The Complete Dinosaur

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<P>Praise for the first edition:</P><P>"A gift to serious dinosaur enthusiasts" —Science </P><P>"The amount of information in [these] pages is amazing. This book should be on the shelves of dinosaur freaks as well as those who need to know more about the paleobiology of extinct animals. It will be an invaluable library reference." —American Reference Books Annual</P><P>"An excellent encyclopedia that serves as a nice bridge between popular and scholarly dinosaur literature." —Library Journal (starred review)</P><P>"Copiously illustrated and scrupulously up-to-date... the book reveals dinos through the fractious fields that make a study of them." —Publishers Weekly</P><P>"Stimulating armchair company for cold winter evenings.... Best of all, the book treats dinosaurs as intellectual fun." —New Scientist</P><P>"The book is useful both as a reference and as a browse-and-enjoy compendium." —Natural History</P><P>What do we know about dinosaurs, and how do we know it? How did dinosaurs grow, move, eat, and reproduce? Were they warm-blooded or cold-blooded? How intelligent were they? How are the various groups of dinosaurs related to each other, and to other kinds of living and extinct vertebrates? What can the study of dinosaurs tell us about the process of evolution? And why did typical dinosaurs become extinct? All of these questions, and more, are addressed in the new, expanded, second edition of The Complete Dinosaur. Written by many of the world's leading experts on the "fearfully great" reptiles, the book’s 45 chapters cover what we have learned about dinosaurs, from the earliest discoveries of dinosaurs to the most recent controversies. Where scientific contention exists, the editors have let the experts agree to disagree. Copiously illustrated and accessible to all readers from the enthusiastic amateur to the most learned professional paleontologist, The Complete Dinosaur is a feast for serious dinosaur lovers everywhere.</P>
<P>List of Contributors<BR>Part One: The Discovery of Dinosaurs <BR>1. Dinosaurs: The Earliest Discoveries <BR> David A. E. Spalding and William A. S. Sarjeant <BR>2. Politics and Paleontology: Richard Owen and the Invention of Dinosaurs<BR> Hugh S. Torrens<BR>3. European Dinosaur Hunters of the 19th and 20th Centuries <BR> Hans-Dieter Sues<BR>4. North American Dinosaur Hunters <BR> Edwin H. Colbert, David D. Gillette, and Ralph E. Molnar <BR>5. The Search for Dinosaurs in Asia <BR> Corwin Sullivan, David W. E. Hone, and Xing Xu<BR>6. Dinosaur Hunters of the Southern Continents <BR> Thomas R. Holtz, Jr.</P><P>Part Two: The Study of Dinosaurs <BR>7. Hunting for Dinosaur Bones <BR> David D. Gillette <BR>8. The Osteology of the Dinosaurs <BR> Thomas R. Holtz and M. K. Brett-Surman <BR>9. Reconstructing the Musculature of Dinosaurs <BR>David W. Dilkes, John R. Hutchinson, Casey M. Holliday, and Lawrence M. Witmer <BR>10. Dinosaur Paleoneurology <BR> Emily Buchholtz <BR>11. Taxonomy of the Dinosauria <BR> Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. and M. K. Brett-Surman <BR>12. Dinosaurs and Geologic Time <BR> James I. Kirkland and James O. Farlow<BR>13. Technology and the Study of Dinosaurs <BR> Ralph E. Chapman, Art Andersen, Brent H. Breithaupt, and Neffra A. Matthews<BR>14. Claws, Scales, Beaks, and Feathers: Molecular Traces in the Fossil Record <BR> Mary Higby Schweitzer and Mark Marshall<BR>15. Dinosaurs as Museum Exhibits <BR> Kenneth Carpenter<BR>16. Restoring Dinosaurs as Living Animals <BR> Douglas Henderson</P><P>Part Three: The Clades of Dinosaurs <BR>17. Evolution of the Archosaurs <BR> J. Michael Parrish<BR>18. Origin and Early Evolution of Dinosaurs <BR> Michael J. Benton<BR>19. Theropods <BR> Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. <BR>20. Birds <BR> Darren Naish <BR>21. Basal Sauropodomorpha: The "Prosauropods" <BR> Adam Yates <BR>22. Sauropoda <BR> Jeffrey A. Wilson and Kristina Curry Rogers <BR>23. Stegosaurs <BR> Peter M. Galton <BR>24. Ankylosaurs <BR> Kenneth Carpenter<BR>25. Marginocephalia <BR> Peter Makovicky <BR>26. Ornithopods <BR> Richard J. Butler and Paul M. Barrett </P><P>Part Four: Paleobiology of the Dinosaurs<BR>27. Land Plants as a Source of Food and Environment in the Age of Dinosaurs <BR> Bruce H. Tiffney<BR>28. What Did Dinosaurs Eat: Coprolites and Other Direct Evidence of Dinosaur Diets <BR> Karen Chin<BR>29. Reproductive Biology of Dinosaurs <BR> Terry D. Jones and Nicholas R. Geist <BR>30. Dinosaur Eggs <BR> Darla K. Zelenitsky, John R. Horner, and François Therrien<BR>31. How Dinosaurs Grew<BR> R. E. H. Reid <BR>32. Engineering a Dinosaur <BR> Donald Henderson <BR>33. Disease in Dinosaurs <BR> Elizabeth Rega <BR>34. The Scientific Study of Dinosaur Footprints <BR> James O. Farlow, Ralph E. Chapman, Brent Breithaupt, and Neffra Matthews<BR>35. The Role of Heterochrony in Dinosaur Evolution <BR> Kenneth J. McNamara and John A. Long<BR>36. Metabolic Physiology of Dinosaurs and Early Birds <BR> John A. Ruben, Terry D. Jones, Nicholas R. Geist, Willem J. Hillenius, Amy E. Harwell, and Devon E. Quick<BR>37. Evidence for Avian-Mammalian Aerobic Capacity and Thermoregulation in Mesozoic Dinosaurs <BR> Gregory S. Paul <BR>38. "Intermediate" Dinosaurs: The Case Updated <BR> R. E. H. Reid</P><P>Part Five: Dinosaur Evolution in the Mesozoic <BR>39. Principles of Biogeography <BR> Ralph E. Molnar<BR>40. Non-Dinosaurian Vertebrates <BR> Nicholas C. Fraser<BR>41. Early Mesozoic Continental Tetrapods and Faunal Changes <BR> Hans-Dieter Sues<BR>42. Dinosaurian Faunas of the Later Mesozoic <BR> Matthew T. Carrano<BR>43. Dinosaur Extinction: Past and Present Perspectives <BR> J. David Archibald<BR>44. Life after Death: Dinosaur Fossils in Human Hands <BR> Daniel J. Chure<BR>45. Dinosaurs and Evolutionary Theory <BR> Kevin Padian and Elizabeth K. Burton<BR>Appendix: Dinosaur-Related WWW Sites<BR>Glossary<BR>Index</P>

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The Complete Dinosaur
The Complete Dinosaur
The editors offer special thanks to Jim Whitcraft for creating the illustrations that appear on the opening page of each chapter.
This book is a publication of
Indiana University Press 601 North Morton Street Bloomington, Indiana 47404-3797 USA
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© 2012 by Indiana University Press
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The complete dinosaur / edited by M. K. Brett-Surman, Thomas R. Holtz Jr., and James O. Farlow ; Bob Walters, art director. – 2nd ed. p. cm. – (Life of the past) Includes index. ISBN 978-0-253-35701-4 (cl : alk. paper) – ISBN 978-0-253-00849-7 (ebook) 1. Dinosaurs. I. Brett-Surman, M. K., [date]- II. Holtz, Thomas R., [date]- III. Farlow, James Orville [date]. QE862.D5C697 2012 567.9 – dc23
1 2 3 4 5 17 16 15 14 13 12
2011050297
This second edition is dedicated to our colleagues, and our friends:
Halszka Osmólska
John H. Ostrom
John S. McIntosh
W. A. S. Sarjeant
Edwin Colbert
Tobe Wilkins
Jim Adams Robin Reid Donna Engard
Thomas Jericho
You advanced our science. You made a difference.
The editors wish to thank the staff at Indiana University Press for their hard work and dedication, which allowed our “opusaurus” to be born after a ten-year gestation.
Contents
Dinosauria Contributors
Part 1 The Discovery of Dinosaurs 1 Dinosaurs: The Earliest Discoveries David A. E. Spalding and †William A. S. Sarjeant 2 Politics and Paleontology: Richard Owen and the Invention of Dinosaurs Hugh S. Torrens 3 European Dinosaur Hunters of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries Hans-Dieter Sues 4 North American Dinosaur Hunters †Edwin H. Colbert, David D. Gillette, and Ralph E. Molnar 5 The Search for Dinosaurs in Asia Corwin Sullivan, David W. E. Hone, and Xing Xu 6 Dinosaur Hunters of the Southern Continents Thomas R. Holtz Jr. Part 2 The Study of Dinosaurs 7 Hunting for Dinosaur Bones David D. Gillette 8 The Osteology of the Dinosaurs Thomas R. Holtz Jr. and M. K. Brett-Surman 9 Reconstructing the Musculature of Dinosaurs David W. Dilkes, John R. Hutchinson, Casey M. Holliday, and Lawrence M. Witmer 10 Dinosaur Paleoneurology Emily Buchholtz 11 The Taonomy and Systematics of the Dinosaurs Thomas R. Holtz Jr. and M. K. Brett-Surman 12 Dinosaurs and Geologic Time James I. Kirkland and James O. Farlow 13 Technology and the Study of Dinosaurs Ralph E. Chapman, Art Andersen, Brent H. Breithaupt, and Neffra A. Matthews 14 Claws, Scales, Beaks, and Feathers: Molecular Traces in the Fossil Record Mary Higby Schweitzer and Mark Marshall 15 Dinosaurs as Museum Ehibits Kenneth Carpenter 16 Restoring Dinosaurs as Living Animals Douglas Henderson Part 3 The Clades of Dinosaurs 17 Evolution of the Archosaurs J. Michael Parrish
18 Origin and Early Evolution of Dinosaurs Michael J. Benton 19 Theropods Thomas R. Holtz Jr. 20 Birds Darren Naish 21 Basal Sauropodomorpha: The “Prosauropods” Adam M. Yates 22 Sauropoda Jeffrey A. Wilson and Kristina Curry Rogers 23 Stegosaurs Peter M. Galton 24 Ankylosaurs Kenneth Carpenter 25 Marginocephalia Peter Makovicky 26 Ornithopods Richard J. Butler and Paul M. Barrett Part 4 Paleobiology of the Dinosaurs 27 Land Plants as a Source of Food and Environment in the Age of Dinosaurs Bruce H. Tiffney 28 What Did Dinosaurs Eat: Coprolites and Other Direct Evidence of Dinosaur Diets Karen Chin 29 Reproductive Biology of Dinosaurs Terry D. Jones and Nicholas R. Geist 30 Dinosaur Eggs Darla K. Zelenitsky, John R. Horner, and François Therrien 31 How Dinosaurs Grew †R. E. H. Reid (with introductory note by Gregory M. Erickson) 32 Engineering a Dinosaur Donald Henderson 33 Disease in Dinosaurs Elizabeth Rega 34 The Scientific Study of Dinosaur Footprints James O. Farlow, Ralph E. Chapman, Brent Breithaupt, and Neffra Matthews 35 The Role of Heterochrony in Dinosaur Evolution Kenneth J. McNamara and John A. Long 36 Metabolic Physiology of Dinosaurs and Early Birds John A. Ruben, Terry D. Jones, Nicholas R. Geist, Willem J. Hillenius, Amy E. Harwell, and Devon E. Quick 37 Evidence for Avian-Mammalian Aerobic Capacity and Thermoregulation in Mesozoic Dinosaurs Gregory S. Paul 38 “Intermediate” Dinosaurs: The Case Updated †R. E. H. Reid Part 5
Dinosaur Evolution in the Mesozoic 39 Principles of Paleobiogeography in the Mesozoic Ralph E. Molnar 40 Non-Dinosaurian Vertebrates Nicholas C. Fraser 41 Early Mesozoic Continental Tetrapods and Faunal Changes Hans-Dieter Sues 42 Dinosaurian Faunas of the Later Mesozoic Matthew T. Carrano 43 Dinosaur Etinction: Past and Present Perspectives J. David Archibald 44 Life after Death: Dinosaur Fossils in Human Hands Daniel J. Chure 45 Dinosaurs and Evolutionary Theory Kevin Padian and Elisabeth K. Burton Appendix: Dinosaur-Related Websites Glossary Index
D Dinvsauria
In April 1842, Richard Owen cvined the termDinosauriain a fvvtnvte vn page 103 vf hisReport on British Fossil Reptiles, and defined this new name as meaning “fearfully great, a lizard.” Since that time the name has always, incvrrectly, been translated as “terrible lizard.” Hvw did this etymvlvgical and aesthetic errvr vccur? Mvdern dictivnaries always giVe the meaning vfdeinosas “terrible.” This is cvrrect, if vne uses the wvrd as an adjectiVe – but Owen used the superlatiVe fvrm vfdeinos,just as did Hvmer in theIliad. A check vf a Greek–English lexicvn frvm Owen’s time will cvnfirm this (Dvnnegan 1832). Dinvsaurs are nvt lizards, nvr are they terrible. They are, instead, the wvrld’s mvst famvus liVing superlatiVe.
J.O.F. and M.K.B.-S.
References Farlvw, J. O., and M. K. Brett-Surman. 1997.The Complete Dinosaur.Blvvmingtvn: Indiana UniVersity Press. Dvnnegan, J., MD. 1832.A New Greek and English Lexicon: Principally on the Plan of the Greek and German Lexicon of Schneider.First American editivn frvm the secvnd Lvndvn editivn, reVised and enlarged by R. B. Pattvn. Bvstvn: Hilliard, Gray. Owen, R. 1842.Report on British Fossil Reptiles.Part II. Repvrt vf the EleVenth Meeting vf the British Assvciativn fvr the AdVancement vf Science 1841: 60–204.
C Contributors
Art AndersenVirtual Surfaces, Inc., 832 East Rand Road, Suite 16, Mt. Prospect, IL 60056 USA
J. David Archibald Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182-4614 USA
Paul M. BarrettDepartment of Palaeontology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK
Michael J. BentonSchool of Earth Sciences, Wills Memorial Building, University of Bristol, Queen’s Road, Bristol, BS8 1RJ, UK
Brent H. BreithauptBureau of Land Management, Wyoming State Office, P.O. Box 1828, Cheyenne, WY 82003 USA
Michael K. Brett-SurmanMuseum Specialist for Fossil Reptiles and Amphibians, National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560 USA
Emily BuchholtzDepartment of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley Hills, MA 02481-8203 USA
Elisabeth K. Burton Department of Integrative Biology and Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA
Richard J. Butler Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, Richard-Wagner-Str. 10, 80333 Munich, Germany
Kenneth CarpenterMuseum, Utah State University – Eastern, 155 E Main Street, Price, Prehistoric UT 84501 USA
Matthew T. CarranoDepartment of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, P.O. Box 37012, MRC 121, Washington, DC 20013-7012 USA
Ralph E. Chapman New Mexico Virtualization, LLC, 102 El Morro Street, Los Alamos, NM 87544 USA
Karen Chin Department of Geological Sciences and University of Colorado Museum, UCB 265, University of Colorado at Boulder, 2200 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, CO 80309-0399 USA
Daniel J. ChureDinosaur National Monument, Box 92, Jensen, UT 84035 USA
†Edwin H. Colbert (1905–2001) led fossil-collecting expeditions to all parts of the globe and published many books and articles about dinosaurs and other extinct vertebrates, includingThe Little Dinosaurs of Ghost RanchandThe Great Dinosaur Hunters and Their Discoveries.
David W. Dilkes Department of Biology and Microbiology, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, 800 Algoma Boulevard, Oshkosh, WI 54901-8440 USA