Decentralisation and Spatial Rural Development Planning in Cameroon
176 Pages
English
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Decentralisation and Spatial Rural Development Planning in Cameroon

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176 Pages
English

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Despite rapid urbanisation, Africa remains predominantly rural. This calls for decentralisation beyond the dominant concern by states and government with urban spaces. Rural areas, rural development and the future of rural settlements need to be understood and addressed in the context of the ongoing democratisation trends and the emergence and development of civil society. States have tended to tame rather than serve civil society in Africa. By establishing a single cultural reference and imposing a centralised state, African governments have exacerbated the fragmentation of civil society. However, political pluralism has slowly been gaining ground since the 1990s. This book explores the scope for implementing decentralisation programmes that focus on citizens in rural areas. For the purpose of decentralisation, civic participation in local politics and user participation in development programmes must be seen as two sides of the coin. The book focuses on spatial planning – a process concerned with spatial organisation in an integrative manner, and incorporates the design, establishment and implementation of a desired spatial structural organisation of land. This is especially relevant in a context where the formulation of guidelines for spatial development at the overall level of a state is inadequate.

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Published 26 July 2011
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EAN13 9789956717705
Language English
Document size 19 MB

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Exrait

Emmanuel Neba Ndenecho
Decentralisation and Spatial Rural Development Planning in Cameroon Emmanuel Neba Ndenecho Langaa Research & Publishing CIG Mankon, Bamenda
Publisher: LangaaRPCIG Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group P.O. Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon Langaagrp@gmail.com www.langaa-rpcig.net Distributed in and outside N. America by African Books Collective orders@africanbookscollective.com www.africanbookcollective.com
ISBN: 9956-717-66-5 ©Emmanuel Neba Ndenacho 2011
DISCLAIMER All views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Langaa RPCIG.
To my brothers Nji Fordam Asah Humphrey
Table of Contents
List of figures............................................................................................. v List of tables.............................................................................................. vi List of plates................................................................................................. vi Abbreviations and Acronyms....................................................................... vii Acknowledgement........................................................................................ ix Preface......................................................................................................... xi Chapter One: The Theoretical Frame Work.......................................1 Introduction............................................................................................ 1 Generic spatial development of rural areas.............................................. 7 Objective of the rural physical planner................................................... 15 Rural habitat planning and the role of decentralization........................... 16 Chapter Two: Cultural Identity and the Rural Habitat...................... 19 The complexity of human settlement...................................................... 19 The variety of individual dwellings......................................................... 20 The village and habitat............................................................................ 21 Architectural styles and building forms.................................................... 23 Chapter Three: The Rural Habitat and Farm System Development................................................................. 51Typology of rural settlement.................................................................... 51 Shapes and forms of single dwellings...................................................... 51 Village: agglomerations of hamlets.......................................................... 54 Farming systems and the village structure............................................... 55 Farming systems and the human setting................................................... 60 Objectives of the farm family.................................................................. 63 Settlement and the farming systems........................................................ 64 Chapter Four: Rural Settlement – Spatial Development Planning....................................................................... 79The rural and urban dichotomy................................................................ 79 False presumptions.................................................................................. 80 Towards sustainable rural economies and livelihoods............................. 82 Building regional networks for innovation diffusion in rural areas.......... 84 Planning for rural development.............................................................. 90
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Chapter Five: Stemming Rural Exodus.............................................. 93 Urbanisation and rural –urban exodus..................................................... 93 Rural –urban linkages............................................................................. 94 Overcoming the urban –rural divide....................................................... 95 Environmental linkages and the countryside.......................................... 96 Provision of rural infrastructure and services.......................................... 97 Rural –to-urban migration...................................................................... 101 Strategies to arrest rural exodus.............................................................. 103 Chapter Six: Decentralisation and the Scope for Regional Rural Development....................................................................................... 105 Post-independence rural development strategies.................................... 105 Resources for local and participative development................................ 106 New political framework for rural development..................................... 109 Regional rural development planning..................................................... 111 Accountability for local development funds 114 Chapter Seven: Models and Strategies for Rural Settlement Planning.............................................................................................. 119 Structural land and holdings.................................................................... 119 The planning levels................................................................................. 121 The planning process.............................................................................. 122 Characteristics of new agricultural development areas............................ 135 Stages in the development of integrated agricultural projects................. 135 Main components of rural settlement and services................................. 137 New village planning................................................................................ 140 The chronological steps of village planning.............................................. 142 Chapter Eight: Decentralization and Regionalisation: Recipe for Sustainable Local Development………………………………………145 Decentralisation.................................................................... 145 Regionalisation................................................................................. 146 Regionalisation versus Globalissation............................................................ 146 Planning with Regional Insitutions......................................................... 147 Lessons from the Current Wave of Decentralisation……….................. 148 References........................................................................................... 155
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List of Figures Figure 1: Cameroon cultivable land area 1960 – 2025............................... 3 Figure 2: Major ethnic groups and some tribal groupings in Cameroon..... 9 Figure 3: Mean annual rainfall and vegetation zones of Cameroon............. 11 Figure 4a: Distribution of forms of rural dwellings in Cameroon................ 14 Figure 4b: Standard plans and building materials used for rural Dwellings..................................................................................................... 15 Figure 5: Human choice of settlement site.................................................. 19 Figure 6: Mbororo – Fulani architecture in the Bamenda Highlands......... 23 Figure 7: Kapsiki Valley rural dwelling....................................................... 24 Figure 8: Lowland architecture – rural dwelling in Mousgoum Country........................................................................................................ 25 Figure 9: Massa style architecture in the plains of North Cameroon........... 26 Figure 10a: Section of the Moundang architecture in plain Topography................................................................................................ 27 Figure 10b: Section of Moundang architecture in the North Cameroon Plains.......................................................................................................... 27 Figure 11: Section of the Fulbe dwelling in plain areas............................... 28 Figure 12: Section of a Bamoun dwelling................................................... 28 Figure 13: Section of a Bamileke dwelling................................................. 29 Figure 14: Section of a pigmy dwelling in the rainforest............................ 30 Figure 15: Section of a Beti dwelling in the rainforest................................ 31 Figure 16: Rural dwelling on piles in the rainforest.................................... 32 Figure 17: Architecture of the Grassfields................................................. 33 Figure 17b: Construction of the grassfield house........................................ 34 Figure 18: Grassfield iconography................................................................ 37 Figure 19: Modern dwelling of the type of the savannah areas.................. 40 Figure 20: Modern dwelling of the type in the Chad basin......................... 41 Figure 21: Rural dwelling and park savannah landscape in Baya Country....................................................................................................... 53 Figure 22: Rural land use in Golonpoui village, North Cameroon............. 55 Figure 23: Live fence enclosures of agroforestry compound farms in Bamendjou................................................................................................ 59 Figure 24: The hedge enclosures of Bamileke land.................................... 59 Figure 25: Flow of goods and services in a farm system............................ 61 Figure 26a: Temporary settlement presenting interactions of factors in semi-nomadism and evolution towards sedentarisation..................................... 65 Figure 26b: Seasonal movement of cattle in Kolara: North Cameroon..... 66 Figure 26c: Seasonal movement of cattle in Kolara: North Cameroon...... 67
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