Solution Processing of Inorganic Materials
350 Pages
English

Solution Processing of Inorganic Materials

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Description

Discover the materials set to revolutionize the electronics industry

The search for electronic materials that can be cheaply solution-processed into films, while simultaneously providing quality device characteristics, represents a major challenge for materials scientists. Continuous semiconducting thin films with large carrier mobilities are particularly desirable for high-speed microelectronic applications, potentially providing new opportunities for the development of low-cost, large-area, flexible computing devices, displays, sensors, and solar cells.

To date, the majority of solution-processing research has focused on molecular and polymeric organic films. In contrast, this book reviews recent achievements in the search for solution-processed inorganic semiconductors and other critical electronic components. These components offer the potential for better performance and more robust thermal and mechanical stability than comparable organic-based systems.

Solution Processing of Inorganic Materials covers everything from the more traditional fields of sol-gel processing and chemical bath deposition to the cutting-edge use of nanomaterials in thin-film deposition. In particular, the book focuses on materials and techniques that are compatible with high-throughput, low-cost, and low-temperature deposition processes such as spin coating, dip coating, printing, and stamping. Throughout the text, illustrations and examples of applications are provided to help the reader fully appreciate the concepts and opportunities involved in this exciting field.

In addition to presenting the state-of-the-art research, the book offers extensive background material. As a result, any researcher involved or interested in electronic device fabrication can turn to this book to become fully versed in the solution-processed inorganic materials that are set to revolutionize the electronics industry.

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Published 22 December 2008
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EAN13 9780470407615
License: All rights reserved
Language English

Legal information: rental price per page €. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

CONTENTS
Preface Contributors
 1. Introduction to SolutionDeposited Inorganic Electronics Robert H. Reuss and Babu R. Chalamala 1.1 Background and Motivation 1.1.1 Electronics Technologies 1.1.2 Commercial Macroelectronic Technology 1.1.3 Macroelectronics Potential 1.2 Importance of Solution Processing 1.3 Application Challenges: TFT Devices and Circuits 1.3.1 TFT Device Fundamentals 1.3.2 NextGeneration TFTs 1.3.3 Technology for RF TFTs 1.3.4 Exploratory TFT Concepts 1.3.5 Technology Computer Aided Design for TFTs 1.4 Application Challenges: Optoelectronics 1.4.1 Photovoltaics 1.4.2 Transparent Conductive Oxides 1.4.3 Transparent Transistors 1.4.4 LightEmitting Diodes 1.4.5 SolidState Lighting 1.4.6 SiBased Integrated Emitters 1.5 Application Challenges: Power Sources, Sensors, and Actuators 1.6 Conclusions  References
 2. Chemical Solution Deposition—Basic Principles Robert W. Schwartz and Manoj Narayanan 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Substrate Surface Preparation
xiii xvii
1
1 1 2 5 8 11 12 14 15 17 19 19 19 21 21 22 22 23
24 26 27
3
3
33 34
v
vi
CONTENTS
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
Starting Reagents and Solvents 2.3.1 Background 2.3.2 Starting Reagents 2.3.3 Solvents Precursor Solution Preparation and Characteristics 2.4.1 Background 2.4.2 SolGel Processes 2.4.3 Chelate Processes 2.4.4 MOD Solution Synthesis 2.4.5 Solution Preparation Summary 2.4.6 Other Processing Routes Film Formation Behavior 2.5.1 Background 2.5.2 Spin Coating 2.5.3 Dip Coating 2.5.4 Spray Coating 2.5.5 Stamping and Microcontact Printing Structural Evolution: Film Formation, Densification, and Crystallization 2.6.1 Background 2.6.2 Film Formation 2.6.3 Densification and Crystallization Summary References
 3. Solution Processing of Chalcogenide Semiconductors via Dimensional Reduction David B. Mitzi 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Dimensional Reduction 3.3 Hydrazine Precursor Route 3.3.1 SnSe2–xSxFilms 3.3.2 In2Se3Films 3.3.3 CuInTe2, CuInSe2, and Cu(Ga1–xInx)Se2Films 3.3.4 Cu2S Precursor 3.3.5 KSb5S8Films 3.3.6 Other Metal Chalcogenide Systems 3.4 Similar Approaches without Hydrazine 3.5 Future Prospects  References
36 36 36 39 41 41 41 45 47 48 49 49 49 49 51 52 52
53 53 54 55 65 68
7
7
77 78 82 82 87 89 94 94 98 102 103 104
CONTENTS
 4. Oxide Dielectric Films for Active Electronics Douglas A. Keszler, Jeremy T. Anderson, and Stephen T. Meyers 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Gate Dielectric Materials Selection 4.3 Producing HighQuality Films from Solution 4.4 HafSOx ThinFilm Dielectrics 4.5 AlPO ThinFilm Dielectric 4.6 Compositionally Graded and Laminated Structures 4.7 Summary and Perspective  References
 5. Liquid Silicon Materials Masahiro Furusawa and Hideki Tanaka 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Liquid Silicon Material 5.3 Forming Silicon Films from the Liquid Silicon Materials 5.4 Fabrication of a TFT Using a SolutionProcessed Silicon Film 5.5 Fabrication of TFT Using InkjetPrinted Silicon Film 5.6 Forming SiO2Films from the Liquid Silicon Materials 5.7 LTPS Fabrication Using SolutionProcessed SiO2Films 5.8 Forming Doped Silicon Films 5.9 Conclusions  Acknowledgments  References
 6. Spray CVD of SingleSource Precursors for Chalcopyrite I–III–VI2ThinFilm Materials Aloysius F. Hepp, Kulbinder K. Banger, Michael H.-C. Jin, Jerry D. Harris, Jeremiah S. McNatt, and John E. Dickman 6.1 Introduction 6.2 SingleSource Precursor Studies 6.2.1 Background 6.2.Synthesis of SSPs2 Chemical 6.2.3 Thermal Analysis and Characterization of SSPs 6.2.4 Preparation of I–III–VI2Powders from SSPs 6.3 Spray or AtmosphereAssisted CVD Processing 6.3.1 AACVD Reactor Design 6.3.2 Preliminary ThinFilm Deposition Studies 6.3.3 Impact of Reactor Design on CuInS2 Film Growth 6.4 Atmospheric Pressure HotWall Reactor Parametric Study 6.4.1 Parametric Study Approach
vii
109
109 109 113 114 117 125 126 127
131
131 132 134
137 140 142 144 147 153 153 153
157
157 161 161 163 164 167 169 169 171
178 181 181
viii
7.
CONTENTS
6.5
6.6
6.4.2 Variation of Deposition Temperature 6.4.3 Variation of Susceptor Location and Precursor Concentration 6.4.4 Postdeposition Annealing 6.4.5 Photoluminescence Studies Fabrication and Testing of CIS Solar Cells 6.5.1 Cell Fabrication at GRC 6.5.2 CrossFabrication of Solar Cells 6.5.3 Solar Cell Characterization Concluding Remarks 6.6.1 Summary 6.6.2 Outlook and Future Work Acknowledgments References
Chemical Bath Deposition, Electrodeposition, and Electroless Deposition of Semiconductors, Superconductors, and Oxide Materials Raghu Bhattacharya 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Chemical Bath Deposition 7.2.1 CdS Deposition 7.2.2 ZnS(O,OH) Deposition 7.2.3 Cd1–xZnxS Deposition 7.2.4 Other Systems 7.3 Deposition of CIGS by Electrodeposition and Electroless Deposition 7.3.1 Electrodeposition of CIGS 7.3.2 Electroless Deposition of CIGS 7.4 Electrodeposition of Oxide Superconductors 7.4.1 Electrodeposition of Tl–Bi–Sr–Ba–Ca–Cu–O 7.4.2 Electrodeposition of Bi–Sr–Ca–Cu–O 7.5 Electrodeposition of Cerium Oxide Films 7.6 Electrodeposition of Gd2Zr2O7 References
 8. Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) and Related Sequential SolutionPhase Deposition Techniques Seppo Lindroos and Markku Leskelä 8.1 Introduction 8.2 SILAR 8.2.1 Basic Principles of SILAR 8.2.and Disadvantages of SILAR2 Advantages
182
184 184 185 189 189 190 190 191 191 192 193 193
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199 200 200 203 206 209
210 211 215 218 219 222 223 225 229
239
239 240 240 241
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
CONTENTS
8.2.3 SILAR Deposition Equipment 8.2.4 Mechanism of Film Growth in SILAR Materials Grown by SILAR 8.3.1 Oxide Films 8.3.2 Chalcogenide Films 8.3.3 Films of Metals and Other Materials ILGAR 8.4.1 Basic Principles of ILGAR 8.4.2 Materials Grown by ILGAR ECALE 8.5.1 Basic Principles of ECALE 8.5.2 Materials Grown by ECALE Other Sequential SolutionPhase Deposition Techniques References
 9. EvaporationInduced SelfAssembly for the Preparation of Porous Metal Oxide Films Bernd Smarsly and Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing 9.1 Introduction 9.2 The EISA Process 9.3 Characterization of SelfAssembled Films 9.3.1 Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) 9.3.2 Gas Physisorption 9.3.3 SmallAngle XRay Scattering (SAXS) 9.4 Generation of Mesoporous Crystalline Metal Oxide Films Via EvaporationInduced SelfAssembly 9.5 Electronic Applications 9.5.1 Mesoporous Films with Insulating Framework 9.5.2 Mesoporous Films with a Semiconducting Framework 9.6 Mesoporous Films in DyeSensitized Solar Cells 9.7 Conclusions  References
10. Engineered Nanomaterials as Soluble Precursors for Inorganic Films Dmitri V. Talapin 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Synthesis of Inorganic Nanomaterials 10.3 Nanoparticles as Soluble Building Blocks for Inorganic Films
ix
242 243 244 244 252 263 264 264 265 268 268 268 270 270
283
283 284 289
289 290 292
294 299 299
301 303 306 306
313
313 315
318
x
CONTENTS
10.4 10.5
10.6
10.3.1 Sintering Metal and Semiconductor Nanoparticles into Continuous Polycrystalline Films 10.3.2 Electronic Materials Based on Nanoparticle Assemblies 10.3.3 Multicomponent Nanoparticle Assemblies Films and Arrays of Inorganic Nanowires Applications Using Networks and Arrays of Carbon Nanotubes Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References
11. Functional Structures Assembled from Nanoscale Building Blocks Yu Huang 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Building Blocks: Synthesis and Properties 11.3 Hierarchical Assembly of Nanowires 11.3.1 Fluidic FlowDirected Assembly 11.3.2 Langmuir–Blodgett TechniqueAssisted NW Assembly 11.4 Nanowire Electronics and Optoelectronics 11.4.1 Crossed Nanowire Devices 11.4.2 Nanoscale Logic Gates and Computational Circuits 11.4.3 Nanoscale Optoelectronics 11.5 Nanowire ThinFilm Electronics—Concept and Performance 11.5.1 pSi Nanowire ThinFilm Transistors 11.5.2 HighSpeed Integrated Si NWTFT Circuits 11.5.3 3D Integrated Functional Electronic System 11.6 Summary and Perspective  References
12. Patterning Techniques for Solution Deposition Paul Brazis, Daniel Gamota, Jie Zhang, and John Szczech 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Opportunities for Printable Inorganic verses Organic Materials Systems 12.3 Printing and the Microelectronics Industry—Present and Future 12.4 Printed Electronics Value Chain
319
323 331 333
336 339 340 340
349
349 350 354 354
357 358 358
360 362
366 366 368 370 372 373
379
379
381
384 386
12.5 12.6
12.7 12.8
12.9
CONTENTS
Electrically Functional Inks Printing Technologies 12.6.1 Contact Printing 12.6.2 Noncontact Printing—Ink Jet 12.6.3 Functional Inks for Ink Jet Structure of a Printed Transistor Patterning Techniques for Solution Deposition: Technology Diffusion 12.8.1 Standards 12.8.2 Awareness 12.8.3 Roadmapping for Supply Chain Development 12.8.4 Quality Control/Assurance Conclusions References
13. Transfer Printing Techniques and Inorganic SingleCrystalline Materials for Flexible and Stretchable Electronics Jong-Hyun Ahn, Matthew A. Meitl, Aflred J. Baca, Dahl-Young Khang, Hoon-Sik Kim, and John A. Rogers 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Inorganic SingleCrystalline Semiconductor Materials for Flexible Electronics 13.3 Transfer Printing Using an Elastomer Stamp 13.3.1 Surface Chemistry 13.3.2 ThinFilm Adhesives 13.3.3 Kinetic Effects 13.3.4 Stress Concentration and Fracture 13.3.5 Carrier Films and Carbon Nanotubes 13.3.6 Machines for Transfer Printing 13.4 Flexible ThinFilm Transistors that UseµsSc on Plastic 13.5 Integrated Circuits on Plastic 13.5.1 TwoDimensional Integration 13.5.2 ThreeDimensional and Heterogeneous Integration 13.6µsSc Electronics on Rubber 13.7 Conclusion  References
14. Future Directions for SolutionBased Processing of Inorganic Materials M. F. A. M. van Hest and D. S. Ginley 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Materials
xi
387 389 389 393 394 397
398 399 399 400 400 400 401
407
407
409 412 415 417 419 421 423 425 426 429 429
432 436 441 441
449
449 450
xii
CONTENTS
14.3 14.4
14.5
Index
14.2.1 Semiconductors 14.2.2 Oxides 14.2.3 Metals Deposition Approaches Next Generation of Applications 14.4.1 New Solar Cells: Quantum Dot (QD) Structures and Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) 14.4.2 Organic–Inorganic Hybrids 14.4.3 Non Linear Optics 14.4.4 3DStructures 14.4.5 Catalysis/Artificial Photosynthesis Conclusions References
450 452 454 455 455
456 457 460 462 462 465 465
471