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Africa in the Changing World Development Paradigm


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The volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 12th Conference of Africanists organized by the Institute for African Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences in May 2011. The Conference, held triennially since 1969 is a major event in the area of African studies in Russia and beyond. What is particularly remarkable is the number and the diversity of the participants: academics, diplomats, Moscow-based and provincial as well as foreign participants from a staggering number of countries: Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, Cote d�Ivoire, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Italy, Kenya, Kazakhstan, Mozambique, Nigeria, Poland, Spain, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, UAE, UK, USA, Zimbabwe. Subjects covered range from economics, foreign relations, security issues, administration to history, culture, linguistics and religious studies. The book is a good reference tool to today�s problematics in African studies as it presents a cross-section of this vast and diverse field. The Conference, held triennially since 1969 is a major event in the area of African studies in Russia and beyond. What is particularly remarkable is the number and the diversity of the participants: academics, diplomats, Moscow-based and provincial as well as foreign participants from a staggering number of countries: Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, Cote d�Ivoire, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Italy, Kenya, Kazakhstan, Mozambique, Nigeria, Poland, Spain, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, UAE, UK, USA, Zimbabwe. Subjects covered range from economics, foreign relations, security issues, administration to history, culture, linguistics and religious studies. The book is a good reference tool to today�s problematics in African studies as it presents a cross-section of this vast and diverse field.



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Published 15 July 2015
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EAN13 9780994032539
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Cameroon, Canada, Cote dʼIvoire, Czech Republic, Denmark, France,
is a good reference tool to todayʼs problematics in African studies as it presents a cross-section of this vast and diverse field.
Moscow, Russia May 24–26, 2011
Editor-in-Chief Alexei Vasiliev
Executive Secretary Natalia Zherlitsina
Africa in The Changing World Development Paradigm./DF%HDXSRUW,201, 216 p.
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ISBN: 978-0-9940325-2-2
© Institute for African Studies RAS, 2011.© Gulzhamal Abisheva, design, 2011. ‹ 0($%22.6 ,QF 
Panel 1.Africa in the Situation of Global Climate Change …………………. Panel 2.Africa in the System of International Relations. The Russian-African Bilateral Relations ……………………………………………..... Panel 3.African Diasporas: Evolution through Time and Space …………… Panel 4.African History in African Studies in Our Country …………........... Panel 5.BRIC’s African Agenda …………………………………………… Panel 6.Civilizational Paradigm of the World Order in Africa ……………. Panel 7.Conflicts in Africa from the Standpoint of the End of the “Cold War”: Background, Major Types and Effects ………………………... Panel 8.Cultural-Historical Context of Development from the Standpoint of Guidelines of Social Evolution ……………………….. st Panel 9.Gender and State PolicyCentury:in Africa in the 21 New Tendencies and Perspectives ………………………………………. Panel 10.Information, Education and Linguistic Policy in Africa from the Standpoint of Globalization and Regionalization ………………….... Panel 11.Interaction between Literature, Culture and African Diasporas: Stages, Tendencies and Perspectives ……………………………………. Panel 12.Islamic Challenge to Contemporary World Order: from Civilizational Identity to Global Caliphate? Experience of Regions in the Muslim World ………………………………………… Panel 13.Language in the Context of Changing Socio-cultural Paradigms in Africa ……………………………………………………… Panel 14.The Middle East and Maghreb: Modernization in the Framework of Globalization …………………………………….... Panel 15.Peace Agreements and Consolidation of Political Order in Africa ………………………………………………………………….. Panel 16.Religion in Contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa: Multilinear Evolution. The Fate of Traditional Beliefs in Present-day Conditions ….. Panel 17.Southern Africa: Modernization, Elections, Regional Cooperation ……………………………………………………………… Panel 18.State Economics Policy and Business: New Phenomena ……….... Panel 19.Tendencies of Socio-economic, Political and Cultural .Development in Sub-Saharan Africa at Multipolar World’s Formation ... Panel 20.Zimbabwe at the Crossroads ……………………………………... Panel 21.Free Communication Panel ………………………………………. Index of Contributors……………………………………………………...
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189 199 206 212
Gusarov V.I. Institute for African Studies, Moscow, Russia
The Modern Trends of the Aggravation of the Socio-ecological Crisis in Africa
The elapsing decade of the new century is testifying, that the previously re-vealed trends of the aggravation of the socio-ecological crisis on the continent not only remain, but constantly modify, finding new forms and features. It happens against the background of non-stop debates between the supporters of global warm-ing and global cooling. The processes of deforestation, soil erosion, reduction of biodiversity, exhaus-tion of water resources are continuing on the continent. The problems connected with pollution of the atmosphere, with growing volume of everyday waste materials produced under the influence of stormy urbanization and demographic processes, with industrial and transportation construction, with displacement of «dirty» pro-duction by the developed countries to Africa, as well as exportation by them of dan-gerous industrial waste material to the continent, are aggravating. Among numerous reasons for the aggravation of the socio-ecological crisis in Africa the main place take processes of deforestation and, as their consequence, de-sertification, which exert the largest influence on climate change. There are UN es-timations, according to which 65% population of the continent encounter deforesta-tion and desertification. These are mainly inhabitants of the regions, where the ar-able lands were expanded at the expense of the deforestation. Deforestation contributes much to the exhaustion of water resources on the con-tinent. In addition, the global processes in this sphere, in particular the industrial ex-plosion, exert a negative influence on Africa. Those are premises and indications of a big scale degradation of the natural en-vironment, aggravated by the rapid spreading of epidemic. The ecological and resource potential of the continent is being exhausted im-petuously and not recommencing. It just means, that the process of mutual interrela-tions of nature and Human Being in Africa is thoroughly violated and there is a steadysocio-ecological crisis.
Africa: Nature and Development
Sukhorukov V.D. St.-Petersburg, Russia
Natural factor in the development of Africa plays a crucial role. Throughout the history of Africa the degree of dependence of its peoples on the natural environment underwent substantial changes. Modern environmental management in Africa is de-termined by increasing the scope of interaction with the natural environment. These
circumstances underscore the importance of natural foundations to the formation and development of African civilization. Hence – the relevance of themes from na-ture in the current paradigm shift in world development. Modern-day Africa should be seen as a continent that is most vulnerable to pro-jected climate changes. Significant transformation of the existing ecosystems and ex-isting social structures is expected in Africa. This will be accompanied by a «natural and social stresses» devastating both for individual countries and the entire continent. Africa, as it thought to be, may end up in position of risk of further civilized existence. Currently, the African continent is particularly vulnerable to climate change because of factors such as widespread poverty and growing economic backwardness. Available options for adaptation, including those developed by traditional coping strategies, may be useless in practice. The reason for this is that the ability of the human, infrastruc-tural and economic resources of Africa in a timely manner to respond to global cli-matic change is far beyond the economic opportunities of the continent.
Masters L. Institute For Global Dialogue, South Africa
Africa and Global Climate Change
In 2011 South Africa will host the UNFCCC climate change negotiations, which are among the most politically divisive and broad ranging within the multilateral framework. Within this context Pretoria will face the challenge of drawing together divergent interest at both a national and international level. At the national level, a number of questions remain concerning the political leadership in mainstreaming climate change concerns into policy. This reflects a continued commitment to ensur-ing sufficient ‘carbon space’ for the county’s development. There will also be pres-sure from business interests, in particular the mining interests, which remain de-pendent on South Africa’s cheap ‘dirty’ electricity. At the international level careful consideration will need to be given to current in-ternational geo-political divisions, the emerging South-South relations in the form of BASIC, as well as the importance of drawing Africa and other vulnerable states into the centre of the discussions. Here the role of South Africa as a ‘bridge builder’ will be put to the test. COP17 offers South Africa the opportunity to play the part of a diplo-matic innovator in bringing together disparate positions while underpinning the impor-tance of transparency, equality and fairness within the UNFCCC negotiation process. This will be particularly important if an agreement is to be achieved.
Gromova O.B. Institute for African Studies, Moscow, Russia
Ecology, Climate Change and Health of African People
Africa is one of the most vulnerable regions in the world to the new environ-mental challenges, especially climate change. Huge shifts in climate and environ-
ment experienced by Africa over the past decades have critical health implications and pose a major threat to the health and survival of African people. The anomalous and extreme weather events and natural disasters such as heat-waves, intensive floods and more frequent droughts are becoming a serious envi-ronmental source and factor of exacerbation of old, “forgotten” infectious diseases and emergence of new ones in the current millennium. Many of the reemerging cli-mate-sensitive diseases assume more dangerous forms. The new environmental and climate conditions favour the spread of vector-borne diseases to new areas. The quality and availability of water and food, which are the fundamental determinants of nutrition and health, are under serious threat. People’s capacity to resist infection is reduced by chronic malnutrition due to de-creasing food productivity, food shortages and changes in access to clean water. The adverse economic, social and demographic factors aggravate the compli-cated influence of climate change on Africans’ health and undermine efforts to re-duce major environmental risk factors. Need a new vision for African health policy and national health systems capable of addressing the biggest health challenges of African region. There is a necessity of integration of long-term climate-change adaption and counteraction strategies into development programs with due regard for problems of ecological sustainability.
Lvova E.S. Moscow State University, Russia
Two African Scientists – about Ecological Problems
The danger of the deforestation, desertification, shortage of clean water and so on – all of these problems are very real in Africa. There is also a need of changing of traditional energy resources through their contemporary types. It is very impor-tant in terms of both technical measures and constant work regarding mentality of African people. It seems to us that scientific heritage would also be very useful.
Boltunov V.A. Institute of energetics constructions, Moscow, Russia
The Utilization of the Biolocation Methods in the Time of the Investigation of the Egyptian Pyramids
During the years of the construction of the Asuan hydro-electric power station in the Egypt the author happened to conduct biolocation research both on the terri-tory of the pyramids near Cairo, and inside them, measuring the level of geopatho-genic anomalies. Such research was necessary for the solution of questions of neu-tralization of the destructive influence of atmospheric electricity on the bed grounds of the artificial reservoirs, on the ground constructions and dams, including the dam of the Asuan hydro-electric power station. In the process of research we have determined, that the nature and the intensity of influence of the atmospheric electricity on the grounds and rocky bedrocks, as
well as on the material of the building constructions – that is on concrete, on arma-ture concrete, on iron and other metal constructions – are straight connected with the geopathogenic zones, which represent channels of the vertical circulation of the geoenergy in the universal system “Earth – Space”.
Mshale B. University of Michigan Ann Arbor, USA
The Political Ecology of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies in Tanzania. The Case of REDD Projects in Kilwa and Lindi District
The realization that avoiding tropical deforestation could reduce global green-house gas emissions by up to 20% (IPCC, 2007) and the failure to include emissions reduction credits from avoided deforestation in the First Kyoto Commitment Period (2008-2012) due to methodological and sovereignty concerns, resulted to develop-ment of a new strategy that aims at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries known as REDD+. Tanzania is one of the nine pilot countries for the UN REDD+ readiness program and several pilot projects are underway in Tanzania whose findings will inform the incorporation of emissions reduction from avoided deforestation in the second Kyoto Commitment Period. My paper sets to analyze, from a political ecology perspective, the conditions under which REDD is likely to be effective given the multiplicity of actors and their cor-responding aspirations and needs from the local to international level. The premise under REDD is that communities that own/use forests will be paid to stop deforesta-tion using revenues from sale of carbon credits. Local communities act as sellers and international firms in developed countries as buyers of the credits. Intermediar-ies in this transaction include local and national governments, national and interna-tional environmental NGOs which facilitate the transaction through connecting the local sellers to international buyers. These actors [i.e. local communities, local gov-ernment authorities, environment and development NGOs, central government, in-ternational community] have different and often antagonistic needs, aspirations, power, knowledge and capacity in relation to forest governance and avoiding defor-estation in local situations. I want to present analysis of this nuanced multi-stakeholder collaboration as it plays out in Kilwa district and discuss its ramifica-tions for the success of REDD projects in sub-Saharan Africa.
Rybalkina I .G. Institute for African Studies, Moscow, Russia
Women's Environmental Organizations
In the modern world environmental problems have achieved a great acuity, becoming a global threat to human habitat and environment. On the African continent, women play a special role in the establishment and operation of environmental organizations. Since the African mothers bear primary responsibility in ensuring families with food, observing the norms of sanitation, hygiene and so
lies with food, observing the norms of sanitation, hygiene and so on, they took the lead in shaping the public environmental movement. The main objectives of environmental organizations in Africa are: 1. Improvements on quality of life in rural areas through water points and water-supply system development, food production increase and expansion of health care network. 2. Dissemination of family planning principles. 3. Awareness-raising and educational work in rural communities on economic and social importance of protecting their habitat and environment. 4. Development of agricultural sectors, important for household and family, – such as livestock, poultry, etc. – and related agricultural services. 5. Promoting the development of African communities through the elaboration of relevant programs (one of the most salient examples – the program of ‘Coopera-tion of private organizations’).
Miftakhova S.A. Institute for African Studies, Moscow, Russia
Jonglei Canal Laying as an Attempt to change Environment in Southern Sudan
The “Water problem” was caused by economic growth in Egypt and Sudan so that at present the Nile can not meet requirements of rapidly growing population of the two countries. That problem could be solved by laying the Jonglei canal in southern Sudan which is aimed at protection of water resources of East Africa and equatorial lakes of Kenya and Uganda. The Jonglei canal is a hydro-construction project in Upper Nile Province of southern Sudan designed to alter the course of the White Nile as it passes through a swampy area in southern Sudan known as Sadd where evaporation is twice as much as from the surface of the river. The canal was to ensure the flow of 4.7 billion cubic meters of water annually, to be equally distributed between Egypt and Sudan. However the canal project was put to a halt in 1983 following the outbreak of the North-South civil war. Against the backdrop of worsening political situation in-side the country the project faced financing problems as aside from remuneration of labour of the specialists it was necessary to compensate the removal costs to the lo-cal population from the area with width of 300 meters from both sides of the canal. Nowadays the government of Sudan pays greater attention to problems of effec-tive consumption of water from the Nile especially for development of irrigated ag-riculture in the country. The agricultural lands irrigated by the Nile waters are con-centrated in Sudan mainly in a narrow strip of semi-desert bordering the Nile valley. Its total area is equal to 4 million feddans (1.8–1.9 hectares). In February 12, 2008 the Vice-president of Sudan and the President of the southern Sudan Salva Kiir had a meeting with the Egyptian Prime Minister Ahmed Nazeef in Cairo where the new prospects of restarting the Jonglei canal project were discussed. The Egyptian Prime Minister said that there was an agreement between Egypt and Sudan singed in 1959 related to the Nile water consumption regulation and reassessment of the project would need “significant financial resources”. Egypt