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The Visual Dictionary of Plants & Gardening

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Description

The Visual Dictionary of Plants and Gardening brings you into the fascinating world of vegetables, from ferns to mosses, flowering plants or trees, and presents tools used to cultivate ornamental or food plants.
Convenient and affordable, this book is an ideal reference tool to get useful information on vegetables and their culture!

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Informations

Published by
Published 20 July 2012
Reads 2
EAN13 9782764408865
Language English
Document size 49 MB

Legal information: rental price per page 0.0020€. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

Exrait

T H EV I S U A L
D I C T I O N A R YO F

P LA N T S&
G A R D E N I N G

trunk
Main part of the tree extending between
the soil and the lower branches.

shallow root
Root, often having many offshoots,
growing somewhat horizontally into
the rich moist topsoil.

taproot
First root growing out of the seed that
grows vertically into the soil; it usually
has few offshoots, its main function
being to anchor the tree in the ground.

branch
Offshoot of one of the
tree’s limbs.

twig
The most slender
offshoot of a tree
branch.

limb
Offshoot growing directly out of a
tree trunk, subsequently dividing into
branches and twigs.

bole
Part of the tree trunk extending
between the stump and the first lower
limbs; it has no offshoots.

radicle
The most slender offshoot of a tree
root.

PLANTS &
GARDENING

QA INTERNATIONAL

Jean-ClaudeCorbeil
ArianeArchambault

A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S
Our deepest gratitude to the individuals, institutions, companies, and businesses that have provided us with the latest technical
documentation for use in preparing this dictionary.

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Bombardier Aerospace; Bridgestone-Firestone; Brother (Canada); Canadian National; Casavant Frères ltée; C.O.J.O. ATHENS 2004 (I

agne);
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Media Service); Centre Eaton de Montréal; Centre national du costume (Recherche et diffusion); Cetacean Society International (William R.
Rossiter); Chagnon, Daniel (architect D.E.S. - M.E.Q.); Cohen et Rubin Architectes (Maggy Cohen); Commission scolaire de Montréal (École
StHenri); Hudson Bay Company (Nunzia Iavarone, Ron Oyama); Corporation d'hébergement du Québec (Céline Drolet); National Theatre School of
Canada (Library); Élevage Le Grand Saphir (Stéphane Ayotte); Atomic Energy of Canada; Eurocopter; Famous Players; Fédération bancaire
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Hôtel Inter-Continental; Hydro-Québec; I.P.I.Q. (Serge Bouchard); IGA Barcelo; International Entomological Society (Dr. Michael Geisthardt);
Irisbus; Jérôme, Danielle (O.D.); La Poste (Colette Gouts); Le Groupe Canam Manac inc.; Lévesque, Georges (urgentologist); Lévesque, Robert
(chief machinist); Manutan; Marriott SpringHill Suites; MATRA S.A.; Métro inc.; National Defence of Canada (Public Affairs); ministère de la
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Yamaha Motor Canada Ltd.

Plants & Gardeningwas created and produced by

QA International
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© QA International 2009. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
or by any information storage and retrieval sytem, without permission in
writing by QA International.

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Version 3.5.1

ISBN 978-2-7644-0886-5

E D I T O R I A LS T A F F
Editor: Jacques Fortin
Authors: Jean-Claude Corbeil and
Ariane Archambault
Editorial Director: François Fortin
Editor-in-Chief: Anne Rouleau
Graphic Designer: Anne Tremblay

P R O D U C T I O N
Nathalie Fréchette
Josée Gagnon

T E R M I N O L O G I C A LR E S E A R C H
Jean Beaumont
Catherine Briand
Nathalie Guillo

E N G L I S HD E F I N I T I O N S
Nancy Butchart
Rita Cloghesy
Tom Donovan
Diana Halfpenny
John Woolfrey
Kathe Roth

I L L U S T R A T I O N S
Artistic Direction: Jocelyn Gardner
Jean-Yves Ahern
Rielle Lévesque
Alain Lemire
Mélanie Boivin
Yan Bohler
Claude Thivierge
Pascal Bilodeau
Michel Rouleau
Anouk Noël
Carl Pelletier
Raymond Martin

L A Y O U T
Pascal Goyette
Danielle Quinty
Émilie Corriveau
Preliminary layout: Émilie Bellemare
Sonia Charette

D O C U M E N T A T I O N
Gilles Vézina
Kathleen Wynd
Stéphane Batigne
Sylvain Robichaud
Jessie Daigle

D A T AM A N A G E M E N T
Programmer: Éric Gagnon
Josée Gagnon

R E V I S I O N
Veronica Schami
Jo Howard
Marie-Nicole Cimon
Liliane Michaud

P R E P R E S S
Karine Lévesque
François Hénault
Julien Brisebois
Patrick Mercure

C O N T R I B U T I O N S
QA International wishes to extend a special thank you to the following people for their contribution to this book:
Jean-Louis Martin, Marc Lalumière, Jacques Perrault, Stéphane Roy, Alice Comtois, Michel Blais, Christiane Beauregard, Mamadou Togola,
Annie Maurice, Charles Campeau, Mivil Deschênes, Jonathan Jacques, Martin Lortie, Frédérick Simard, Yan Tremblay, Mathieu Blouin,
Sébastien Dallaire, Hoang Khanh Le, Martin Desrosiers, Nicolas Oroc, François Escalmel, Danièle Lemay, Pierre Savoie, Benoît Bourdeau,
Marie-Andrée Lemieux, Caroline Soucy, Yves Chabot, Anne-Marie Ouellette, Anne-Marie Villeneuve, Anne-Marie Brault, Nancy Lepage,
Daniel Provost, François Vézina, Guylaine Houle, Daniel Beaulieu, Sophie Pellerin, Tony O'Riley, Mac Thien Nguyen Hoang, Serge D'Amico.

I N T R O D U C T I O N

EDITORIAL POLICY
The Visual Dictionarytakes an inventory of the physical
environment of a person who is part of today's technological age
and who knows and uses a large number of specialized terms in a
wide variety of fields.
Designed for the general public, it responds to the needs of
anyone seeking the precise, correct terms for a wide range of
personal or professional reasons: finding an unknown term,
checking the meaning of a word, translation, advertising, teaching
material, etc.
The target user has guided the choice of contents forThe Visual
Dictionary, which aims to bring together in 12 thematic books the
technical terms required to express the contemporary world, in the
specialized fields that shape our daily experience.

STRUCTURE
Each tome has three sections: the preliminary pages, including the
table of contents; the body of the text (i.e. the detailed treatment
of the theme); the index.
Information is presented moving from the most abstract to the
most concrete: sub-theme, title, subtitle, illustration, terminology.

TERMINOLOGY
Each word inThe Visual Dictionaryhas been carefully selected
following examination of high-quality documentation, at the
required level of specialization.
There may be cases where different terms are used to name the
same item. In such instances, the word most frequently used by
the most highly regarded authors has been chosen.
Words are usually referred to in the singular, even if the illustration
shows a number of individual examples. The word designates the
concept, not the actual illustration.

IV

DEFINITIONS
Within the hierarchical format ofThe Visual Dictionary's
presentation, the definitions fit together like a Russian doll. For
example, the information within the definition for the terminsect
at the top of the page does not have to be repeated for each of the
insects illustrated. Instead, the text concentrates on defining the
distinguishing characteristics of each insect (thelouseis a
parasite, the femaleyellow jacketstings, and so forth).
Since the definition leaves out what is obvious from the
illustration, the illustrations and definitions complement one
another.
The vast majority of the terms in theVisual Dictionaryare defined.
Terms are not defined when the illustration makes the meaning
absolutely clear, or when the illustration suggests the usual
meaning of the word (for example, the numeroushandles).

METHODS OF CONSULTATION
Users may gain access to the contents ofThe Visual Dictionaryin
a variety of ways:
• From the TABLE OF CONTENTS at the end of the preliminary
pages, the user can locate by title the section that is of interest.
• With the INDEX, the user can consultThe Visual Dictionaryfrom
a word, so as to see what it corresponds to, or to verify accuracy
by examining the illustration that depicts it.
• The most original aspect ofThe Visual Dictionaryis the fact that
the illustrations enable the user to find a word even if he or she
only has a vague idea of what it is. The dictionary is unique in this
feature, as consultation of any other dictionary requires the user
first to know the word.

T I T L E
Its definition is found below. If the title refers to
information that continues over several pages,
after the first page it is shown in a shaded tone
with no definition.

TERM
Each term appears in the index
with a reference to the pages on
which it appears.

P L A N T S
fern
Flowerless vegetable that grows mainly in the tropics; it also grows in temperate climates in rich damp soil.

structure of a fern

frond
Fern leaf, originating at the rhizome,
that bears sori and is especially adapted
to capture light and perform
photosynthesis.

rhizome
Stem usually found underground that
grows horizontally, occasionally
vertically, out of which adventitious
fronds and roots grow.

16

I L L U S T R A T I O N
It is an integral part of the
visual definition for each of the
terms that refer to it.

sorus
Cluster of small spore-producing
structures covering the underside of a
pinna.

blade
Main part of the frond, rich in
chlorophyll.

pinna
Segment of the frond’s blade, the
underside of which bears sori.

petiole
Slender part of the frond connecting
the blade to the rhizome.

fiddlehead
Immature fern frond; its coiled tip is shaped
like the head of a fiddle.

adventitious roots
Roots that grow out of the rhizome,
enabling the fern to anchor itself to the
soil and absorb water and mineral salts
from it.

D E F I N I T I O N
It explains the inherent qualities, function, or
characteristics of the element depicted in the
illustration.

tree fern
Large fern that resembles a tree and
can reach heights of up to 65 ft; it
grows mainly in the tropics.

common polypody
Fern with fronds up to a foot long; it is
usually found in damp overgrown soil,
on rocks or tree trunks.

SUB-THEME
These are shown at the end of the
preliminary pages along with their
definitions. They are then repeated on
each page of a section, but without the
definition.

P L A N T S

fern
examples of ferns
There are more than 10,000 species of
fern, varying in height from a a fraction
of an inch to several feet.

trunk
Main part of the fern, composed of a
vertical rhizome covered with the stubs of
old fronds and, often, with aboveground
adventitious roots.

N A R R O WL I N E S
These link the word to the item indicated. Where too many
lines would make reading difficult, they have been replaced
by color codes with captions or, in rare cases, by numbers.

bird’s nest fern
Fern that usually grows out of another plant
without deriving nourishment from it; its
fronds grow in a rosette around a central
rhizome, hence its name.

17

V

C O N T E N T S

8

VI

PLANTS
8 Plantcell
10 Lichen
12 Moss
14 Alga
16 Fern
18 Mushroom
22 Plant
28 Root
30 Stem
32 Leaf
38 Seed
39 Aquaticplant
39 Succulentplant
40 Flower
48 Fruits
78 Cereals
88 Grape
93 Tropicalrainforest
94 Tree
101 Conifer
106 Wood
110 Vegetation and biosphere

114

146

166

GARDENING
114 Pleasure garden
116 Basic building materials
117 Handtools
118 Miscellaneous equipment
120 Seeding and planting tools
122 Tools for loosening the earth
126 Watering tools
131 Pruning and cutting tools
138 Lawn care
144 Ladders and stepladders

AGRICULTURE
146 Farmstead
148 Steps for cultivating soil
151 Tractor
154 Agricultural machinery

INDUSTRY
166 Paper
168 Rubber

169INDEX

VII

P L A N T S
plant cell
Smallest living structure and the constituent element of all vegetables; it varies in size and shape depending on
its function.

cell wall
Stiff exterior surface of the cytoplasmic
membrane that gives the cell its shape.

lipid droplet
Small sac filled with essential fatty
acids that are produced by the cell and
stored for food.

cytoplasm
Clear gelatinous substance
surrounding the various cellular
structures.

vacuole
Spherical cavity containing water,
waste and various substances required
by the cell.

8

cell membrane
Casing that covers the cell’s
cytoplasm; it acts as a filter, controlling
the passage of certain substances in
and out of the cell.

ribosome
Small structure, occasionally attached to the
endoplasmic reticulum; it generates proteins
essential to the formation and functioning of
living things.

Golgi apparatus
Organelle composed of a series of pockets
that receive proteins produced by the
ribosomes and either transport them outside
the cell or to other organelles.

chloroplast
Small structure, containing a green
pigment called chlorophyll, which absorbs
solar energy and uses it to produce
glucose, the vegetable’s food.

mitochondrion
Ovoid organelle that produces the
energy necessary for cell activity.

leucoplast
Small colorless structure that produces
and stores starch, the vegetable’s food.

starch granule
Concentric layers of starch produced
by the cell and stored for food.

endoplasmic reticulum
Interconnecting tubes allowing
substances to be transported within the
cell or between the cell and its exterior
environment.

plant cell

9

nucleolus
Small spherical body located inside the
nucleus, within which the ribosomes, or
protein-synthesizing structures, are
produced.

plasmodesma
Perforations in the membranes
allowing two adjacent cells to
exchange cytoplasm.

nuclear envelope
A double-layered membrane enveloping
the nucleus.

nucleus
Organelle containing a cell’s genes and
controlling its activities.

pore
Perforations in the nuclear envelope
allowing for exchanges between the
cytoplasm and the nucleus.

P L A N T S

P L A N T S
lichen
Vegetable formed from the symbiotic association of an alga and a fungus.

structure of a lichen

10

thallus
Lichen’s main structure formed by the
imbrication of fungal filaments and
alga cells.

apothecium
Reproductive organ of the fungus that
is a part of the lichen.

P L A N T S

crustose lichen
Lichen whose thallus forms a crust that
is firmly attached to its substrate.

fruticose lichen
Lichen whose thallus resembles a
small tree; it is attached to its substrate
at a single point.

lichen

examples of lichens
There are more than 20,000 species of
lichen, found growing out of the soil, on
tree trunks or on rocks; they grow in all
climatic zones.

foliose lichen
Lichen whose thallus resembles leaves
or lobes that are loosely attached to
their substrate and can be easily
removed.

11

P L A N T S
moss
Flowerless vegetable, usually small in size, that grows in large tightly packed tufts to create a veritable soft
carpet.

structure of a moss

stem
Main part of the moss from which the
leaves spiral outward; it can be upright
or flat.

12

rhizoid
Rootlike filament enabling the moss to
anchoritself to its substrate and
absorb tawa rem dnerin saltsal.

capsule
Hollow structure that manufactures
spores, small seeds used in
reproduction; it has a cover that opens
to release the mature spores.

leaf
Part of the moss originating at the
stem, especially adapted to capture
light, perform photosynthesis and
absorb water.

stalk
Long slender axis that supports the
capsule, enabling it to absorb
nutrients.

P L A N T S

prickly sphagnum
Bog moss that has no rhizoid and rarely
bears a capsule; it has a high water
content and its decomposition helps to
form peat.

common hair cap moss
Ground moss with an erect stem and stiff
leaves that grows in tufts, mostly in
wooded areas; the capsule emerges from
the end of a very long stalk.

moss

examples of mosses
There are more than 13,000 species of
moss; they generally grow in damp soil,
on rocks or tree trunks and occasionally
in fresh water.

13

P L A N T S
alga
Flowerless vegetable that usually lives in aquatic environments; it produces oxygen and is at the base of the
food chain.
structure of an alga

aerocyst
Small gas-filled bladder containing
nitrogen and oxygen; it is located in
the thallus of some algae and provides
buoyancy.

14

receptacle
Enlarged part, generally located at the
tip of a frond, holding the alga’s
reproductive organs.

midrib
Projection running the length of the
thallus or fronds of certain algae.

thallus
Alga’s main structure, with
undifferentiated stem and leaves.

hapteron
Small, occasionally branched disk,
located at the base of certain thalli,
enabling their attachment to a
substrate.

brown alga
Brown-pigmented alga that usually
lives in the sea, often in cold water;
there are more than 1,500 species of
brown alga.

P L A N T S

red alga
Red-pigmented alga that generally lives in
salt water and at greater depths than other
algae; there are 4,000 species of red algae.

alga

examples of algae
More than 25,000 species of algae live in
aquatic environments or in some regions
with damp soil; they vary in size from
microscopic to 60 ft in length.

lamina
Part of the thallus that is shaped like a
blade; it is quite wide and looks like a
leaf.

green alga
Alga often found in freshwater, but also
in seas and some nonaquatic
environments; there are 6,000 species
of green algae.

15

P L A N T S
fern
Flowerless vegetable that grows mainly in the tropics; it also grows in temperate climates in rich damp soil.

structure of a fern

frond
Fern leaf, originating at the rhizome,
that bears sori and is especially adapted
to capture light and perform
photosynthesis.

rhizome
Stem usually found underground that
grows horizontally, occasionally
vertically, out of which adventitious
fronds and roots grow.

16

sorus
Cluster of small spore-producing
structures covering the underside of a
pinna.

blade
Main part of the frond, rich in
chlorophyll.

pinna
Segment of the frond’s blade, the
underside of which bears sori.

petiole
Slender part of the frond connecting
the blade to the rhizome.

fiddlehead
Immature fern frond; its coiled tip is shaped
like the head of a fiddle.

adventitious roots
Roots that grow out of the rhizome,
enabling the fern to anchor itself to the
soil and absorb water and mineral salts
from it.