Ecological Changes in the Zambezi River Basin
262 Pages
English
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Ecological Changes in the Zambezi River Basin

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262 Pages
English

Description

This book provides an analysis of the ecological conditions and ecosystem goods and services of the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB), the fourth largest river in Africa. Various environmental and anthropogenic factors; inclusive of climate, environmental flows, hydrology, morphology, pollution and land use changes among others and their interactions are considered as drivers of the river ecosystems. The impacts of these drivers on aquatic biota, river ecological integrity, and the livelihoods of surrounding communities are analysed within the socio-economic-policy context. The book goes beyond the usual inventories and basic research by using the comparative research method (CRM) in a trans-disciplinary manner. This CRM analytical approach in this book seeks to interrogate the differences or similarities in socio-economic systems, livelihoods, ecological systems, ecosystem goods and services, their usage and management under the seemingly different cultural, socio-economic conditions expected across boarders that are within the ZRB. The multidisciplinary approach also connects the typical ecological research with social dimensions in a holistic manner. The book therefore, provides empirical and research based evidence to support strategic planning and policy development in the wake of ecological changes that nations and indeed regions such as the ZRB are grappling with while seeking to sustainably manage precious river systems.

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Published 11 January 2021
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EAN13 9782382340219
Language English
Document size 9 MB

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Exrait

envîronmenta and anthropogenîc factors; încusîve of cîmate, envîronmenta lows,
communîtîes are anaysed wîthîn the socîo-economîc-poîcy context. The book goes
method (CRM) în a trans-dîscîpînary manner. Thîs CRM anaytîca approach în thîs book seeks to înterrogate the dîfferences or sîmîarîtîes în socîo-economîc systems,
management under the seemîngy dîfferent cutura, socîo-economîc condîtîons expected across boarders that are wîthîn the ZRB. The mutîdîscîpînary approach aso connects the typîca ecoogîca research wîth socîa dîmensîons în a hoîstîc manner.
pannîng and poîcy deveopment în the wake of ecoogîca changes that natîons and îndeed regîons such as the ZRB are grappîng wîth whîe seekîng to sustaînaby manage
îs a Freshwater Ecoogîst and îs currenty a
programs. She was prevîousy based at research experîence în îmnoogy, freshwater ecoogy, cîmate împacts, vunerabîîty and adaptatîon
îs an Aquatîc Ecoogîst and currenty the Dîrector Genera of the Tanzanîan Fîsherîes Research Instîtute. He has extensîve experîence în ish bîoogy and ecoogy, îmnoogy, aquatîc resources management, and cîmate change îssues. Kîm îreî has worked în the Great Lakes of East Afrîca for over 16 years.
Unîversîty of Technoogy. Her research înterests are în rura  and urban deveopment wîth specîic focus on cîmate change adaptatîon. She has over ten years’ experîence în research and
 îs a Researcher and Freshwater Ecoogîst în the Water Resource Scîences and Management Department at the Chînhoyî Unîversîty of Technoogy. Hîs maîn areas of expertîse
aquatîc eco-toxîcoogy, and întegrated water resources management.
Ecological changes in the Zambezi River basin
Edited by
Mzime Regina Ndebele–Murisa Ismael Aaron Kimirei Chipo Plaxedes Mubaya Taurai Bere
CODESRIA
Ecological Changes in the Zambezi River Basin
This book is a product of the CODESRIA Comparative Research Network.
Ecological Changes in the Zambezi River Basin
Edited by Mzime Ndebele-Murisa Ismael Aaron Kimirei Chipo Plaxedes Mubaya Taurai Bere
Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa DAKAR
© CODESRIA 2021 Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa Avenue Cheikh Anta Diop, Angle Canal IV BP 3304 Dakar, 18524, Senegal Website: www.codesria.org ISBN: 978-2-86978-713-1
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage or retrieval system without prior permission from CODESRIA.
Typesetting: CODESRIA Graphics and Cover Design: Masumbuko Semba
Distributed in Africa by CODESRIA Distributed elsewhere by African Books Collective, Oxford, UK Website: www.africanbookscollective.com
The Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA) is an independent organisation whose principal objectives are to facilitate research, promote research-based publishing and create multiple forums for critical thinking and exchange of views among African researchers. All these are aimed at reducing the fragmentation of research in the continent through the creation of thematic research networks that cut across linguistic and regional boundaries.
CODESRIA publishes Africa Development, the longest standing Africa based social science journal;Afrika Zamani, a journal of history; theAfrican Sociological Review; Africa Review of Booksand theJournal of Higher Education in Africa. The Council also co-publishesIdentity, Culture and Politics: An Afro-Asian Dialogue; and theAfro-Arab Selections for Social Sciences. The results of its research and other activities are also disseminated through its Working Paper Series, Book Series, Policy Briefs and the CODESRIA Bulletin. All CODESRIA publications are accessible online at www.codesria.org.
CODESRIA would like to express its gratitude to the Swedish International Develop-ment Cooperation Agency (SIDA), the Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY), the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Open Society Foundations (OSFs), Oumou Dilly Foundation, Ford Foundation and the Government of Senegal for supporting its research, training and publication programmes.
Contents
Forewordvii ................................................................................................................................................................................................... Acknowledgmentsix ................................................................................................................................................................................................... List of Boxes, Figures, Plates and Tablesxi ................................................................................................................... List of Abbreviationsxvii .................................................................................................................................................................. Editors and Contributorsxxi ..........................................................................................................................................................
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Introduction and Background Taurai Bere, Mzime Ndebele-Murisa, Chipo Plaxedes Mubaya and Ismael Aaron Kimirei1 ....................................................................................................................................... A Review of the Comparative Research Method Mzime Ndebele-Murisa, Ismael Aaron Kimirei, Chipo Plaxedes Mubaya, Geoffrey Chavula, Tongayi Mwedzi, Tendayi Mutimukuru-Maravanyika and Masumbuko Semba15 ........................................................................................................................................
Trends in Ecological Changes: Implications for East and Southern Africa Ismael Aaron Kimirei, Chipo Plaxedes Mubaya, Mzime Ndebele-Murisa, Lulu Tunu Kaaya, Tinotenda Mangadze, Tongayi Mwedzi and Judith Natsai Theodora Kushata49 ......................................................................................................
River Health Assessment in East and Southern Africa Lulu Tunu Kaaya, Taurai Bere, Tinotenda Mangadze, Ismael Aaron Kimirei and Mzime Ndebele-Murisa83 ................................................................
Historical and Future Climate Scenarios of the Zambezi River Basin Masumbuko Semba, Mzime Ndebele-Murisa, Chipo Plaxedes Mubaya,Ismael Aaron Kimirei, Geoffrey Chavula, Tongayi Mwedzi, Tendayi Mutimukuru-Maravanyika and Sandra Zenda115 ...............................................
Hydrology of the Zambezi River Basin George V. Lugomela, Geoffrey Chavula and Tongayi Mwedzi151 ..................................
Environmental Flow Analysis of the Zambezi River Basin Rashid Tamatamah and Tongayi Mwedzi183 ........................................................................................
8. A Synthesis of the Ecological Changes in the Zambezi River Basin:Lessons Learnt211 .................................................................................................................................... Index221 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................
.
Foreword
This is a fundamental book about a very important river basin located across eight countries in parts of the southern and east African region: The Zambezi River Basin. The approach adopted and developed for the Zambezi River Basin Catchment, using five river sub-catchments as case studies is innovative and with a systemic vision that takes into account the ecological conditions and the social dynamics. This approach was very much stressed in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment; that is, by integrating the basic environmental functioning with uses of natural resources and local indigenous knowledge, it is possible to promote a full comprehension of the ecosystem services, their impact on the local and regional society and the impact of the multiple uses on the river ecosystem. Cultural differences, differing socio-economic systems, water and watershed governance are the key factors for future decisions and developments for strategic plans. The book thus has this dimension of an ecosystem dynamics description and a social, multiple use and economic analysis promoted by the various differing hydro-social characteristics of the five sub-catchments. The methodology and review of the Comparative Research Method, with the discussion on the approach, limitations, use, is excellent. The conceptual framework of the study, theory and hypothesis are well connected and an adequate framework for such a large-scale, scientific, technical and management undertaking. Equally important are the descriptions on the sub-basins’ functioning and conditions. The description of the ecological changes, socio-economic status in four countries and the major drivers and pressures in the Zambezi Basin is well articulated, precise and adequately informative. The discussion on the sustainability model of Venn is very welcome and relevant in this context. The information on climate changes, flow alternations, water pollution and poverty are also important, well-articulated and place the roots for the subsequent chapters. A fundamental contribution of the book is in the river health assessment in east and southern Africa. Comparative uses of indicators, sampling of biota analyses, are of prime interest and are well described and designed, and methodologically coherent. The future climate scenarios of the Zambezi River Basin, as placed in the book help to understand (again with a systemic approach) the integration of the impact of climate change on the ecosystem and on the society. These
viii
Ecological Changes in the Zambezi River Bassin
processes are interdependent. The adaptive capacity of the communities in the river basin catchment of the Zambezi is a highlight of this book and has a very high strategic value. Equally important is the description of the hydrological dynamics of the Zambezi River Basin and the trend analysis of the discharge. Ecosystems services of the rivers depend upon the flow intensity, variations and tendency. This is the fundamental asset for considering then, the multiple uses, the intensity of the hydrological cycle and the impact of climate change. The environmental flow analyses are within this framework and conceptual basis. River flows, social processes, impacts and economic development are all integrated locally and regionally. The whole book has a strategic concept considering integrated water resource management. The description and analysis, the synthesis, the integration of concepts are relevant approaches to design new developments and to promote economic progress with high-level decision-making and prioritization on the environmental issues. The book has a great number of references and can be extremely useful worldwide due to the regional importance of the Zambezi River; but also by its innovative and creative approaches that advance environmental sciences at all levels.
Prof Dr José Galizia Tundisi International Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management São Carlos, SP, Brazil 30 May 2017
Acknowledgments
This book project is an output of the CODESRIA Comparative Research Network Grant (2013-2015)-funded project (CRN/CTR3/2013). We acknowledge funding from CODESRIA which covered the project on which the book is based. CODESRIA also provided blind reviewing, copy and technical editing, which we are grateful for as they greatly enhanced the quality of the book. The Chinhoyi University of Technology (CUT) is duly acknowledged for co-funding writing workshops. A contribution by Ms Olga Kupika, Mr Beaven Utete, Mr C. Mapingure and Mr C. Muzari (Chinhoyi University of Technology) of a case study of the Mupfure River in Chapter 5 is duly acknowledged. The assistance of Olga Kupika, Regean Mudziwapasi, Rutendo Musimwa and Varaidzo Chinokwetu with field surveys in Rafingora in June 2014 is acknowledged. The editors also acknowledge the assistance of the following persons during the book project: Prof Linda Hantrais (Centre for International Studies, London School of Economics), Dr Patience Mutopo (Centre for Development Studies, Chinhoyi University of Technology), Dr Mathias Igulu (Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute), Dr Crispen Phiri (Department of Freshwater and Fishery Sciences, Chinhoyi University of Technology), Dr Charles Musil (retired Senior Scientist-South African National Biodiversity Institute), Dr Victor Kongo (Department of Water Resources and Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam) and Dr Loreen Katiyo (World Wide Fund for Nature-W WF, Zambia), all of whom were Specialist Chapter Reviewers. Professor José Galizia Tundisi (University of Säo Carlos, Brazil) was gracious enough to read the book draft and to provide the insightful foreword. We are also indebted to Mr Semba Masumbuko for several professional services that include typesetting, provision of and quality assurance of all the diagrams in the book as well as technical editing. This book is a result of multi-faceted collaboration efforts, many sleepless nights and assiduous workings across the Zambezi region. We are grateful for the funding and other assistance (weare not able to mention everyone) that were rendered during the undertaking of the project, book writing and printing. Without this effort and goodwill, this book would not have been possible.