610 Pages
English

Family Guide to Health

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The essential family reference when it comes to understanding the treatment and prevention of illnesses that affect the human body.
A reference work that has benefited from the participation of some 300 physicians, medical specialists and university professors.

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Published 08 March 2013
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EAN13 9782764411896
Language English
Document size 29 MB

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FAMILYGUIDE TOHEALTH Visualize, Heal, Prevent
FAMILYGUIDE TOHEALTH Visualize, Heal, Prevent
QA INTERNATIONAL
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thîs work îs the work of a team of experîenced and passîonate medîca îustrators, graphîc artîsts, and edîtors. It was deveoped based on the needs of the genera pubîc from an înîtîa work vaîdated by cose to 300 heath professîonas: specîaîsts în cardîoogy, oncoogy, genetîcs, obstetrîcs, pedîatrîcs, îmmunoogy, neuroogy, surgery, uroogy, nutrîtîon, psychoogy, rheumatoogy, toxîcoogy, pneumoogy, hepatoogy, orthopedîcs, traumatoogy, gastroenteroogy, opthamoogy, and other îfe scîences. We woud îke to thank these doctors, professors, and researchers affîîated wîth North Amerîcan and European înstîtutîons.
Very specîa recognîtîon îs gîven to Dr. Érîc Phîîppe, professor at the Unîversîté Lava's Facuty of Medecîne, who revîewed theFamily Guide to Healthand who made sure that we had presented wîth rîgor and carîty the dîfferent systems and parts of the human body, as we as the dîseases that may affect ît and the treatments that they requîre. Hîs assîstance as we as that of the other technîca revîewers were essentîa în order to make thîs book an essentîa reference for the whoe famîy.
DISCLAIMER The contents of thîs work are offered strîcty for înformatîona purposes and cannot substîtute for the advîce and counse of your doctor or of a heath-care professîona. Consequenty, the înformatîon provîded hereîn does not repace a medîca consutatîon. A of the data have been carefuy verîfîed. If, în spîte of the precautîons taken and the care gîven în the preparatîon and the wrîtîng of thîs famîy heath guîde, ît îs found to contaîn some errors, thîs does not engage the îabîîty of the pubîsher and of the numerous coaborators assocîated wîth îts productîon.
TheFamily Guide to Healthwas created and desîgned by QA Internatîona 329 de a Commune Street West, 3rd foor Montrea, Quebec, Canada, H2Y 2E1 T: 514.499.3000 F: 514.499.3010 www.qainternational.com © QA Internatîona, 2010. A rîghts reserved. Any reproductîon or use of the contents of thîs work, în any form and by any means whatsoever - eectronîc or physîca reproductîon, încudîng photocopyîng and recordîng - wîthout the wrîtten permîssîon of QA Internatîona îs prohîbîted.
ISBN : 978-2-7644-1189-6 Versîon 1.2
PUBLISHER QA Internatîona, a dîvîsîon of Les Édîtîons Québec Amérîque
Presîdent: Jacques Fortîn Vîce-Presîdent: Caroîne Fortîn
EDITORIAL DIRECTOR Martîne Podesto
EDITORS-IN-CHIEF Marîe-Anne Legaut Stéphane Batîgne
EDITORIAL STAFF Mathîeu Burgard Myrîam Caron Bezîe Juîe Caîîau Ophéîe Deaunay Caîre de Guîebon Chrîstîne Leroy Jean-Françoîs Nouîn Auréîe Oîvîer Oîvîer Peyronnet Rose-Héène Phîîppot
PRINT DESIGN Méanîe Gîguère-Gîbert
GRAPHIC DESIGN Johanne Pante
LAYOUT Juîen Brîseboîs Émîîe Corrîveau Pasca Goyette Caroîne Grégoîre Françoîs Hénaut Cécîe Laonde Karîne Lévesque Danîee Quînty Shadîa Toumanî
ILLUSTRATION Danîee Bader Manuea Bertonî Joceyn Gardner Méanîe Gîguère-Gîbert Aaîn Lemîre Raymond Martîn Émîîe McMahon Anouk Noë
Under the dîrectîon of Syvaîn Béanger, medîca îustratîon specîaîst
PHOTOGRAPHIC RESEARCH Oîvîer Deorme Gîes Vézîna
IT MANAGER Martîn Lemîeux
PROGRAMMING Érîc Gagnon Gabrîe Trudeau-St-Hîaîre
PROJECT MANAGEMENT Nathaîe Fréchette Véronîque Loranger
SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OF THIS EDITION Prîncîpa Revîewer: Dr. Érîc Phîîppe, PhD St. John Ambuance (First Aid) Extenso - Nutrîtîon Reference Center of the Unîversîty of Montréa, www.extenso.org (The Digestive System — The Health of the Digestive System; Childhood and Adolescence — Diet diversification; Prevention — Nutrition) Dr. Isabee Arsenaut (The Reproductive System — Sexually Transmitted Infections) Chrîstîna Baîs, M.Sc., professîona dîetîtîan (The Senses — Smell, Taste) Dr. Pîerre Bondeau (The Senses — Eye Diseases) Dr. Oîvîer Deguîne (The Senses — Balance Disturbances) Dr. Louîs-Gîes Durand (The Cardiovascular System) Dr. Danîe Grenîer (The Digestive System— Oral Diseases, Cavities) Dr. Syvaîn Ladouceur (Directory of Symptoms) Dr. Bernard Lambert (The Reproductive System — Diseases Affecting Women) Dr. Robert Patenaude (Directory of Symptoms) Dr. Caude Poîrîer (The Respiratory System) Dr. Caude Rouîard (The Nervous System — Drug Addiction) Dr. Juîo Soto (The Immune System — p.292 to 301, 380, 381) Dr. Juîe Thîbaut (Directory of Symptoms) Dr. Catherîne Vîncent (The Digestive System — Hepatitis)
TRANSLATION TransPerfect
COPYEDITING Veronîca Schamî Edîtorîa Servîces
INDEX Françoîs Trahan
PRINT MANAGEMENT Savatore Parîsî
CONTRIBUTORS QA International thanks the following people for their contribution to this work: Émîîe Beemare, Dr. Vîncent Bernîer, Pasca Bîodeau, Sonîa Charette, Mathîeu Douvîe, Françoîs Fortîn, Véronîque Gosseîn, Dr. Caude Lamarche, Pasca Lanîe, Samue Larochee, Benoît Nantaîs, Josée Noîseux, Odîe Perpîou, Serge Robert, Anne Roueau, Syvaîn Sîmard, Kîen Tang and Anne Trembay.
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HOW TO USE THIS BOOK TheFamily Guide to Healthîs dîvîded înto 20 themes whîch most often correspond to a mechanîsm or system în the human body. The themes are dîvîded înto sub-themes, then înto subjects that descrîbe the anatomy, functîonîng and dîseases assocîated wîth a group of organs. The contents of the encycopedîa can be accessed în severa ways:
 from the tabe of contents, whîch presents the detaîed outîne of the work;  from the îndex, whîch îsts the work’s keywords and makes ît possîbe to quîcky fînd  the înformatîon requîred on a partîcuar subject;  from the dîrectory of symptoms, whîch makes ît possîbe to fînd, based on a symptom,  dîseases that can be connected wîth ît, and the correspondîng pages în the book.
Subjects The subjects covering diseases are identifiable by the colored outline.
Subtheme
Theme Each theme is marked by a distinct color.
Glossary term The shaded terms are defined in the glossary.
Introduction The text of the introduction states the basis of the subject and is completed by articles.
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS Bacteria may be introduced in the urinary tract and multiply, causing a urinary tract infection. The germ responsible is oftenEscherichia coli, a bacterium that is part of the normal intestinal flora. Contamination of the urinary tract may occur upon sexual | Diseases relations, but may also be due to hygienic negligence, malformations of the urinary tract, or obstruction of urine flow (urinary stone, prostate adenoma, etc.). Urinary tract infections may also result from physiological changes that occur during pregnancy or may arise spontaneously in girls under 2 years of age.
The urinary system
Escherichia coli Escherichia coli, also called coliform bacteria, is one of the primary bacteria of the digestive tract. It is the leading cause of urinary tract infections.
Bladder Urethra Infection of the urethra, which especially affects men, is often due to sexually transmitted infections. Genital infections… page 441 Urethral orifice
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
SYMPTOMS: Painful, urgent, and frequent urination; cloudy and smelly urine, containing blood. Pyelonephritis: back and abdominal pains near the affected kidney, high fever with chills.
TREATMENT: Antibioticsand elimination of risk factors.
PREVENTION: Proper hydration, frequent urination, good personal hygiene.
406
Summary box Each subject coveringa disease contains a summary box whichpresents an overall view of the symptoms, treatments and preventive methods that are associated with it.
Rectum The rectum, like the intestines, is home to numerous bacteria that make up the intestinal flora.
Anus Cross section of lower urinary tracts in women In women, urinary tract infections are often caused by the passing of bacteria from the rectum to the urethral orifice, then to the bladder.
CYSTITIS Bladder infection, or cystitis, is generally benign and relatively common. A woman's anatomy, characterized by the short length of the urethra and the proximity of the anus and the urethral orifice, makes her more susceptible to this type of infection. Cystitis notably entails painful, urgent, and frequent urination. A cytobacteriological analysis of the urine will recognize an infectious agent and antibiotic treatment will begin if a bacterium is detected. Cystitis can reoccur and, in the absence of treatment, the infection can spread to the kidneys. Urine analysis… page 403
Illustration Very realistic illustrations, combined with terms and short complementary texts, aid in the understanding of the subject.
Article
Footnote The footnote directs the reader to a page of the encyclopedia which contains additional information.
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
PYELONEPHRITIS Pyelonephritis is a kidneyinfection. In itsacuteform, it often follows cystitis when the bacteria present in the bladder ascend the ureters to reach the kidneys. The slowing down of the urinary flow, caused by the presence of a urinary stone or malformation, also promotes the multiplication of bacteria in the bladder and their ascent to the kidneys.Chronicpyelonephritis, which is more rare and develops slowly, may lead to kidney atrophy and kidney failure. Kidney failure… page412
PREVENTING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
Here is some advice for preventing urinary tract infections and their recurrence.
DRINK SUFFICIENTLY Drink 1½ to 2 quarts (1.4 to 1.9 liters) of water every day. Berrybased juices, such as cranberry juice, are also recommended to prevent the recurrence of urinary tract infections.
URINATE AS SOON AS YOU FEEL THE URGE Retaining urine promotes the proliferation of germs.
MAINTAIN PROPER PERSONAL HYGIENE Regularly wash the anal and vulvar regions, but not excessively. Avoid vaginal douching as well as irritating soaps and cosmetic products (deodorants, bath products, etc.). After defecation, wipe from front to back and wash your hands with soap and water.
WEAR PROPER CLOTHING Avoid overly tight clothing and synthetic undergarments, which promote perspiration and the proliferation of germs. Change undergarments regularly.
URINATE AFTER SEXUAL RELATIONS Urinate after each sexual encounter to eliminate certain germs.
FIGHT CONSTIPATION Treat or prevent constipation to avoid the proliferation and propagation of bacteria towards the urethra. Fibers contained in foods such as legumes, green vegetables, fruits, or whole grains encourage proper functioning of the intestines.
DO NOT HESITATE TO CONSULT A DOCTOR Avoid selfmedication that may mask symptoms of more serious illnesses and consult a doctor, particularly in the event of recurrence of the infection.
407
The urinary system
| Diseases
Additional box Three types of boxes may complement the subjects:
A box marked with a heart indicates lifestyle habits to adopt in order to prevent or treat a disease.
A box marked with an eye offers surprising information connected with a subject.
A box marked with a press clipping provides information on current affairs debated in the media.
PREFACE At a tîme when emergency rooms are overfowîng and the heath system îs havîng dîffîcuty meetîng the demand, ît may prove usefu to have a book on hand that deas wîth a of the aspects of heath and dîsease.
The fîrst step în heath promotîon îs preventîon, and havîng a good knowedge of one’s body and îts functîonîng. To thîs end, theFamily Guide to Healthîs fu of advîce that everyone can put înto practîce în order to împrove theîr heath and prevent dîsease. It aso încudes îustratîons of extraordînary quaîty, produced by experîenced medîca îustrators, and quaîty texts, concîse, sîmpe to understand and, above a, revîewed by a team of experîenced experts. In addîtîon, a sîgnîfîcant portîon of the encycopedîa îs devoted to the descrîptîon of dîfferent dîseases: fu, heart dîsease, asthma, dîabetes, cancer, etc. Thîs specîfîcay enabes the reader to recognîze the fîrst symptoms of a dîsease and, when ît strîkes, to consut a doctor sooner and obtaîn a better prognosîs. The work aso încudes a îst of symptoms as we as a chapter on fîrst aîd, revîewed and approved by St. John Ambuance.
Three words perfecty summarîze thîs encycopedîa: UNDERSTAND, PREVENT, TREAT.
Bravo!
Yves Lamontagne, MD Presîdent-Chîef Executîve Offîcer Coège des médecîns du Québec
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TABLEOFCONTENTS PREVENTION  Nutrîtîon  Heathy weîght  Exercîse  Tobacco, acoho, and drugs  Stress contro  Hygîene and the preventîon of înfectîons  Contro of the envîronment  Medîca examînatîons  Heath whîe traveîng
OVERVIEW OF THE ANATOMY  The systems  Genera anatomy of the human body  From the system to the ce
CELLS
The body  The human ce  DNA and genes  Ce dîvîsîon  Heredîty
Diseases  Trîsomîes  Gangrene  Cysts  Edema  Benîgn tumors Cancer
THE SKIN
The body  Structure of the skîn  Skîn coor  Heaîng
Diseases  Skîn esîons  Burns  Warts  Ucers  Dermatîtîs  Psorîasîs  Bacterîa skîn înfectîons  Skîn mycosîs  Cod sores  Skîn parasîtes  Skîn cancer  Skîn dîscooratîon
1037 11 20 22 26 28 30 32 34 36
3843 38 40 43
4461
46 48 49 50
51 52 52 53 54 55
6291
64 68 69
70 72 75 76 78 80 82 84 86 87 88 91
BONES, JOINTS, AND MUSCLES
The body  The bones  The joînts  The musces  Heathy bones, joînts, and musces
Bone diseases  Bone fractures Osteoporosis Paget's dîsease  Osteîtîs  Bone cancer
Joint diseases  Spraîn  Dîsocatîon  Hernîated dîsk Backache Rheumatism Arthrosîs  Rheumatoîd arthrîtîs Ankyosîng spondyîtîs  Gout  Bursîtîs
Muscle diseases  Musce paîn  Musce înjurîes  Tendon înjurîes  Dystonîa  Dupuytren's contracture  Myasthenîa  Muscuar dystrophy  Tetanus
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
The body  The structure of the nervous system  The neuron  The nerves  The spîna cord  The braîn  Movements  Conscîousness  Imagîng of the nervous system
Diseases  Neuragîa  Cana syndrome Headaches and migraines Cranîa traumas  Paraysîs  Loss of conscîousness
92131
94 96 98 100
102 106 108 108 109
110 111 112 114 116 117 119 120 121 121
122 125 126 128 129 129 130 131
132185
134 136 137 139 140 143 144 145
146 147 148 150 151 154
Cerebrovascular accidents Tumors of the nervous system  Encephaîtîs  Rabîes  Menîngîtîs  Herpes zoster  Poîomyeîtîs  Amyotrophîc atera scerosîs  Mutîpe scerosîs  Epîepsy  Parkînson's dîsease  Abnorma movements  Amnesîa Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia  Psychosîs  Neurosîs Sleep disorders Depressîon and other affectîve dîsorders Burnout Drug addîctîon
THE SENSES
The body  The sensory organs  Sîght  Hearîng and baance  Touch  Sme  Taste
Eye diseases Ametropia Infammatîon of the eye  Dry eye Cataracts  Gaucoma  Retînopathy  Macuar degeneratîon  Coor bîndness  Strabîsmus
Ear diseases Deafness Otitis Baance dîsturbances
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
The body  The endocrîne gands and hormones  The thyroîd gand  The adrena gands  The pîtuîtary gand  Stress
156 158 159 160 161 162 163 163 164 166 167 168 169 170 172 173 176 179 182 184
186217
188 189 194 198 200 201
202 204 205 206 207 208 210 210 211
212 214 216
218231
220 222 222 223 224
Diseases  The dîseases of the thyroîd gand  The dîseases of the pîtuîtary gand Diabetes
THE BLOOD
The body  The bood  The bood transfusîon  The bood sampe
Diseases  Hemorrhage  Anemîas  Hemophîîa  Leukemîas
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
The body  Hîgh bood cîrcuatîon and bood vesses  The heart  Bood pressure
Diseases High blood pressure Heart disease  Cardîac însuffîcîency  Cardîac arrhythmîa  Cardîac maformatîons  Vave dîsease  Heart înfammatîons  Aneurysm Varicose veins Thrombosîs
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
The body  The îmmune system  The ymphatîc system  Infectîous agents Diseases Infectious diseases Allergies AIDS  Infectîous mononuceosîs  Yeow fever  Dengue  Maarîa  Leîshmanîasîs  Typhus
225 226 228
232245
234 236 238
239 242 244 245
246275
248 250 252
253 256 262 264 267 268 269 270 272 274
276307
278 281 282
284 288 292 295 296 296 297 298 299
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pague Bîharzîasîs Typhoîd fever Dîphtherîa Leprosy Lîsterîosîs Lyme dîsease Lupus Infammatîons of the ymphatîc system Lymphedema Lymphomas
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
The body  The respîratory system  The upper respîratory tracts  The ungs
Diseases  Seep apnea  Lesîons of the nasa septum  Respîratory înfectîons The flu Bronchîtîs  Pneumonîa  Tubercuosîs Asthma Cystîc fîbrosîs  Chronîc obstructîve bronchopneumopathy  Pneumothorax  Peurîsy  Pneumoconîosîs  Respîratory însuffîcîency  Pumonary edema  Tumors of the respîratory system Nicotine addiction
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The body  The dîgestîve system  The mouth  The dîgestîve tract  The îver and pancreas  Metaboîsm  Heath of the dîgestîve system Dietrelated diseases Obesity Alcoholism  Nutrîtîona defîcîencîes  Dîetary întoerances  Indîgestîon
299 300 300 301 301 302 303 304 305 306 307
308339
310 311 312
316 317 318 320 322 323 324 326 328 329 330 330 331 332 335 336 338
340397
342 343 346 350 351 352
355 358 360 362 363
Oral diseases  Ora dîseases Cavities  Denta prostheses  Denta maoccusîon
Digestive tract diseases  Gastroesophagea refux  Gastroduodena ucer  Dîgestîve tract cancers Gastroenteritis  Intestîna parasîtes  Dysentery  Choera  Coîtîs  Coon poyps  Irrîtabe bowe syndrome  Dîvertîcuosîs  Intestîna obstructîon  Hernîas  Appendîcîtîs  Hemorrhoîds
Liver and pancreatic diseases  Hepatîtîs  Cîrrhosîs of the îver  Lîver cancer  Choeîthîasîs  Pancreatîtîs  Pancreatîc cancer
THE URINARY SYSTEM
The body  How the urînary system works  Examînatîons of the urînary system
Diseases  Urînary încontînence Urinary tract infections  Uroîthîasîs  Gomeruonephrîtîs  Kîdney cysts  Urînary system tumors  Kîdney faîure
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The body  The genîta organs  The sex ces  The menstrua cyce Menopause
Diseases affecting men  Testîcuar cancer  Spermatîc cord dîseases
364 367 370 371
372 374 375 378 380 381 381 382 383 384 385 385 386 387 388
390 392 394 395 396 397
398413
400 403
404 406 408 410 410 411 412
414449
416 421 423 426
428 429
 Prostate adenoma Prostate cancer Phîmosîs Diseases affecting women  Endometrîosîs  Genîta proapse  Uterîne tumors  Ovarîan cysts  Ovarîan cancer  Benîgn breast tumors Breast cancer
Infectious diseases  Genîta înfectîons Sexually transmitted infections Syphîîs  Chamydîa  Genîta herpes  Genîta warts  Gonorrhea  Trîchomonîasîs
REPRODUCTION
The body  Sexuaîty  Contraceptîon  Abortîon  Fertîîzatîon  Mutîpe pregnancîes  Pregnancy  Prenata examînatîons  Chîdbîrth  Postpartum
Diseases and complications  Puerpera fever  Mîscarrîage  Extrauterîne pregnancy  Toxopasmosîs  Feta acoho syndrome  Rhesus încompatîbîîty  Twîn-to-twîn transfusîon syndrome  Pacenta prevîa  Feta dîstress  Preecampsîa Sterility
CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
The body  Deveopment of a human beîng  Newborns  Chîdhood  Chîd nutrîtîon  Adoescence
429 430 431
432 433 434 436 436 437 438
441 444 445 446 447 448 449 449
450489
452 454 457 458 461 462 468 470 474
475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 486
490533
492 494 499 503 508
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Diseases  Congenîta maformatîons  Labîopaatîne cefts  Spîna bîfîda  Sudden înfant death syndrome  Icterus of the newborn  Acute întestîna învagînatîon  Hypertrophîc pyorîc stenosîs  Infant skîn dîseases Acne  Infectîous dîseases în chîdren  Febrîe seîzures  Skeeta deformîtîes  Dwarfîsm Eating disorders Pervasîve deveopmenta dîsorders  Menta retardatîon Learning disabilities
ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE
FIRST AID
At home and in daily life  Fîrst aîd materîas and servîces  Fîrst steps  Cardîopumonary arrest  Aîrway obstructîon  Respîratory dîffîcutîes  Poîsonîng  Beedîng  Fas and traumas  Head and spîna înjurîes  Burns and eectrocutîon  Convusîons and fever  Maaîse and oss of conscîousness Outdoors  Sunburn  Heatstroke  Hypothermîa and frostbîte  Insect bîtes, bîte wounds and stîngîng pants
DIRECTORY OF SYMPTOMS
INDEX
GLOSSARY
LINKS AND RESOURCES
PHOTO CREDITS
510 512 513 514 515 515 516 517 518 519 524 525 526 527 530 531 532
534539
540563
541 542 544 547 548 549 550 552 554 557 558 559
560 561 562 563
564589
590601
602605
606
607608
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