Introduction to Supramolecular Chemistry

Introduction to Supramolecular Chemistry




A new rapidly progressing field on the crossroads among chemistry, biochemistry, physics and technology - supramolecular chemistry - has just emerged. You have to be involved, to know what's going on in this domain and to take part in the development. This book will show you in a condensed form exciting phenomena unthinkable within the realm of classical organic chemistry (for example, alkali metal anions or cyclobutadiene stable for month at room temperature) that not only provide the basis for revolutionizing numerous branches of industry but also improve our understanding of the functioning of living organisms and of the origin of life. Designing supramolecular systems with desired properties will among others make chemical industry cleaner and more safe, electronics smaller by developing devices composed of single molecule or molecular aggregate. It will also entirely change the way we use energy resources. In addition, it will also transform the pharmaceutical industry and medicine by developing new ways of drugs administration and new composite biocompatible materials which will serve as implants of new generation changing dentistry, surgery, and other branches of medicine. You cannot afford to stand apart.
With its brief but comprehensive and vivid presentation including the latest development, Introduction to Supramolecular Chemistry is the best method to get into this domain. This book provides an excellent summary of information scattered across the literature. The brief but comprehensive coverage of the whole field including practically all important group of compounds forming aggregates (in particular crown ethers, cavitands, fullerenes, cyclodextrins and their complexes) provisioning full references for the discussed subjects make this book of value not only for Ph.D. students and non-specialists in this domain but also for those working in the field. The book has been found to be a particularly useful resource for students and more generally for those wanting to get the up-to-date concise account of this exciting field.



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Published 01 January 2001
Reads 5
EAN13 0306475871
License: All rights reserved
Language English

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2.MOLECULAR AND CHIRAL RECOGNITION. SELFORGANIZA TION, SELFASSEMBLY AND PREORGANIZATION21 2.1Molecular and Chiral Recognition21 2.2SelfAssembly and SelfOrganization25 2.3The Role of Preorganization in the Synthesis of Topological Molecules. Template Reactions27 2.4Covalent SelfAssembly Based on‘OnePot’ Reactions. Preorganization35
3.INCLUSION COMPLEXES: HOSTGUEST CHEMISTRY 3.1Early Development of HostGuest Chemistry. Pedersen’s Works on Crown Ethers 3.2Nomenclature 3.3The Structure of Inclusion Complexes 3.4Dynamic Character of Inclusion Complexes 3.5The Complexes Involving Induced Fit and Without It: Endohedral Fullerene, Hemicarcerand and Soft Rebek’s Tennis BallLike Hosts
43 50 52 55
4.MESOSCOPIC STRUCTURES AS AN INTERMEDIATE STAGE BETWEEN MOLECULES(MICRO SCALE) ON THE ONE HAND AND BIOLOGICAL CELLS(MACRO SCALE) ON THE OTHER65 4.1Introduction65 4.2Medium Sized Molecular Aggregates66 4.2.1 Langmuir and LangmuirBlødgett Films and Other Selfassembling Layers69 4.2.2 Mono and Bilayer Lipid Membranes71 4.2.3 Microemulsions, Micelles and Vesicles72 4.2.4Nanotubes79 4.2.5 Fibers82 4.2.6 Liquid crystals84
5.BETWEEN CLASSICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY. UNDERSTANDING AND MIMICKING NATURE93 5.1Introduction93 5.2The Role of SelfOrganization and SelfAssociation in the Living Nature94 5.2.1 Tobacco Mosaic Virus94 5.2.2 Helical Structure of DNA96 5.2.3 Cell membranes97 5.3Modeling Processes in Living Organisms98 5.3.1Hostguest Complexes as Analogues of the Interacting SubstrateReceptor Unit in Biochemistry98 5.3.2 Principles of Molecular Modeling of the Origin of Life99 5.3.3 Modeling of Selfreplication100 5.3.4 Transport through Membranes. “Transport antibiotics”: Valinomycin, Nonactin, Monensin and Their Mimics102 5.3.5 Cyclodextrins as Enzyme Mimics104 5.3.6 Porphyrins Involving Systems Modeling Photo synthesis105
5.3.7 Light Driven Proton Pump107 5.3.8 Iron Sequestering Agents Promoting Microbial Growth Siderophores109
6.ON THE BORDER BETWEEN CHEMISTRY AND TECHNO LOGY  NANOTECHNOLOGY AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF SUPRAMOLECULAR SYSTEMS115 6.1Introduction115 6.2Between Chemistry and Solid State Physics  Crystal Engi neering. Obtaining Crystals With Desired Properties116 6.3Nanotechnology and Other Industrial Applications of Supramolecular Systems125 6.3.1 Molecules in motion: towards machines and motors consisting of a single molecule or molecular aggregate127 6.3.2 Electronics on the basis of organic molecules or their aggregates chemionics128 The need for miniaturization of electronic devices128 wires, conductors, semi and superconductors, and so forth129 and switches133 devices136 6.3.3 Pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries141 6.3.4 Environmental protection143 6.3.5 Microemulsions in cleaning processes145 6.3.6 Cation extracting systems ionophores148 6.3.7 Other applications of supramolecular systems148 6.4Supramolecular Catalysis149 6.4.1 Introduction149 6.4.2 Enzyme mimics152 6.4.3 Macrocyclic host molecules, mediumsized aggregates (microemulsions, micelles,vesicles, etc.) and meso
porous materials as catalysts 6.5Concluding Remarks
155 157
7.THE MOST INTERESTING MACROCYCLIC LIGANDS WHICH ARE HOSTS FOR INCLUSION COMPLEXES165 7.1Crown Ethers and Coronands, Cryptates and Cryptands165 7.1.1Introduction165 7.1.2 Crown ethers and cryptands syntheses169 7.1.3 Alkalides and Electrides173 7.1.4 Miscellaneous molecules involving crown ethers, cryptands and related moieties177 7.2Calixarenes [1], Hemispherands, and Spherands183 7.2.1 Calixarenes syntheses183 7.2.2 Calixarene conformations187 7.2.3 Calixarenes as complexing agents188 7.2.4 Spherands, hemispherands, and other similar macro cycles capable of inclusion complex formation191 7.3Carcerands, Hemicarcerands and Novel ‘Molecular Flasks’ Enabling Preparation and Stabilization of Shortlived Species196 7.4Cyclodextrins, and Their Complexes207 7.4.1Introduction207 7.4.2 CD complexes as one of the few supramolecular systems that have found numerous applications215 7.4.3 Predicting molecular and chiral recognition of CDs on the basis of model calculations216 7.5Endohedral Fullerene Complexes, Nanotubes and Other Fullerenebased Supramolecular Systems220 7.6Dendrimers236 7.7Cyclophanes and Steroids That May Form Inclusion Complexes249 7.7.1 Cyclophanes249
7.7.2 Steroids 7.8Anion Binding Receptors and Receptors with Multiple Binding Sites 7.8.1Cationic receptors for anions 7.8.2 Neutral receptors for anions 7.8.3 Receptors with multiple binding sites 7.9Porphyrinbased Hosts
254 254 258 262 267
OTHER EXCITING SUPRAMOLECULAR SYSTEMS273 8.1Introduction.273 8.2Making Use of the Preorganization Phenomenon: Topological Molecules275 8.3Multiple Hydrogenbonded Systems287 8.3.1 Rosettes, tapes (ribbons), fibers and twodimensional networks287 8.3.2 Hydrogenbonded capsules and other higher architec tures293 8.3.3 Clathrate hydrates of gases294 8.4Organic Zeolite300 8.5Metaldirected Selfassembly of Complex Supramolecular Architecture: Chains, Racks, Ladders, Grids, Macrocycles, Cages, Nanotubes and Selfintertwining Strands (Helicates)307 8.5.1 Chains, racks, ladders, grids, macrocycles and cages307 8.5.2 Helicates313