1000 Paintings of Genius
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1000 Paintings of Genius

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From the early Renaissance through Baroque and Romanticism to Cubism, Surrealism, and Pop, these canonical works of Western Art span eight centuries and a vast range of subjects. Here are the sacred and the scandalous, the minimalist and the opulent, the groundbreaking and the conventional. There are paintings that captured the feeling of an era and those that signaled the beginning of a new one. Works of art that were immediately recognised for their genius, and others that were at first met with resistance. All have stood the test of time and in their own ways contribute to the dialectic on what makes a painting great, how notions of art have changed, to what degree art reflects reality, and to what degree it alters it. Brought together, these great works illuminate the changing preoccupations and insights of our ancestors, and give us pause to consider which paintings from our own era will ultimately join the canon.

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Kirchner Lewis Leonardo Da Vinci Malevitch Manet Matisse Modigliani
Monet Morisot Munch Nolde Picasso Pissarro Pollock Rembrandt Renoir
Repin Rockwell Rousseau Sargent Schiele Serov Shishkin Sisley Surikov
Tàpies Tobey Turner Van Dyck Van Gogh Velázquez Warhol Whistler
Wesselmann Bacon Beckmann Bonnard Bosch Burne-Jones Cassatt
Cézanne Chagall Constable Courbet Cranach Davis Dalí Degas Denis
Duchamp Ensor Gauguin Goncharova Goya Hopper Kahlo Kandinsky
Klee Klimt Kirchner Lewis Leonardo Da Vinci Malevitch Manet Matisse
Modigliani Monet Morisot Munch Nolde Picasso Pissarro Pollock
Rembrandt Renoir Repin Rockwell Rousseau Sargent Schiele Serov
Shishkin Sisley Surikov Tàpies Tobey Turner Van Dyck Van Gogh
Velázquez Warhol Whistler Wesselmann Bacon Beckmann Bonnard Bosch
Burne-Jones Cassatt Cézanne Chagall Constable Courbet Cranach Davis1000Dalí Degas Denis Duchamp Ensor Gauguin Goncharova Goya Hopper
Kahlo Kandinsky Klee Klimt Kirchner Lewis Leonardo Da Vinci Malevitch
Manet Matisse Modigliani Monet Morisot Munch Nolde Picasso PissarrPaintings o
Pollock Rembrandt Renoir Repin Rockwell Rousseau Sargent Schiele
Serov Shishkin Sisley Surikov Tàpies Tobey Turner Van Dyck Van Goghof Genius
Velázquez Warhol Whistler Wesselmann Bacon Beckmann Bonnard
Bosch Burne-Jones Cassatt Cézanne Chagall Constable Courbet Cranach
Davis Dalí Degas Denis Duchamp Ensor Gauguin Goncharova Goya
Hopper Kahlo Kandinsky Klee Klimt Kirchner Lewis Leonardo Da Vinci
Malevitch Manet Matisse Modigliani Monet Morisot Munch Nolde
Picasso Pissarro Pollock Rembrandt Renoir Repin Rockwell Rousseau
Sargent Schiele Serov Shishkin Sisley Surikov Tàpies Tobey Turner Van
Dyck Van Gogh Velázquez Warhol Whistler Wesselmann Bacon
Beckmann Bonnard Bosch Burne-Jones Cassatt Cézanne Chagall
Constable Courbet Cranach Davis Dalí Degas Denis Duchamp Ensor
Gauguin Goncharova Goya Hopper Kahlo Kandinsky Klee KlimtAuthors: Victoria Charles © Roy Lichtenstein Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA/ ADAGP, Paris
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21000
Paintings
of GeniusContents
Introduction 7
th13 century 15
th14 century 25
th15 century 47
th16 century 105
th17 century 171
th18 century 235
th19 century 285
th20 century 401
Chronology 526
Glossary 537
Index 540
5introduction
or the sixteenth-century Italian writer and painter was the broader attitude they fostered: a belief in the value
Giorgio Vasari, a dark period in human history ended of a thoughtful study of Nature, a faith in the potentiality ofF when God took pity on humankind and brought about humankind, and a sense that secular, moral beliefs were
a reform of painting. Vasari wrote in his Lives of the Artists of necessary to supplement the limited tenets of Christianity.
1550 that the naturalism of Tuscan painters like Giotto di Above all, the humanists encouraged the belief that ancient
Bondone in the early fourteenth century was a miracle, a gift civilisation was the apex of culture and one should be in a
to humankind to bring about an end to the stiff, formal, dialogue with the writers and artists of the classical world.
unnatural Byzantine style that had held sway before that The result was the Renaissance, the rebirth, of Greco-Roman
time. Today, we recognise that it was hardly by chance or culture. The panels, paintings and murals of Masaccio and
divine mercy that such a change occurred in artmaking. The Piero dell Francesca captured the moral firmness of ancient
development of crisp, effective narrative, convincing spatial Roman sculptural figures, and these artists strove to show
representation, and the introduction of corporeal, realistic their actors as part of our world: the Renaissance
figures possessing physical presence are all aspects of perspective system is based on a single vanishing point and
painting echoing the changes in European culture that were carefully worked out transversal lines, resulting in a spatial
beginning to take hold by the fourteenth century and later, coherence not seen since antiquity, if ever. Even more
and which found their most forcible expression in Italy. Set clearly indebted to antiquity were the paintings of the
against a social revolution in which traders, manufacturers northern Italian prodigy Andrea Mantegna. His
and bankers were gaining in prominence, painters were archaeological studies of antique costumes, architecture,
responding to the growing demand for clear, naturalistic figural poses, and inscriptions resulted in the most
representation in art. The monumental works of the thoroughly consistent attempt by any painter up to his time
Florentine Giotto and the elegant, finely wrought to give new life to the vanished Greco-Roman civilisation.
naturalism in the paintings of the Sienese Duccio di Even a painter like Alessandro Botticelli, whose art evokes a
Buoninsegna were but one part of a larger cultural dreamy spirit that had survived from the late Gothic style,
movement. It also comprised: the moving, vernacular created paintings with Venuses, Cupids, and nymphs that
writings of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio; the vivid travel- responded to the subject matter of the ancients and
adventure of Marco Polo; the growing influence of appealed to contemporary viewers touched by humanism.
nominalism in philosophy, which encouraged real, tangible
and sensate knowledge; and the religious devotion of Saint It would be better to think of ‘Renaissances’ rather than a
Francis of Assisi, who found God’s presence not in ideas single Renaissance. This is demonstrated no more clearly
and verbal speculation but in the chirping of birds and the than by looking at the art of the leading painters of the High
glow of the sun and moon. Renaissance. Giorgio Vasari saw these masters as all setting
out to create an art greater than Nature, as idealists who
What the primi lumi, the ‘first lights’, in the art of painting improved on reality rather than imitating it, and who
had commenced by the fourteenth century was continued in thoughtfully suggested reality rather than delineating it for
the fifteenth century with ever greater sharpness and us in every particular detail. We recognise in these painters
thoroughness, and with a new historical sense that caused different embodiments of the cultural aspirations of the
them to look back before the Middle Ages to the world of time. Leonardo da Vinci, trained as a painter, was equally at
the classical civilisations. Italians came to admire, almost home in his role as a scientist, and he incorporated into art
worship, the ancient Greeks and Romans, for their wisdom his research into the human body, plant forms, geology, and
and insight, and for their artistic as well as scholarly psychology. Michelangelo Buonarroti, trained as a sculptor,
achievements. A new kind of intellectual, the humanist, turned to painting and expressed his deep theological and
fuelled a cultural revolution in the fifteenth century. A philosophical beliefs, especially the idealism of
humanist was a scholar of ancient letters, and humanism Neoplatonism. His muscular, over-scaled and intense
7heroes could hardly differ any more from the graceful, streets the detail of Christ’s suffering and death. It is not
smiling, supple figures of Leonardo. Raphael of Urbino was coincidence this was also the period when masters such as
the ultimate courtier, whose paintings embody the grace, Netherlandish Rogier van der Weyden and German
charm and sophistication of life at Renaissance courts. Matthias Grünewald painted, sometimes with excruciating
Giorgione and Titian, both Venetian masters, expressed clarity, the wounds, streams of blood, and pathetic
with their colourism and free brushwork an epicurean sense countenance of the crucified Christ. The northern masters
of life, their art finding no better subject matter than in carried out their pictorial research with a skilled use of oil
luxurious landscapes and sumptuous female nudes. All the painting technique, a medium in which they remained in
sixteenth-century painters tried to improve on Nature, to the forefront in European art until the Italians joined them
create something greater or more beautiful than nature only in the later fifteenth century.
itself. Titian’s motto Natura Potentior Ars, ‘Art More
Powerful than Nature’, could be the philosophy of all the Spanning north and south during the Renaissance period
sixteenth-century artists. was the art of Albrecht Dürer of Nuremburg. He followed
the Italian penchant for canonical measure of the human
Among the achievements of the Italian Renaissance painters body and perspective, even if he retained a form of sharp
was that they had established their intellectual credentials. expressionism of line and emotional representation that
Rather than being considered as mere handicraftsmen, was widespread in German art. While he shared the
artists – some of whom, such as Leon Battista Alberti, artistic optimism of the idealistic Italians, many other
Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo, were themselves northern painters retained a sense of pessimism about the
writers on this subject – made a bid to be considered on a human condition. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola’s essay
par with other thinkers of their time. The profession of on the Dignity of Man presaged Michelangelo’s belief in the
painting experienced a sharp rise in its critical fortunes in perfectibility and essential beauty of the human body and
Renaissance Italy. Michelangelo, for example, was called Il soul. For their part, Erasmus’s Praise of Folly and Sebastian
Divino, ‘the Divine’, and a kind of cult sprang up around Brant’s satiric poem Ship of Fools were part of the same
leading painters and other artists of the time. Already in northern European cultural milieu that produced the
1435, Alberti urged painters to associate themselves with fantastic follies of humankind shown in Hieronymus
men of letters and mathematicians, and this paid off. The Bosch’s Garden of Earthly Delights triptych and Pieter
present-day inclusion of “studio art” in university curricula Brueghel’s raucous peasant scenes. There was hope for
has its origins in the new attitude to painting that arose in humankind in Paradise, but little consolation on earth for
Italy during the Renaissance. By the sixteenth century, beings consumed by their passions and caught in a cycle of
rather than only commissioning particular works, art desire and fruitless yearning. Northern humanists, like
patrons across the peninsula were happy to get their hands their Italian counterparts, called for the classical virtues of
on any product of the great individual artists: acquiring ‘a moderation, restraint, and harmony and the pictures of
Raphael’, ‘a Michelangelo’, or ‘a Titian’ was a goal in itself, Brueghel represented the very vices against which they
whatever the work in question. warned. Unlike some of the contemporary Romanists, who
had travelled from the Netherlands to Italy and been
While the Italians of the Renaissance had turned to highly inspired by Michelangelo and other artists of the time,
organised spatial settings and idealised figural types, the Brueghel travelled to Rome around 1550 but remained
northern Europeans focused on everyday reality, on optical largely untouched by its art. He turned to local inspiration
sensations, and on the variety of life on earth. No painter and staged his scenes amidst humble settings, earning him
has ever surpassed the Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck the undeserved nickname of “Peasant Brueghel”. He was a
in his close observation of surfaces, and no one has ever seen herald of the realism and bluntness of the northern
and captured more clearly and poetically the glint of light European Baroque.
on a pearl, the deep, resonant colours of a red cloth, or the
glinting reflections that appear in glass and on metal. The great intellectual revolt set in motion by theologians
Scientific observation was one form of realism, while Martin Luther and John Calvin in the sixteenth century led
another was the intense interest at the time in the bodies of to an attempt by the Catholic Church to respond to the
saints and on the anatomical details of the Passion of Christ. challenge of the Protestants. Various Church Councils called
This was the age of religious theatre, when actors, dressed for a reform of the Roman Catholic Church. In the arts, the
as biblical characters, acted out in churches and on the participants at the Council of Trent declared that art should
8— introduction —
be simple and accessible to the broad public. A number of movements and open brushwork, but sharing with the
Italian painters, however, whom we know as Mannerists, Italians a mystical sense of light and the Catholic
had instead been practising an artistry that was complex in iconographic subject matter.
subject matter and style. Painters eventually responded to
ecclesiastical needs as well as to the ennui that necessitated How different from all this were the paintings of
a response to Mannerist stylistic formulae. We call this new seventeenth-century Holland! Having effectively freed
era the age of the Baroque, which was ushered in initially by themselves from Habsburg Spain by the 1580s, the Dutch
Caravaggio. He painted what he saw in front of him, in the practised a tolerant form of Calvinism, which eschewed
most realistic if dramatically dark and theatrically religious iconography. A growing middle class and an
concentrated manner possible, and he gained a following increasingly wealthy upper class were present to buy the
among the popular masses as well as with connoisseurs and delightful variety of secular paintings produced by a host
even with Church officials, who were at first sceptical of his of skilled painters, with individual artists specialising in
overly realistic treatment of sacred subject matter. moonlit landscapes, skating scenes, ships at sea, tavern
Caravaggism swept across Italy and then the rest of Europe, scenes, and a great variety of other subjects. From this large
and a host of painters came to adopt and adapt his school of artists several individual painters stand out. Jacob
chiaroscuro and his suppression of flashy colouring; his van Ruisdael was the closest we have to a High Baroque
earthy and sincere actors struck a chord with viewers across landscape painter in Holland, his dark and sometimes
the Continent who had tired of some of the artificialities of stormy landscapes evoking the drama and movement so
sixteenth-century art. widespread in European art of the time. Frans Hals’
painting, with flashy, quick strokes of the brush and
In addition to the Caravaggism of the early Baroque, exaggerated colouration of skin and garments, also, like
another form of painting later called the High Baroque Ruisdael’s, approaches a more pan-European sensibility of
soon developed; the most dramatic, dynamic, and the High Baroque. In contrast, Jan Steen typified the
painterly of styles hitherto developed. Many of its widespread realism and local quality of most Dutch art of
painters built on the foundation laid by the Venetians of the Golden Age, and he added a moral slant in his
the sixteenth century. Peter Paul Rubens, an admirer of depiction of households in disarray and misbehaving
Titian, painted huge canvases with fleshy figures, rich peasants. Finally, the paintings of Rembrandt van Rijn
landscapes, broken brushwork, and flickering light and stand alone, even from the Dutch. Raised as a Calvinist, he
dark. His pictorial experiments were the starting points shared some beliefs with the Mennonites, and he was
for the art of his countrymen Jacob Jordaens and Anthony happy to depart from the Calvinist stricture against
van Dyck, the latter of whom had a great following among representing biblical scenes. His later paintings, with their
the European elite for his noble portrait manner. Rubens quiet introspection, make the perfect Protestant
brought back the world of antiquity, painting on his counterpart to the showy, dynamic, Roman Catholic
canvases ancient gods, goddesses and human sea paintings of Rubens. While working early on in a tighter
creatures, but his style was anything but classical. He technique influenced by the Dutch “fine painters,”
found a ready market for his works among the European Rembrandt developed a broad, shadowy manner derived
aristocrats, who liked his bombastic flattery, and among from Caravaggio but expressed with much greater pictorial
Catholic patrons of religious art, who found in his complexity. This style fell out of favour among the Dutch,
extroverted sacred scenes another weapon in Counter- but Rembrandt held his ground, going bankrupt though
Reformation ideology. In Rome itself, the sculptor Bernini leaving a legacy that would be admired by Romantics and
was Ruben’s counterpart, as the Catholic Church had in those modernists with a penchant for painterly abstraction.
these two champions of Faith a means to show the power Rembrandt also stood out because of the universality of his
and majesty of the Church and the Papacy. The Italian art. He was steeped in knowledge of other styles and in
Baroque painters let loose a torrent of holy figures on the literary sources. Although he never travelled to Italy, he
ceilings of the churches of Rome and other cities, with the was an artistic sponge, and he included in his works bits
skies opening up to reveal Heaven itself and God’s inspired by the late Gothic artist Antonio Pisanello and the
personal acceptance of the martyrs and mystics of the Renaissance masters Mantegna, Raphael and Dürer. He
world of Catholic sainthood. The Spanish painters constantly evolved, and he had the broadest artistic mind
Velásquez, Murillo, and Zurburán took up the style in and deepest understanding of the human condition of any
their native land, perhaps calming the physical painter of his age.
9Clearly, just as there were many ‘Renaissances’ in art, there Boucher conveyed a lighter mood, with more feathery
were many forms of the Baroque, and the High Baroque was strokes of the brush, a lighter palette, and even a smaller
challenged by the Classical Baroque, which had its physical size of works. Erotic subject matter and light genre
philosophical roots in ancient thought and its stylistic basis subjects came to dominate the style, which found favour
in the paintings of Raphael and other High Renaissance especially among the pleasure-loving aristocrats of France,
classicists. Annibale Carracci had embraced a classical as well as their peers elsewhere in Continental Europe. The
approach, and painters like Andrea Sacchi challenged the Rococo painters thus carried forward the debate between
supremacy in Rome of High Baroque painters like Pietro da line and colour that had emerged in practice and in art
Cortona. However, the most quintessential classicist of the theory in the sixteenth century: the argument between
seventeenth century was the Frenchman Nicolas Poussin, Michelangelo and Titian, and then between Rubens and
who developed a style perfectly suited to the growing ranks Poussin, is a struggle that would not go away, and would
of philosophical Stoics in France, Italy, and elsewhere. His return in the nineteenth century and later.
solid, idealised figures, endowed with broad physical
movements and firm moral purpose, acted out a range of Not every artist succumbed to the Rococo. A focus in the
narratives, both sacred and secular. Another Frenchman eighteenth century on particular social virtues – patriotism,
developed a different form of classicism: the epicurean moderation, duty to family, the necessity to embrace Reason
paintings of Claude Lorrain at first seem to differ sharply and study the laws of Nature – were themselves at odds
from those of Poussin, as Claude’s pictures melt edges with the subject matter and hedonistic style of the Rococo
away, his waters ripple subtly, and hazy views into infinity painters. In the realm of art theory and criticism, Diderot
appear in the distance. Yet, both painters conveyed a sense and Voltaire were unhappy with the Rococo style
of moderation and balance, and appealed to similar kinds of flourishing in France, and the days of the style were
patrons. All these painters of the seventeenth century, numbered. The humble naturalism of the Frenchman
whether classical in temperament or not, participated in the Chardin was based in Dutch still-life artistry of the previous
explosion of subject matter of the time; not since antiquity century, and the Anglo-American and English painters,
had artmaking seen such a diversity of iconography of both including John Singleton Copley of Boston, Joseph Wright
sacred and profane subjects. With the exploration of new of Derby and Thomas Hogarth painted in styles which, in
continents, contact with new and different peoples across different ways, embodied a kind of fundamental naturalism
the globe, and novel views offered by telescopes and we recognise as fitting for the spirit of the age. A number of
microscopes, the world seemed to be a changing, evolving artists, such as Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun and Thomas
and fractured place, and the diversity of artistic styles and Gainsborough, incorporated into their paintings some of the
pictorial subject matter reflected this dynamism. lightness of touch that characterized the Rococo, but they
modified its excesses and avoided some of its artificial and
Louis XIV (d. 1715), the self-designated Sun King who superficial qualities, however delightful those are.
modelled himself after Apollo and Alexander the Great,
favoured the classical mode of Poussin and of painters such A leitmotif of Western painting has been the persistence of
as his court artist Charles Le Brun, who, in turn, favoured classicism, and here the Rococo found its fiercest opponent.
the king with a number of murky paintings glorifying his The essentials of the classical style – a dynamic equilibrium,
reign. There arose in the end of the seventeenth century and an idealised naturalism, a measured harmony, a restraint of
the beginning of the eighteenth century a debate over style colour and a dominance of line, all operating under the
in which painters allied themselves with one of two camps, guiding influence of ancient Greek and Roman models –
the Poussinistes and the Rubénistes. The former favoured reasserted themselves in the late-eighteenth century in
classicism, linearity, and moderation, while the latter group response to the Rococo. When Jacques-Louis David
declared the innate primacy of free colouring, energetic exhibited his Oath of the Horatii in 1785, it electrified the
movement, and compositional dynamism. When Louis XIV public, and was applauded by the French including the
died, the field in France was open, and the Rubénistes took King, and an international viewership. Thomas Jefferson
the lead, bringing forth a style we call Rococo, which – happened to be in Paris at the time of the painting’s
roughly translated – means “pebblework Baroque,” a exhibition and he was greatly impressed. The popularity of
decorative brand of the painterly Baroque. Rather than Neoclassicism preceded the French Revolution, but once the
being a continuation of the style of Rubens, the manner of revolution occurred, it became the official style of the
Antoine Watteau, Jean-Honoré Fragonard and François virtuous new French regime. The Rococo was associated
10— introduction —
with the decadent Ancien Régime, and its painters were The kind of anti-Romantic realism in Flaubert’s Madame
forced to flee the country or change their styles. A later Bovary found expression in the art of the school of Realist
Neoclassicism remained in vogue in France through the painters. Gustave Courbet’s unadorned representation of
Napoleonic age, and the elegant linearity and exotic attitude Nature and of village life stands as his attempt to show us
of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres took the place of the the world without elaboration. His statement “show me an
works of David, who had softened his style later in life to angel and I will paint one” is the sentiment which led to the
create a copious, more decorative form of classicism suitable creation of his monumental Burial at Ornans, a carefully
for the less bourgeois character of the French Empire. composed work that he and critics of the time convinced
themselves was little more than raw réalité. More traditional,
If the eighteenth century was the Age of Reason and the but also based on close observation of nature, were the
Enlightenment, there was, developing at the same moment, paintings of Jean-François Millet and the Barbizon School
an intellectual trend towards interest in the irrational and painters, led by Theodore Rousseau. Among the other
the emotional. A group of painters, sometimes regarded Realists were Honoré Daumier, who concerned his efforts
together under the term Romantics, flourished in the late- with contemporary urban life and in depicting the folly of
eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth civic officials and lawyers, the natural goodness of
century. Many of these painters co-existed chronologically labourers, and the weariness of the poor. Contemporary in
with the classical artists, and there was a certain amount of time with the French Realists were the English
Prerivalry between them. Some of the European painters from Raphaelite painters, who turned their backs on the artful
the last half of the eighteenth century to the first half of the idealism they associated with the Academy; they found
nineteenth century were explicitly interested in the inspiration instead in the detailed particularism and
irrational, as was Henry Fuseli in his Nightmare and ‘honesty’ of painting in Italy before Raphael and the High
Francisco Goya in some of his violent or black paintings and Renaissance. Dante, Gabriel Rossetti and Edward
Burnetheir scenes of death and madness. Théodore Géricault Jones found solace in exotic stories of the Middle Ages, in
explored medical insanity in some of his smaller paintings accounts of early British history, and in all manner of
and the themes of death, cannibalism, and political moralising tales and parables. They painted with oils, but
corruption in his massive and turgid Raft of the Medusa. with the care of tempera paints, without the broad treatment
More subtle were the painters in this period who explored of the brush, the scumbling of the colours across the canvas,
the emotional effects of landscape art. John Constable’s and the rapid glazing technique that the oil medium makes
flickering light and careful study of clouds and the sunlight possible. They would not be the last painters in the West to
on trees in the English countryside yielded strikingly reject the pictorial possibilities of oil paint, or to defy the
emotive results. The German Caspar David Friedrich conventions of the academies of art from the sixteenth to the
conveyed the religious mysticism of the landscape, while nineteenth centuries.
the American Hudson River School painters, such as
Thomas Cole, represented the warm autumnal colours and As urbanism and industrialism advanced in
nineteenthdesolation of a wilderness in the New World that was century Europe, a new and unexpected development
quickly disappearing. J.M.W. Turner’s paintings of occurred in painting with the rise of Impressionism.
seascapes, landscapes, and historical scenes seemed to his Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro and
contemporaries to be made of “tinted steam,” and he edged others in their circle painted with rapid strokes and with
towards modernism in his abstractness. The most influential an insubstantiality never before seen in painting.
and acclaimed of the French Romantic painters was Eugene Sometimes capturing the idylls of the countryside and at
Delacroix. He turned to the High Baroque painter Rubens other times capturing the light, smoke, colour, and
for artistic inspiration and painted canvas after canvas of movement of urban scenes, they turned their backs on the
tiger hunts, Passion of Christ imagery, and – for historical and concentrated instead on conveying the
contemporary taste – the exotic world of Arab warriors and evanescence of present appearances. Rejected at first by
hunters in northern Africa. Like the Baroque masters before critics and the public because of their insouciance with
him, he used zooming spatial diagonals, cut-off academic rules, the Impressionists had a lasting impact on
compositional elements, and bravura colourism with great art. As their styles developed, the modernity of their art
effect. Delacroix gained the artistic and even personal became even more apparent. Monet’s canvases became
enmity of Ingres, and contemporaries recognised in their art extremely abstract, and he came to finish his pictures, not
the timeless struggle of line versus colour. in front of the visual source, but in his studio, sometimes
11long after contact with the natural model. Renoir demolished the Renaissance project – a project accepted by
eventually sought to represent the firm linearity he had the Academic painters of the nineteenth century – of
discovered in Italian art, and his works became ever more constructing a spatial box in which meaningful events
planned in design, firmly based on figural models, and unfold with convincing space, colour and light. Never
sugary sweet in colouring. The traditionalist painters Jean- painting in a pure, non-representational abstraction, the
Léon Gérôme and William Bouguereau in France and Ilya Cubists relied for artistic success on the tension between
Repin in Russia achieved worldly success and acclaim with what one sees and what one expected to see. Picasso, who
their more academic and conservative approaches, but the had earlier painted in an academic narrative manner as a
Impressionists had the greatest impact on the development youth and in poetic and rather representational Blue and
of modernism, and their artistry soon inspired new Pink periods, later experimented almost endlessly, at times
branches of painting. dabbling with Primitivism, Neoclassicism, and Surrealism.
Not since Giotto had a single painter done more to change
The Post-Impressionists were a group of artists who the field of his art. The works of the French painter Fernand
understood the potentialities of the way the Impressionists Léger and the Nude Descending a Staircase by Marcel
used the brush. Paul Cézanne was determined to make Duchamp were by-products of the styles of Picasso and
“something permanent” of the art of the Impressionists, Braque, an expansion of an idea into more dynamic settings
endowing his pictures with the compositional solidity he of figures in an architectural environment.
found in classicism. He was intent on “redoing Poussin
after Nature,” and he developed a rough kind of classicism Picasso’s art was often witty and clever. A good deal of
that, at the same time, broke down barriers by obscuring twentieth-century painting was more serious, and works
the edges of things and by making the paint surface an end like Picasso’s Guernica, portraying the tragedy of war, were
in itself, with its own lighting, texture, and colouring. his own advance away from the playfulness of his early
Vincent van Gogh built on Impressionism and imbued it Cubist styles. Surrealist art, such as the dream paintings of
with his mystical spirit. Paul Gauguin sought subject Salvador Dalí, or the forbidding settings of the works of
matter in the primitive areas of France and the South Pacific Giorgio de Chirico, capture some of the alienation and
and painted with patches of sometimes barely mediated psychological intensity of modern life. The Futurists, Italian
colours. Georges Seurat’s art theory returned to some of the painters beholden to the Cubists, turned to dynamic, even
rhetoric of early Impressionism, as he set out to give an violent movement in their paintings, and their art presaged
impression of reality through his novel technique. In his the unpleasant mixture of modernism, urbanism, and
case, it was based on points of colour and optical mixing of aggression that, not by coincidence, fuelled the Fascist
colours to create the sense of reality, except that, like regime of Benito Mussolini. Quite unlike the outwardly
Cézanne, he gave his figures an almost neoclassical calm, intense Futurists, some modernists of the late-nineteenth
presence, and moral gravitas. and early-twentieth centuries included a group of painters
set on exploring inner subjectivity, and the period of
The explosion of styles that had set in during the later civilisation that gave us Freud and Jung was bound to
nineteenth century continued in the twentieth century. The include a group of painters willing to explore the
freedom and individualism of modernism found expression psychological states of the human race. Edvard Munch’s
in a riot of painting styles. Thinkers in a number of fields in psychological insight and expressionism were matched in
the early-twentieth century discovered the essential their intensity perhaps only by those of the German painters
instability of form and existence: atonalism in music, the Ludwig Kirchner and Emil Nolde. A religious sentiment,
theory of relativity in physics, and the destabilising also deeply emotive, flourished during this time in the
tendencies of psychoanalysis all pointed to a world of abstracted art of the Catholic Georges Rouault and the
subjectivity and shifting viewpoints. For their part, the Jewish Marc Chagall.
Cubists, led by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque,
systematically broke down (“analysed”) reality in their Modernists rejected tradition in architecture, literature and
Analytic Cubism, almost eliminating colour, direction of music, and painting was no different. The rise of
light, texture, and even the singularity of viewpoint and, for abstraction has been much heralded, but it is arguable that
a while, they turned completely away from narrative in no such thing is possible. The Dutchman Piet Mondrian
favour of immobile subjects of still-life and portraiture. In saw in his abstractions various theological, gender, and
the history of styles, it can be said that the Cubists existential categories, and his Broadway Boogie Woogie is
12— introduction —
suggestively titled. Kasimir Malevitch’s abstract, geometric century French context, for example, beyond Rodin, and
paintings carried ontological and divine connotations, perhaps Carpeaux and Barye, the sculptors are paled by the
while Wassily Kandinsky’s abstractions are fraught with schools of painters who came forth with innovative ideas.
mysticism and secret messages. Jackson Pollock’s Abstract Painting has overcome the cheap supply of prints that
Expressionist drip paintings contained in them a strong flooded the markets beginning in the fifteenth century, the
human presence in the very kinesthetic style itself, and he attempts by some Baroque artists to merge painting with
labelled his works with telling titles such as Autumn other visual arts, the promise of greater verisimilitude
Rhythm and Lucifer. The Dutch-born Willem De Kooning’s claimed by photography in the nineteenth century, and the
canvases are filled with an explosive and frantic application competition offered by moving pictures in the twentieth.
of the paint, often illustrating highly charged subject Digital media threaten a challenge once again in the early
matter. Mark Rothko’s fields of bleeding colours sprang twenty-first century. But painting is too powerfully present,
from the artist’s philosophical notions, and he wanted his too flexible in results, and too rooted in our sensibilities to
viewers to be deeply moved by his pictures. Colour and give way easily to upstarts. Even in practical terms,
shape had come to fill the gap left by the departure of the paintings can be rolled up and shipped, or when not in use
Virgin Mary and martyred saints, classical gods and they can be stacked, while, on the other hand, they can fill a
triumphant generals of earlier artmaking. The older blank wall or a ceiling with great effect. You cannot turn a
technique of oil painting was supplemented in the painting off with a switch or an easy click of the mouse.
twentieth century with new or reborn substances: acrylic, They are flat, like the pages of our books and the screens on
aluminum paints, encaustic, enamel, and other binding our computers, and can be reproduced in a compatible,
twoagents, with the occasional quotidian object mixed in or dimensional format, without necessitating the difficult
glued onto the surface for good measure. decisions of lighting called for in the reproduction of
sculpture or with the questions of viewpoint as in the
A reaction to the psychological intensity of the Abstract photography of architecture. Renaissance thinkers said a
Expressionists was inevitable, and it took two forms. One was painter can exercise divine powers and, like God himself,
in a new objectivity and minimalism, championed by create an entire world, and thousands of different pictorial
sculptors such as Donald Judd and David Smith, but also worlds have been created since then.
painters such as Ellsworth Kelly and Frank Stella, who set out
to take a good deal of the human emotion, mysticism, and The works chosen for this book demonstrate the variety of
moral subjectivity out of painting. Another response was great painting to be found in our public museums. Surely,
found in Pop Art, which vividly brought back the represented painting continues to have a lasting appeal in a changing
object, often in mirthful ways. Andy Warhol’s soup cans, the world. Will the field continue to produce masterpieces?
collages of Richard Hamilton, and the comic book style of Roy That is a more difficult question to answer. The works
Lichtenstein, works often carried in large scale, were serious in collected here indicate that physical craftsmanship is an
their intents. The commercial products of modern societies important component of successful painting. It is also clear
come spilling out on to the canvases of the Pop Artists, who that painters succeed when they “stand on the shoulders of
ask us to consider the nature of consumerism and mass giants” and respond to art of the past, be it in admiration or
production as well as issues of artistic representation. in rebellion. Perhaps the world is awaiting the next great
painter who, like Raphael, Rembrandt, and Picasso is
In the end, painting has triumphed in Western art over a steeped in the art of the past, and has the knowledge,
host of opponents. In the Renaissance, the debate raged over sincerity, and technical skills to create something new and
the paragone, that is, the comparison of the visual arts, and outstanding. If painters of the future produce works that are
Michelangelo and his camp proclaimed that sculpture was little more than sarcastic one-liners, or are by nature
more real, more literally tangible, and less deceptive than ephemeral in form and meaning, or disdain or ignore the
painting. Leonardo and others fought back, with words and whole of the history of art, the field of painting has little
deeds, and one can argue that painting remained the hope of success. However, manual skill and a determination
preeminent art from the Renaissance to the twentieth to create a novel yet savvy work of art can go a long way
century. It is telling that the average viewer can only name towards preserving the art form. The pages of this book
a few prominent sculptors of the Renaissance, but might contain, without setting out to do so, a blueprint for
easily name a small army of painters from that period. The painting’s future.
same is true of the nineteenth century: in the nineteenth- — Joseph Manca
131
14th13 Century
ollowing the Romanesque period, the Gothic period The rest of Europe tried to emulate the Gothic style of
emerged in northern France. The centres of religious and the Ile-de-France, but the German and English traditions didFintellectual authority moved from a rural-monastic not emphasise the soaring height in the way that the
environment to urban centres. cathedrals of Reims or Amiens did. England’s great
The Gothic ribbed vault, because it was light and thin, achievements in the thirteenth century were political,
allowed for a new aesthetic to develop in which lux nova including the Magna Carta (1215), generally thought by later
defined the new architecture. “New light” was communicated generations to be a guarantor of human rights for all, and the
through the uplifting vaults and the stained glass that establishment of Parliament during the reign of Edward I
illuminated the new lofty spaces made technologically possible (1272-1307).
by flying buttresses on the exterior that provided support for The crusades were in full force by the thirteenth century,
the thin walls. Phillip II (r.1180-1223) built Paris into the capital but the battles were largely defined by Muslim counterattacks.
of Gothic Europe. He paved the streets, embraced the city with The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) was mainly played out in
walls, and built the Louvre to house the royal family. Constantinople and served to discredit the crusading trend, as
Thomas Aquinas, an Italian monk, came to Paris in 1244 to Christians attacked Christians, and the schism between the
study at the renowned university. He began, but never Eastern Orthodox Christians and the Roman Catholics
finished, the Summa Theoligica in the Scholastic model being widened.
taught in Paris. Based on Aristotle’s system of rational inquiry, These military ventures did, however, create long lasting
Aquinas used a model in his treatise that organised the work cultural exchanges. New foods and luxury items such as silks
into books, then questions within the books, and articles and brocades entered into circulation. Italian traders
within the questions. Each article then included objections particularly benefited from this merchant exchange with the
with contradictions and responses, and answers to the East, even expanding its reaches.
objections became the final element in the model. Aquinas’s The famous Venetian explorer, Marco Polo (1254-1324),
work is a foundation of Catholic teaching. travelled from Europe to Asia and spent seventeen years in
When King Louis IX (1215-1270) assumed the throne, the China developing Merchant contracts. While Italians used
Parisian “court style” of Gothic was at it height. Paris was not only timber beams rather than high stone vaults to roof their
revered for its university faculty and architects, but also for its structures, thereby limiting the height of their churches, they
manuscript illuminators. In Dante Alighieri’s (1265-1321) Divine did soar in the arena of international trade, setting the stage for
Comedy he noted Paris as the capital of the art of book illumination. the “golden age” of the Renaissance.
1. Bonaventura Berlinghieri, 1205/10-c. 1274, Gothic Art, Italian,
St Francis and Scenes From his Life, 1235, Tempera on wood, 160 x 123 cm,
San Francesco, Pescia
152. Master of the Crucifixion, Gothic Art, Italian,
Crucifixion and Eight Stories of the Passion of Christ,
th th late 12 c. – early 13 c. Tempera on panel, 250 x 200 cm,
2 Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
16th— 13 century —
3. Tuscan Master, Gothic Art, Italian,
Crucifixion and Six Stories of the Passion of Christ, 1240-1270
3 Tempera on panel, 277 x 231 cm, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
175
4
Cimabue (Cenni di Pepo)
(c.1240 Florence – 1302 Pisa)
After learning the art of making mosaics in Florence, Cimabue
developed in the medieval Byzantine style, advancing towards
more realism. He became the first Florentine master. Some of
his works were monumental. His most famous student was
Giotto. He painted several versions of the Maestà, “majesty,
enthroned in glory”, traditionally referring to Mary in setting,
that show some human emotions, such as Madonna and Child
Enthroned with Angels and Prophets.
6
18th— 13 century —
7 8
4. Master of St Mary Magdalen, Early Renaissance, Italian,
St Mary Magdalen and Eight Stories from her Life, 1265-1290,
Tempera on panel, 164 x 76 cm, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
5. Workshop of Louis IX, Early Renaissance, France, Danish,
Joshua Stops the Sun and Moon, From the Psalter of Louis IX of France, c. 1258-1270,
Manuscript illumination, 21 x 14.5 cm, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris
6. Workshop of the Ingeborg, Early Renaissance, Danish,
Embalming of the Body of Christ and the Three Marys at the Empty Tomb,
From the Psalter of Queen Ingeborg of Denmark, c. 1213,
Manuscript illumination, 30.4 x 20.4 cm, Musée Condé, Chantilly
7. Master of San Gaggio, Early Renaissance, Italian, Madonna and Child
Enthroned with Ss. Paul, Peter, John the Baptist and John the Evangelist,
Tempera on panel, 200 x 112 cm, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
8. Cimabue (Cenni di Pepo), 1240-1302, Early Renaissance, Italian,
S. Trinitá Madonna, c. 1280, Tempera on panel, 385 x 223 cm,
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Cimabue painted this altarpiece for the Holy Trinity church in Florence, which is
unprecedented, albeit at first it appears very similar to other of his works of the
previous decade. It is smaller than his Maestà (1260), to which it can be contrasted
on several key points. The differences are important as the artist moves himself and
the art world beyond the rigid poses of the Byzantine icons to more
threedimensionality. While there remains a strict symmetry of figures, the intentional
distortion of figures as in his earlier art is abandoned for more natural animation.
It is seen in each of the fourteen figures, including the prophets (left to right)
Jeremiah, Abraham, David and Isaiah, as they apparently find apposite scriptural
references.
9. Cimabue (Cenni di Pepo), 1240-1302, Early Renaissance, Italian,
Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels and Ss. Francis and Dominic,
9Tempera on panel, 133 x 82 cm, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
1910
20— index —
Runge, 1777-1810 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539 Turner, 1775-1851 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532, 541, 570, 571, 574, 575
Ruysch, 1664-1750 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414 Tuscan Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
S U
Salviati (del), 1510-63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259 Uccello, 1397-1475 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Sargent, 1856-1925 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .669, 700 Utrillo, 1883-1955 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .815, 852
Sarto (del), 1486-1530 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203, 205
Sassetta, 1392-c. 1450 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 V
Saura, 1930-98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .982 Valadon, 1865-1938 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .774
Valenciennes, 1750-1819 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516Schick, 1776-1812 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
Vallotton, 1865-1925 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .767Schiele, 1890-1918 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .793, 803, 832, 848
Van de Cappelle, 1626-79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364Schlemmer, 1888-1943 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .857
Van de Velde the Younger, 1633-1707 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399Schmidt-Rottluff, 1884-1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .801, 814
Van der Goes, c. 1440-82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116, 131Schönfeld, 1609-84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385
Van der Weyden, 1399-1464 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70, 78, 84, 96Schongauer, 1450-91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122, 129
Van Dongen, 1877-1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .761, 771Schwarz, 1838-69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611
Van Dyck, 1599-1641 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310, 311, 315, 332Schwind (von), 1804-71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .606, 608
Van Eyck, c. 1390-1441 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63, 66, 67, 68Schwitters, 1887-1949 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .869
Van Gogh, 1853-90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .690, 691, 692, 695, 703, 708Seekatz, 1719-68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470
Van Goyen, 1596-1656 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334Segantini, 1858-99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .714
Van Heemskerck, 1498-1574 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236Seghers, 1589-1638 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
Van Leyden, 1494-1533 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229Serov, 1865-1911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .683, 768
Van Mieris, 1635-81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401Sérusier, 1864-1927 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688
Van Orley, 1491/92-1542 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207Seurat, 1859-91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .672, 673, 689, 706
Van Ostade, 1610-85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391Severini, 1883-1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .794
Van Reymerswaele, 1493-1567 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249Shishkin, 1831-98, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .676, 694
Van Ruisdael, 1628-82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369, 370, 371Sickert, 1860-1942 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .823
Van Rysselberghe, 1862-1926 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .748
Signac, 1863-1935 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .716
Van Scorel, 1495-1562 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
Signorelli, c. 1445-1523 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
Van Velde, 1895-1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .988
Sisley, 1839-99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .629, 637, 644
Van Wittel, c. 1653-1736 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
Snyders, 1579-1657 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .362, 407
Vanloo, 1705-65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .458, 460
Soest (von), active 1394-1422 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Vasarely, 1908-97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .994
Soulages, *1919 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .957
Vecchio, 1480-1528 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
Soutine, 1893-1943 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .855, 866
Velázquez, 1599-1660 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300, 319, 325, 358, 366
Spencer, 1891-1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .887
Veneto, c. 1502-55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Spitzweg, 1808-85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566, 573, 607, 620
Veneziano, 1410-61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81, 105
Staël (de), 1914-55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .940, 943
Vermeer, 1632-75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380, 383, 384, 394, 395
Steen, 1626-79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390, 392
Vernet, 1714-89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461, 462
Steenwyck, 1612-after 1656 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
Veronese, 1528-88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264, 269, 274, 283
Stella, *1936 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .975, 1000
Verrocchio (del), c. 1435-88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1151596-1657 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
Verspronck, 1606-62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
Still, 1904-80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .917
Vieira da Silva, 1908-92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .930
Strigel, c. 1460-1528 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
Vien, 1716-1809 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
Strozzi, 1581-1644 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302
Vigée-Lebrun, 1755-1842 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .507, 509, 526
Stuart, 1755-1828 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .512
Vlaminck (de), 1876-1958 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .752, 760
Stubbs, 1724-1806 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478 Vouet, 1590-1649 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323, 324
Stuck (von), 1863-1928 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .728, 750 Vrubel, 1856-1910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .685
Surikov, 1848-1916 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .663, 686 Vuillard, 1868-1940 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .733
Sutherland, 1903-80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .924
W
T Warhol, 1928-87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .974, 976, 983, 985, 999
Tamayo, 1899-1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .908 Watteau, 1684-1721 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417, 419, 424, 425
Tanguy, 1900-55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .865 Wesselmann, 1931-2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .993
Tàpies, *1923 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .979 West, 1738-1820 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .480, 485
Tatlin, 1885-1953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .781 Whistler, 1834-1903 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .612, 633, 634
Teniers the Younger, 1610-90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365 Wilkie, 1785-1841 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549
Ter Borch the Younger, 1617-81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382, 404 Wilton House (Named after Wilton House) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Ter Brugghen, 1588-1629 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320 Witte (de), 1616-91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375
Thoma, 1839-1924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .699 Witz, c. 1400-45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Thomson, 1877-1917 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .840 Wols, 1913-51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .921
Tiepolo, 1696-1770 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428, 430, 446, 457 Wood, 1891-1942 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .879
Tintoretto, 1518-94 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257, 265, 270, 280 Workshop of Louis IX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Tischbein, 1751-1829 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504 Wof the Ingeborg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Tissot, 1836-1902 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .619 Wright, 1734-97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
Titian, 1490-1576 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198, 204, 214, 243, 255, 258 Wyeth, *1917 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .927
Tobey, 1890-1976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .950
Tocque, 1696-1772 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463 Z
Tommasso da Modena, c. 1325-79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Zurbarán (de), 1598-1664 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322, 345
Toorop, 1858-1928 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .720
Toulouse-Lautrec, 1864-1901 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .702, 710, 717, 718, 722
Traini, active 1321-63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Traversi, c. 1722-70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450, 454
Troger, 1698-1762 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449
Tura, c.1431-95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
543From the early Renaissance through Baroque and Romanticism to Cubism,
Surrealism, and Pop, these canonical works of Western Art span eight
centuries and a vast range of subjects. Here are the sacred and the scandalous,
the minimalist and the opulent, the groundbreaking and the conventional.
There are paintings that captured the feeling of an era and those that signaled
the beginning of a new one. Works of art that were immediately recognized
for their genius, and others that were at first met with resistance.
All have stood the test of time and in their own ways contribute to the
dialectic on what makes a painting great, how notions of art have changed, to
what degree art reflects reality, and to what degree it alters it. Taken together
these great works illuminate the changing preoccupations and insights of our
ancestors, and give us pause to consider which paintings from our own era
will ultimately join the canon.