line rather
than with the emancipatory role of knowledge? Of course these, and many
other questions, are captured within the idea of ‘inclusion’ and ‘exclusion’, the
theme around which SANORD had convened its conference.
Te book is organised into four sections, which we have called Background;
the Dilemmas of Change; Inclusion and Exclusion; and Critical Perspectives.
Background
Veteran academic, and administrator of the University of the Western Cape,
Stanley Ridge was central to the creation of SANORD. His lively chapter
covers this story in unambiguous terms: SANORD was the product of a
meeting of minds between old friends and their commitment to institutionalise
their friendship anew. Te network’s goals are clearly discussed, and the
personalities, including Ridge, who gave it shape are brought to life.
Danish academic, Anne Sørensen, takes the story forward by positioning
SANORD within a series of debates on the role of higher education in
development. Tis empirically rich chapter places the issue of SANORD
membership within the framework of a loose cost-beneft analysis, and
Sørensen uses this to report on recommendations made during her research
into ways forward for SANORD.
2 Oe W Orld, Many KnOW ledgeDilemmas of change
Nordic higher-education specialist, Risto Rinne, positions the post-Cold
War changes in universities against the changes that took place during in the
1960s and 1970s. But his real purpose is to use the cumulative idea of change
in higher education to report on the condition of higher education in Finland.
Here, the university is caught between the professional responsibilities
of academics and the meta-narratives of globalisation, which determine
particular forms of control; it is an uncomfortable ft.
Rhodes University’s Saleem Badat, policy-maker and university
administrator, provides an account of the double whammy that South
African universities have faced since the ending of apartheid. In a major
key, he discusses the imperative of transformation in line with the country’s
constitution and shows how race, the issue that has dogged the country for so
long, is intertwined with higher education. His minor key is provided by the
concepts that drive global change.
Inclusion and exclusion
Musicologist, Bernard Bleibinger, highlights one of the many dilemmas raised
by South Africa’s transformation and by the utilitarian-inclined forces of
globalisation. What is the role of music, and the arts in general, in education
and society? Bleibinger’s piece is a powerful plea for a new kind of ‘struggle’ –
a struggle to free the mind from the prejudice of commodifcation. Te reach
of music, as his and his colleagues’ experiences at the University of Fort Hare
show, has the potential to fll the space between the local and the global, to
ofer skills and blur boundaries.
It is often said that migration has made the world what it is: Gabriel Tati,
a statistician from the University of the Western Cape, uses his training to
report on the fndings of a study on students from other African countries
who migrate to South Africa to further their education. Understandably, the
reasons for coming are many and varied, integration is challenging and the
decision as to whether to stay on or return home is often painful.
Te University of the Witwatersrand is one of the few universities in
the world that caters for deaf students. Lucas Magongwa points out that
in terms of South Africa’s 1996 Constitution, discrimination against the
deaf cannot be tolerated and should be no hindrance to learning. Recording
the experiences of 12 Deaf students at the university, he reveals that these
students are strongly competitive, even if their social participation is low. But
old issues, such as the resources required to provide interpreters and suitably
trained tutors, continue to present major obstacles to their progress.
Introduction 3n
s
Tradition and modernity run through descriptions of southern Africa’s troubled
history: it is also the theme of a compelling paper on the management of the
region’s archaeological heritage by Zimbabwean and Mozambican scholars,
Albino Jopela, Ancila Nhamo and Seke Katsamudanga. Teir collaboration
provides a fne example of the kinds of relationships that SANORD aims to
foster, and why they matter, while revealing the complexities of preserving
heritage within a complex triangular relationship – state, traditional authority,
community – across a region which, efectively, has no boundaries.
But money matters, too, both in southern Africa and elsewhere and, to the
concern of many, it may be the metaphor that matters most at this stage of
the region’s development. Two South Africans, economist, Peter le Roux, and
higher-education specialist, Mignonne Breier, have this on their minds in the
fnal chapter of this section. Driven by political (and even security) concerns,
rather than by market interests, Le Roux and Breier suggest reasons for the
poor performance of black students in South Africa: the wretched schooling
system, the decline in government expenditure on higher education, inefcient
planning in the sector, and the lack of sufcient incentives. Tey then propose
changes to university funding formulas that have the potential to introduce
far-reaching transformations in the South African context.
Critical perspectives
Te three chapters in the fnal section open towards, if not fully embrace, what
JJ Williams (in his February 2012 contribution to Te Chronicle of Higher
Education, entitled ‘Deconstructing Academe’) has called, ‘critical university
studies’. All three chapters deliver a critical perspective on the issues of higher
education, its globalisation, its transformation in southern Africa, and the
challenges these pose to networks like SANORD.
Anne Bang and Tore Sætersdal gesture towards the earlier chapter by
Jopela, Nhamo and Katsamudanga, asking, what is the place of Africa’s cultural
heritage today? Using a Mozambican case study, they point West, East, and
North, and their canvas seems wider than the southern African region. Te
argument they make is, however, clear and unambiguous: preserving the
past secures the future, and higher education and sustainable research have
a responsibility, whatever the funding regime and current organisational
fashions, to preserve it.
Tor Halvorsen, co-editor of this volume, explores how shifting priorities
have changed the way that higher education and research have been organised
since the fall of the Berlin Wall. Te disciplining of the sector was seen to be
essential and governments were persuaded to do this by a series of discourses
4 Oe W Orld, Many KnOW ledgeand tools developed and advanced by the Organisation for Economic
Cooperation and Development. Tus, knowledge became a commodity and the
professoriate was brought to heel by various regimes of control. Halvorsen
considers the role of SANORD in this context.
Halvorsen’s co-editor, Peter Vale, suggests that the meta-narrative of
globalisation is anchored in what he calls ‘weasel words’ – words emptied
of real meaning. He uses this to suggest that the word, ‘innovation’, which
is central to the lexicon of university reform at a global level, has become a
cipher for the neo-liberal economics that has so deeply divided the world
between rich and poor. Since we live in such a little-known world, Vale argues,
imagination, rather than weasel words such as innovation, should guide the
work of organisations such as SANORD.
Like life itself, editing is a community efort: this book is no exception to the
rule that all our labour is built on the work of others. Our thanks are due to
all the participants in the Grahamstown conference, not only for presenting
on that occasion but also for submitting their papers for inclusion here. Te
selection process was long – no, too long – for which we apologise. In the
process, several papers were lost, and some even withdrawn. While this is a
pity, we nevertheless feel that this book is a good refection of the interests
and concerns that drove the conference.
Out thanks are especially due to those whose papers appear between these
covers. We are also grateful to the staf at the SANORD ofce in South
Africa, Leolyn Jackson and Maureen Davies. Brian O’Connell, chair of the
SANORD board and rector at the University of the Western Cape (UWC),
supported the project throughout, as did Asri Andersen, vice-rector at the
University of Bergen and vice-chair of the SANORD board. We thank UiB
Global for providing an enabling environment, and Professor Steinar Askvik
in the Department of Administration and Organisation Teory for his
continual eforts to make SANORD work. We are also grateful for Estelle H
Prinsloo’s editorial and administrative support. Finally, this book would not
have been possible without the skills and imagination of freelance editor and
project manager, Mary Ralphs.

Introduction 5