Metallopolymer Nanocomposites

Metallopolymer Nanocomposites

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This book presents and analyzes the essential data on nanoscale metal clusters dispersed in, or chemically bonded with polymers. Special attention is paid to the in situ synthesis of the nanocomposites, their chemical interactions, and the size and distribution of the particles in the polymer matrix. Numerous novel nanocomposites are described with regard to their mechanical, electrophysical, optical, magnetic, catalytic and biological properties. Their applications, present and future, are outlined.



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Published 01 January 2005
Reads 8
EAN13 3540265236
Language English

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Contents
Part I Structure and Or anization of Metal Nanoparticle in Pol mer Matrice
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Nanoparticles in Materials Chemistr nd in the Natural Science Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 lassi cation o Nanoparticles by ize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 tructural rganization o Nanoparticles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Dimensional Phenomena in the hemistry and Physics o Nanoparticles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Nanopartic es an Materia s on t eir Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e erences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nucleation Mechanism of Nanoparticle nd Metal lusters, their tructur nd Chief Propertie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 haracteristic Features o Nanoparticle Nucleation . . . . . . . . . . .2 Kinetic Features o New Phase Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Phase Formation in hemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 el - r anization o Metal- ontainin Nanoparticle Fractal Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Brief ccount of Major Production Method of Metal-Containin Nanoparticles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Metal Clusters as Nanoparticles with Fixed Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Principles and Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Stabilizatio by Polymers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Stabilit of Nanoparticles in Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Stabilizing Capability Characteristics of Pol mers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Characteristics of Pol mer Absorption on Metal urfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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25 2 32 39
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58 60
65 65
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3.4 peci cs o Polymer ur actants as tabilizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3.5 Mechanism o Nanoparticle tabilization y Po ymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 3.6 tabilization o Nanoparticles by Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.7 ur ace Proo n as a Method tabilizin Nanoparticles by Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 3.8 n the Problem o Matrix on nement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Re erences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Part II S nthetic Methods for Metallopol mer Nanocomposite Preparatio
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Physical Methods of Incorporatin Nanopart cles nto Pol mer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 .1 Mec anoc emica Dispersion Precursors Jointly with Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 .2 Microencapsulation o Nanoparticle into Po mers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 .3 Physical Deposition o Metal Particle n Po mers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 .4 Formation o 2D Nanostructures on Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 .5 Formation o Metal Nanoparticle in Polymer Matrix Voids Pores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 .6 Physical Modi cation and Fillin Polymers with Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Re erences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
hemical Method of Metal–Polymer Nanocomposite Productio135. . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Reduction o Polymer-Bound Metal omplexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.1 Reducers and Reduction Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.2 Reduction in Polymer olutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1.3 Reduction in Block-Copolymers in Solution . . . . . . . . . . 145 5.1.4 Formation and rchitecture f Metal Nanoparticles in Dendrimers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 5.1.5 Formation of Nanoparticles in Heterogeneous Polymer Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 5.1.6 Production of Nanocomposites by Reducing ith Metals and Organometallic Compounds . . . . . . . . . 160 5.1.7 Bi- and Polymetallic Nanoparticles in Polymers . . . . . . 161 5.2 anocom osite Formation y Metal-Containing Precursor Thermolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
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.2.1 Metal ol Formation in Polymer by Thermal Decomposition o Metal arbonyls . . . . . . . 17 .2.2 The Features o Metal- ontainin Polymer T ermo ysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 .2.3 Post-Thermolysis o ther Types o Precursor n Po mer Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 .3 Nanocomposite Formatio n Monomer–Po mer Mixtures in T ermo sis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 .4 Nanocomposites on t e Bas o Polymer-Immobilized Metalloclusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 .4.1 Monometal-Type luster Immobilization . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 .4.2 Heterometallic lusters, hemically Bonded with Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 .4.3 luster- ontainin Monomer ynthesis and Copol merization as a Wa to Produce Metallopol meric Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Physico- hemical Method Metal-Polymer Nanocomposite Productio237. . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Cr ochemical Method of tomic Metal Deposition on Pol mers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.2 Metal Eva oration Methods on Polymers Localized at Room Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 6.3 Synthesis of Nanocomposites n a Plasma-Chemical Proces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6.4 Radiolysis in Polymer Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.5 Photolysis of Metal-Polymer System as Means of Obtaining Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 . Electrochemical Methods of Nanocom osite Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 eferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Part III Hybr d Polymer–Inor an c Nanocompos te
The ol– el Process in Formatio f H brid Nanocomposite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 .1 eneral haracteristics o ol– el eactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7.2 Combination of Polymerization Reactions and In itu ol– el nthesis o Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . . . . 279 7.3 ol– el ntheses in the Presence o Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 7.4 Morp o o y an Fracta Mo e o Hybrid Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 7.5 Nanocomposites Incorporatin Multimetallic eramics . . . . . . 30 Re erences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
IV
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Pol mer Intercalat on nto Porou an La ere Nanostructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 A General Description of the Intercalation Process . . . . . . . . . . 321 8.2 Polymerization into the Basal (Interlayer) Space . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8.3 T e Macromo ecu es Intro ucin into t e Layere Host Lattices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8.4 Interca ation Nanocomposite f Polymer/Metal Chalcogenide Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 8.5 Lan muir–B o ett Meta opo ymer Fi ms as el - r anized Hybrid Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Re erences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Nanobiocomposite3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 Basic Notions o Metal- ontainin Protein ystems . . . . . . . . . 37 9.2 Metal Nanoparticles in Immunochemistry, tochemistry and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 9.3 Biosorption, elective Heterocoa ulation and Bacterial oncentration o Metal Nanoparticles . . . . . . . . . 39 9.4 Sol–Gel Process as a Wa Template-Synthesized Nanobioceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 9.5 Biomineralization and Bioinor anic Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . 403 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Part IV The Main Applications of Metal–Pol meri Nanocompos te
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Nanoparticle Modifyin Actio on Po mer42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 The Control of Physico-Mechanical Propertie Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 10.2 The Peculiarity o Nanocomposites, ynthesized y ol– el Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 10.3 Polyole n-Based Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 10.4 Polymer Matrix tructurization in Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . . 437 10.5 T e P ysica an Mec anica Properties Metallopolymer Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 10.6 Nanocomposites in Adhesion Compounds Contacts an Tri opo mers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 1 . New Trends in Material cience onnected ith Metallopolymeric Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Re erences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
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Ma netic, Electrical and Optical Propertie Metal–Pol mer Nanocomposite4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Metallopolymeric Composite wit Magnetic Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 1.2 Electrical haracteristics o Metallopolymer omposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 1.3 ptical and emiconductive Properties o Metal–Polymer Nanosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 e erences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Metallopol mer c Nanocatal s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 A General Survey of Metallopolymer Catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.2 Hy ro enization Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.3 Nanocatalysis o Reactions, Traditionally Per omed with Homo eneous Metallocomplexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 2.4 Nanocatalysis in Polymerization Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 2.5 Polymer-Protected Nanoparticles in Photocatalysis . . . . . . . . . 54 2.6 Metallopolymeric Nanocomposites in atalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
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onclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555