The Visual Dictionary of Plants & Gardening

The Visual Dictionary of Plants & Gardening

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English
173 Pages

Description

The Visual Dictionary of Plants and Gardening brings you into the fascinating world of vegetables, from ferns to mosses, flowering plants or trees, and presents tools used to cultivate ornamental or food plants.
Convenient and affordable, this book is an ideal reference tool to get useful information on vegetables and their culture!

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Published 20 July 2012
Reads 46
EAN13 9782764408865
License: All rights reserved
Language English
Document size 7 MB

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T H E V I S U A L D I C T I O N A R Y O F
P L A N T S & G A R D E N I N G
trunk Main part of the tree extending between the soil and the lower branches.
shallow root Root, often having many offshoots, growing somewhat horizontally into the rich moist topsoil.
taproot First root growing out of the seed that grows vertically into the soil; it usually has few offshoots, its main function being to anchor the tree in the ground.
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branch Offshoot of one of the tree’s limbs.
twig The most slender offshoot of a tree branch.
limb Offshoot growing directly out of a tree trunk, subsequently dividing into branches and twigs.
bole Part of the tree trunk extending between the stump and the first lower limbs; it has no offshoots.
radicle The most slender offshoot of a tree root.
PLANTS & GARDENING
QA INTERNATIONAL
Jean-ClaudeCorbeil ArianeArchambault
a C K n O W l e d g e M e n t s Our deepest gratitude to the individuals, institutions, companies, and businesses that have provided us with the latest technical documentation for use in preparing this dictionary.
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Plants & Gardeningwas created and produced by
QA International 329DàÇùWŝ3F MàQùH2Y2È1Çààà T5144993000F5144993010 www.qainternational.com
©QAIàîà2009AîŝŝNàîŝkàùàŝîîàààŝîàîàîùîîîàîàîŝààîàŝîùîŝŝîîîîQAIàîà
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E D I T O R I A L S T A F F Editor: Jacques Fortin Authors: Jean-Claude Corbeil and Ariane Archambault Editorial Director: François Fortin Editor-in-Chief: Anne Rouleau Graphic Designer: Anne Tremblay
P R O D U C T I O N Nathalie Fréchette Josée Gagnon
T E R M I N O L O G I C A L R E S E A R C H Jean Beaumont Catherine Briand Nathalie Guillo
E N G L I S H D E F I N I T I O N S Nancy Butchart Rita Cloghesy Tom Donovan Diana Halfpenny John Woolfrey Kathe Roth
I L L U S T R A T I O N S Artistic Direction: Jocelyn Gardner Jean-Yves Ahern Rielle Lévesque Alain Lemire Mélanie Boivin Yan Bohler Claude Thivierge Pascal Bilodeau Michel Rouleau Anouk Noël Carl Pelletier Raymond Martin
L A Y O U T Pascal Goyette Danielle Quinty Émilie Corriveau Preliminary layout: Émilie Bellemare Sonia Charette
D O C U M E N T A T I O N Gilles Vézina Kathleen Wynd Stéphane Batigne Sylvain Robichaud Jessie Daigle
D A T A M A N A G E M E N T Programmer: Éric Gagnon Josée Gagnon
R E V I S I O N Veronica Schami Jo Howard Marie-Nicole Cimon Liliane Michaud
P R E P R E S S Karine Lévesque François Hénault Julien Brisebois Patrick Mercure
C O N T R I B U T I O N S QA International wishes to extend a special thank you to the following people for their contribution to this book: Jean-Louis Martin, Marc Lalumière, Jacques Perrault, Stéphane Roy, Alice Comtois, Michel Blais, Christiane Beauregard, Mamadou Togola, Annie Maurice, Charles Campeau, Mivil Deschênes, Jonathan Jacques, Martin Lortie, Frédérick Simard, Yan Tremblay, Mathieu Blouin, Sébastien Dallaire, Hoang Khanh Le, Martin Desrosiers, Nicolas Oroc, François Escalmel, Danièle Lemay, Pierre Savoie, Benoît Bourdeau, Marie-Andrée Lemieux, Caroline Soucy, Yves Chabot, Anne-Marie Ouellette, Anne-Marie Villeneuve, Anne-Marie Brault, Nancy Lepage, Daniel Provost, François Vézina, Guylaine Houle, Daniel Beaulieu, Sophie Pellerin, Tony O'Riley, Mac Thien Nguyen Hoang, Serge D'Amico.
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I N T R O D U C T I O N
EDITORIAL POLICY The Visual Dictionarytakes an inventory of the physical environment of a person who is part of today's technological age and who knows and uses a large number of specialized terms in a wide variety of fields. Designed for the general public, it responds to the needs of anyone seeking the precise, correct terms for a wide range of personal or professional reasons: finding an unknown term, checking the meaning of a word, translation, advertising, teaching material, etc. The target user has guided the choice of contents forThe Visual Dictionary, which aims to bring together in 12 thematic books the technical terms required to express the contemporary world, in the specialized fields that shape our daily experience.
STRUCTURE Each tome has three sections: the preliminary pages, including the table of contents; the body of the text (i.e. the detailed treatment of the theme); the index. Information is presented moving from the most abstract to the most concrete: sub-theme, title, subtitle, illustration, terminology.
TERMINOLOGY Each word inThe Visual Dictionaryhas been carefully selected following examination of high-quality documentation, at the required level of specialization. There may be cases where different terms are used to name the same item. In such instances, the word most frequently used by the most highly regarded authors has been chosen. Words are usually referred to in the singular, even if the illustration shows a number of individual examples. The word designates the concept, not the actual illustration.
IV
DEFINITIONS Within the hierarchical format ofThe Visual Dictionary's presentation, the definitions fit together like a Russian doll. For example, the information within the definition for the terminsect at the top of the page does not have to be repeated for each of the insects illustrated. Instead, the text concentrates on defining the distinguishing characteristics of each insect (thelouseis a parasite, the femaleyellow jacketstings, and so forth). Since the definition leaves out what is obvious from the illustration, the illustrations and definitions complement one another. The vast majority of the terms in theVisual Dictionaryare defined. Terms are not defined when the illustration makes the meaning absolutely clear, or when the illustration suggests the usual meaning of the word (for example, the numeroushandles).
METHODS OF CONSULTATION Users may gain access to the contents ofThe Visual Dictionaryin a variety of ways: • From the TABLE OF CONTENTS at the end of the preliminary pages, the user can locate by title the section that is of interest. • With the INDEX, the user can consultThe Visual Dictionaryfrom a word, so as to see what it corresponds to, or to verify accuracy by examining the illustration that depicts it. • The most original aspect ofThe Visual Dictionaryis the fact that the illustrations enable the user to find a word even if he or she only has a vague idea of what it is. The dictionary is unique in this feature, as consultation of any other dictionary requires the user first to know the word.
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P L A N T S fern Flowerless vegetable that grows mainly in the tropics; it also grows in temperate climates in rich damp soil.
structure of a fern
TERM Each term appears in the index with a reference to the pages on which it appears.
frond Fern leaf, originating at the rhizome, that bears sori and is especially adapted to capture light and perform photosynthesis.
pinna Segment of the frond’s blade, the underside of which bears sori.
rhizome Stem usually found underground that grows horizontally, occasionally vertically, out of which adventitious fronds and roots grow.
fiddlehead Immature fern frond; its coiled tip is shaped like the head of a fiddle.
tree fern Large fern that resembles a tree and can reach heights of up to 65 ft; it grows mainly in the tropics.
petiole Slender part of the frond connecting the blade to the rhizome.
sorus Cluster of small spore-producing structures covering the underside of a pinna.
V
blade Main part of the frond, rich in chlorophyll.
trunk Main part of the fern, composed of a vertical rhizome covered with the stubs of old fronds and, often, with aboveground adventitious roots.
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SUB-THEME These are shown at the end of the preliminary pages along with their definitions. They are then repeated on each page of a section, but without the definition.
adventitious roots Roots that grow out of the rhizome, enabling the fern to anchor itself to the soil and absorb water and mineral salts from it.
common polypody Fern with fronds up to a foot long; it is usually found in damp overgrown soil, on rocks or tree trunks.
bird’s nest fern Fern that usually grows out of another plant without deriving nourishment from it; its fronds grow in a rosette around a central rhizome, hence its name.
I L L U S T R A T I O N It is an integral part of the visual definition for each of the terms that refer to it.
N A R R O W L I N E S These link the word to the item indicated. Where too many lines would make reading difficult, they have been replaced by color codes with captions or, in rare cases, by numbers.
T I T L E Its definition is found below. If the title refers to information that continues over several pages, after the first page it is shown in a shaded tone with no definition.
D E F I N I T I O N It explains the inherent qualities, function, or characteristics of the element depicted in the illustration.
P L A N T S
fern examples of ferns There are more than 10,000 species of fern, varying in height from a a fraction of an inch to several feet.
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C O N T E N T S
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VI
PLANTS 8 Plant cell 10 Lichen 12 Moss 14 Alga 16 Fern 18 Mushroom 22 Plant 28 Root 30 Stem 32 Leaf 38 Seed 39 Aquatic plant 39 Succulent plant 40 Flower 48 Fruits 78 Cereals 88 Grape 93 Tropical rainforest 94 Tree 101 Conifer 106 Wood 110 Vegetation and biosphere
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146
166
GARDENING 114 Pleasure garden 116 Basic building materials 117 Hand tools 118 Miscellaneous equipment 120 Seeding and planting tools 122 Tools for loosening the earth 126 Watering tools 131 Pruning and cutting tools 138 Lawn care 144 Ladders and stepladders
AGRICULTURE 146 Farmstead 148 Steps for cultivating soil 151 Tractor 154 Agricultural machinery
INDUSTRY 166 Paper 168 Rubber
169INDEX
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VII
P L A N T S àSàŝîîŝùùàŝîùààŝîàîŝîŝîzàŝàîîŝùî
CELL wàLL Sîîŝùààŝîààîŝîŝŝà
LIPID DROPLET Sàŝàîîŝŝîàààîŝààùàŝ
CYTOPLàSM Çààîùŝŝùŝàŝùùîàîùŝùàŝùùŝ
VàCUOLE Sîààîàîîààŝààîùŝŝùŝàŝqùî
8
CELL MEMbRàNE Çàŝîàŝŝ àŝîàŝàŝàîîàŝŝààîŝùŝàŝîàù
RIbOSOME Sàŝùùàŝîààààŝîîùùîàŝîŝ ŝŝîààîàùîîîîîŝ
GOLI àPPàRàTUS Ôàŝàŝîŝkŝ àîîŝùîŝŝàîàŝùŝîàŝ
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CHLOROPLàST Sàŝùùàîîàîàîàŝŝ ŝààùŝŝîùùŝàŝ
MITOCHONDRION Ôîààùŝŝŝààîî
NUCLEUS Ôààîîàŝŝàîîŝàîîîŝ
NUCLEàR ENVELOPE Aù-ààîùùŝ
PLàSMODESMà Pàîŝîàŝ àîàjàŝààŝ
NUCLEOLUS Sàŝîààîŝîùùŝîîîîŝŝî-ŝŝîzîŝùùŝàù
ENDOPLàSMIC RETICULUM Iîùŝàîŝùŝàŝàŝîîàîŝîî
STàRCH RàNULE Çîàŝŝàùàŝ
LEUCOPLàST Sàŝŝŝùùàùŝ àŝŝŝààŝ
PORE Pàîŝîùààîàŝàŝàùùŝ
9
à
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P L A N T S