276 Pages
English
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Émile Durkheim and the Collective Consciousness of Society

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276 Pages
English

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A detailed engagement with Émile Durkheim’s concept of the collective consciousness of society from a criminological perspective.


‘Émile Durkheim and the Collective Consciousness of Society: A Study in Criminology’ challenges conventional thinking on the use of Durkheim’s key concept of the ‘collective consciousness of society’, and represents the first ever book-length treatment of this underexplored topic. Operating from both a criminological and sociological perspective, Kenneth Smith argues that Durkheim’s original concept must be sensitively revised and updated for its real relevance to come to the fore.


This study puts forward three major adjustments to Durkheim’s concept of the collective consciousness. It complicates the idea that the common and collective consciousness are interchangeable terms for the same phenomenon; it refutes the ‘disciplinary’ function of society as part of the concept of the common or collective consciousness; and it reveals the illusiveness of the supposed universal set of equally held ideas in a society, underlining the importance of geographical and generational variation.


Preface: Erewhon; Introduction; Part I: The Concept of the Collective Consciousness of Society; 1. Durkheim on the Collective Consciousness in ‘Moral Education’; 2. Durkheim’s Other Writings on the Concept of the Collective Consciousness; 3. Collective Consciousness, Common Consciousness, Collective Conscience or Conscience Collective?; Part II: The Form of the Collective Consciousness; 4. The Form that the Collective Consciousness(es) of Society Takes in a Late-Industrial Society: I. Macro-sociological or ‘General’ Characteristics; 5. The State as the ‘Organ’ of the Common Consciousness; 6. ‘The Rule-of-Law’: A Case Study; 7. The Form that the Collective Consciousness Takes in Early Twenty-First Century Britain: II. Micro-sociological, Individual or Small-Scale Factors; Part III: Durkheim on Crime and Punishment; 8. Durkheim on Crime and Punishment in ‘The Division of Labour in Society’; 9. Durkheim on Crime and Punishment in ‘The Rules of Sociological Method’; 10. Interregnum on ‘Suicide’ (1897); 11. Durkheim’s Undeservedly Famous ‘Two Laws of Penal Evolution’ Essay (1901); 12. Durkheim on Crime and Punishment in ‘Moral Education’ (1902–03); Part IV: Social Factor Social Phenomenon? Durkheim’s Concept of the Collective Consciousness as a ‘Social Fact’; 13. What Does Durkheim Mean by the Concept of the ‘Social’ and What Does He Mean by the Concept of a ‘Fact’?; 14. Social Facts or Social Phenomena?; 15. Social Facts and Sociology; 16. Social Facts as Living Things; Part V: Some Problems with Durkheim’s Concept of the Common and Collective Consciousness; 17. Interdependence and the Division of Labour in Society; 18. Durkheim on Socialism; 19. Professional Ethics; 20. Individualism, Durkheim and the Dreyfus Affair; Conclusion; Appendix: On Paying a Debt to Society; Notes; References; Index

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Émile Durkheim and the Collective Consciousness of Society
Émile Durkheim and the CollectiveConsciousness of Society
A Study in Criminology
Kenneth Smith
Anthem Press An imprint of Wimbledon Publishing Company www.anthempress.com
This edition first published in UK and USA 2014 by ANTHEM PRESS 75–76 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HA, UK or PO Box 9779, London SW19 7ZG, UK and 244 Madison Ave #116, New York, NY 10016, USA Copyright © Kenneth Smith 2014
The author asserts the moral right to be identified as the author of this work.
All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book.
British Library CataloguinginPublication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Smith, Kenneth (Kenneth Ronald) Émile Durkheim and the collective consciousness of society : a study in criminology / Kenneth Smith. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index.  ISBN 9781783082278 (hardcover : alk. paper) – ISBN 9781783082285 (papercover : alk. paper) 1. Sociology. 2. Consciousness–Social aspects. 3. Crime–Sociological aspects. 4. Durkheim, Émile, 1858–1917–Political and social views. I. Title. HM585.S557 2014 301–dc23 2014009529
ISBN13: 978 1 78308 227 8 (Hbk) ISBN10: 1 78308 227 5 (Hbk)
ISBN13: 978 1 78308 228 5 (Pbk) ISBN10: 1 78308 228 3 (Pbk)
Cover photo by Ki Price, courtesy of Rex Features. ‘Students demonstrate against higher tuition fees and cuts in University funding, London, Britain – 09 December 2010 Charlie Gilmour swings from a Union Flag on the Cenotaph.’
This title is also available as an ebook.
[It is] the tireless aim of moral philosophy to make the world safe forwelldisposedpeople.
(Williams, 2006: 59; emphasis added)
I wish to dedicate this book to all the people who taught me when I was a student at what was then known as Loughton College of Further Education, Essex, but especially to Tony Cole, Fred and Maureen Creasey, Leisha Fullick, Andy Jardine, Margaret Shepherd and Jean Usher.
Preface: Erewhon
Introduction
C
O
N
TEN
TS
Part I: The Concept of the Collective Consciousness of Society
Preface to Part I Introduction to Part I 1. Durkheim on the Collective Consciousness inMoral Education 2. Durkheim’s Other Writings on the Concept of the Collective Consciousness 3. Collective Consciousness, Common Consciousness, Collective ConscienceorConscience Collective? Conclusion to Part I
Part II:
TheFormof the Collective Consciousness
Preface to Part II Introduction to Part II: TheConditionsof the Collective Consciousness of Society 4. The Form that the Collective Consciousness(es) of Society Takes in a LateIndustrial Society: I.Macrosociological or ‘General’ Characteristics 5. The State as the ‘Organ’ of theCommonConsciousness 6. ‘The RuleofLaw’: A Case Study 7. The Form that the Collective Consciousness Takes in Early TwentyFirst Century Britain: II.Microsociological, Individual or SmallScale Factors Conclusion to Part II
Part III: Durkheim on Crime and Punishment
Preface to Part III Introduction to Part III 8. Durkheim on Crime and Punishment inLabour in SocietyThe Division of
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THE COLLECTIVE CONSCIOUSNESS OF SOCIETY
 9. Durkheim on Crime and Punishment inThe Rules of Sociological Method 10. Interregnum onSuicide(1897) 11. Durkheim’s Undeservedly Famous ‘Two Laws of Penal Evolution’ Essay (1901) 12. Durkheim on Crime and Punishment inMoral Education(1902–03) Conclusion to Part III
Part IV:
SocialFactorSocialPhenomenon? Durkheim’s Concept of the Collective Consciousness as a ‘Social Fact’
Preface to Part IV Introduction to Part IV 13. What Does Durkheim Mean by the Concept of the ‘Social’ and What Does He Mean by the Concept of a ‘Fact’? 14. Social Facts or Social Phenomena? 15. Social Facts and Sociology 16. Social Facts as Living Things Conclusion to Part IV
Part V:
SomeProblemswithDurkheimsConceptof the Common and Collective Consciousness
Preface to Part V Introduction to Part V 17. Interdependence and the Division of Labour in Society 18. Durkheim on Socialism 19. Professional Ethics 20. Individualism, Durkheim and the Dreyfus Affair Conclusion to Part V
Conclusion
Appendix: On Paying a Debt to Society
Notes
References
Index
104 113
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135 140 146 150 158
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MAKE THIEVES AND THEN PUNISH THEM
Doubtless unless you find a remedy for these enormities you shall in vain advance yourselves of executing justice upon felons. For this justice is more beautiful in appearance and more flourishing to the show, than either just or profitable. For by suffering your youth wantonly and viciously to be brought up, and to be infected, even from their tender age, by little and little with vice, then, [in] God’s name, to be punished when they commit the same faults after being come to man’s state which from their youth they were ever like to do; in this point, I pray you, what other thing do you than make thieves and then punish them?
Sir Thomas More [1516] 1910, 29
beoobaaaablerHbssubmlYmudTeAiasiuWseovahnncntnitssohelgiiatuteedsnetomthicotsehimfgnneenitdehunrhocoadvtenmonc,tiPseeihsetmbmihmaykstpoeomeaerwbtehhhiglurooytsaairsowhwsnweyoeetefredeeeauvlettgdfhnadogafesrhohsgfifelhbvsotefrroesniprloiaetlevhueaortedfowcaittdrne,n.ToaassstadytuwhaHeeflhilcalasfnabldcnrcfRsiokuirtoedcoe3Etmekc2egagr-enhetEr.deadue.yoeedhhdennwrtraeaesoaaaasloofoyr.fn.sx-n,ffrtERUVESICK:IThe boy’s abusiLve mother BOY, 12, WHO RAPED TEACHER LOCKED AWAY FOR LIFE By JEREMY ARMSTRONG A BOY of 12 who raped his petite teacher after a lifetime of appalling abuse was con cern s w ere expressed abou t h is “ s e x u a l i s e d b e h a v i o u r ” . H e w a s sim u latin g sexu al in tercou rse an d oral sex w ith h is teddy bear. B efore h e w as fou r h e w as bein g m istreated an d en cou raged to drin k alcoh ol an d sm ok e. th e “u n iq u e” n a tu re o f th e ca se w ith ou t k n ow in g th e defen dan t’s T h e 5 ft 3 in b o y , n o w 1 3 , h a d adm itted rapin g th e teach er an d back grou n d. H e said: “B y J an u ary , 1995, w h en h e w as barely th ree an d stealin g h er car w h ich h e drove at a h alf y ears old, con cern s w ere be-over 100m ph dow n th e A 1. Y esterday , as B ritain ’s y ou n gest ing expressed about his sexualised be-con victed rapist, h e w as lock ed u p h aviou r an d poor stan dard of care. for life by a ju dge at T eesside crow n “H is G P said th at h e appeared to cou rt in M iddlesbrou gh . b e u n d er th e in flu en ce o f illicit substances. W hen he w as still not yet A s h e w as led aw ay , h is m arried victim – w h o cam e face to face w ith fou r, h e w as bein g m istreated an d h im in cou rt for th e first tim e sin ce en cou raged to abu se both alcoh ol the attack in Novem ber – broke down an d cigarettes. in tears. S he w as said to be “relieved “ H e w a s m a s s i v e l y d a m a g e d an d pleased”. CONDEMNED:n byassively let dow d m already an O u t s id e c o u r t , t h e 5 2 -y e a r -o ld Boy rapist faces som e of th e people arou n d h im . H e form er boy frien d of th e boy ’s m oth-w as sim u latin g sexu al in tercou rse life behind bars er told of th e h orrors th at lu rk ed an d oral sex w ith h is teddy bear. beh in d th e door of th e fam ily h om e “P lain ly , th is gives som e expla-in G atesh ead, T y n e an d W ear. n ation . H is m oth er w as prosecu ted He said: “I rem em ber the lad’s eyes, f o r a b u s i n g b o t h h i m a n d h i s he w as pure evil. It sends a chill dow n broth ers from an early age. It w as a m y spin e to th in k abou t h im . tru ly appallin g start to life, w ith “H is m other w as a volatile, violent preciou s little gu idan ce.” dru n k an d w ou ld beat m e black an d S en ten cin g h im to life, w ith n o “T h e rapist’s relation sh ip to h erHewasrdinkingand smoking blu e. S h e h ad n o idea h ow to be a m in im u m term , M r J u stice G rigson paren t an d w ou ld sm ok e h eroin in said he did not expect the boy to take fron t of th e ch ildren . in w h at th e verdict m ean t. H e said: “T h ese problem s are n ot w as very u n h ealth y . H e’d get h er of y ou r ow n m ak in g, bu t it’s plain dru n k an d call h er terrible n am es. that until they are dealt with you are “H e h ad th is w ay of stan din g an d very likely to com m it other offences atthree,simulatingsexwithhis w atching silently w hat w as going on. as seriou s as th is. T h e pu blic h as to “H is favou rite trick w as to stan d be properly protected. in fron t of m e an d tear th e spin es “Y ou raped th is y ou n g w om an . from m y book s. H e’d look m e in th e P hysical injuries can heal relatively ey e as if to say ‘W h at are y ou goin g qu ick ly . B u t in ju ry to a person ’s to do abou t it?’ state of m in d tak es m u ch lon ger. teddy,andabused byhiismothert h e o n r e m a i n b o y t h e S e x “The boy and his tw o brothers w ere “ Y o u k n o w t h a t b e t t e r t h a n w e l l k n o w n t e a r a w a y s . T h e r e ’ s an y body – y ou w ere th e victim of som ething tw isted and evil about the such an attack.” H e also ordered that w h o l e f a m i l y – t h e y h a v e n o redeem in g featu res.” O ffen ders R egister for life. A t th e tim e of th e attack , th e boy D etective S ergean t J im C u n n in g-w as stay in g w ith a foster fam ily af-ham , of D urham police, said the case c e n tre fo r d istu rb e d c h ild re n inwho used heroin in front of him ter his m other w as jailed for rape and had shock ed experienced colleagues. tw o in decen t assau lts on m in ors. He said: “Every now and again even L ast n igh t h e w as bein g h eld at a th e m ost season ed detective w ou ld say ‘B u t h e’s on ly 12 y ears old’. A y e c l i f f e , C o D u r h a m , w h i l e “T h e boy is a very big, aggressive a u th o rities d ecid e w h ere h e w ill y ou n g m an an d sh e’s a petite lady . serve h is life sen ten ce. abou t to m ak e a call on h er m obile. w eigh t. A fterw ards, h e stood u p, on e stage h e clipped a road bridge. It w as easy to overpow er h er. Child welfare experts in Gateshead, H e faced h er w ith a w ild look on h is ask ed for her car k eys, rem oved sev- H e drove 40 m iles before dum ping the “A s th e boy left th e cen tre h e w as w h ere th e boy w as in care of th e face an d started pu llin g dow n h er eral coin s from h er bag an d h er k ey s veh icle in G atesh ead. v e r y c o m p o s e d . H e w a s a b le t o local au th ority , lau n ch ed an u rgen t pants and tights at the sam e tim e as an d left th e cen tre.” T h e fair-h aired boy w as arrested sw itch off, w h ich for m e m ak es h im in qu iry to discover w h y h e w as left pu llin g h is ow n track su it dow n . T h e 5 f t 1 i n t e a c h e r w a s s o seven h ou rs after th e attack . B u t, even m ore dan gerou s. H e w as cool alon e w ith th e teach er. “R ealising she w as about to use her distressed sh e lock ed h erself in a quizzed by police, he show ed a fright- an d sh ow ed n o em otion .” T he boy cornered his special needs m obile ph on e h e grabbed it from h er toilet an d m ade a 999 call. ening lack of em otion, refusing to an- G atesh ead A rea C h ild P rotection t e a c h e r d u r i n g a o n e - t o - o n e an d th rew it aw ay , say in g ‘N o’. sw er qu estion s an d den y in g rape Com m ittee, w hich has com m issioned B u t it took 11 m in u tes to get h er tu torial session in a deserted com -“H e w asn ’t say in g an y th in g. S h e u n til presen ted w ith D N A eviden ce. a review of th e case, said: “A gen cies terrified m essage across because the m u n ity cen tre in C o D u rh am . w as frightened but tried to calm him h ave w ork ed in ten sively w ith th is operator fou n d it difficu lt to believe A s th e prosecu tion detailed th e A s th e y ou n gster sat at th e back dow n by talk in g to h im . boy over th e past few y ears. th at a boy of 12 w as capable of rape, horrific events the boy fixed his gaze o f c o u r t a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h r e e “A t th e tim e o f th is in cid en t, “A ll the tim e she w as saying ‘W hat or drivin g a h igh perform an ce car. on th e gallery w h ere h is victim sat secu rity m in ders rath er th an in th e th ere appears to h ave been n oth in g are y ou doin g? T h is is m e, it is(herparen ts.an d h u sban d h er w ith dock , prosecu tor S h au n D odds said: A s police w ere alerted th e boy to in dicate h e w as a risk to adu lts.” nam e)t h e ign ored h er.’. B u “H e ju m ped ou t of h is seat an d roared off in the car speeding at m ore J oh n E van s, defen din g, said it approach ed th e w om an as sh e w as “H e h eld h er dow n u sin g h is body th an 100m ph dow n th e bu sy A 1. A t w as hard for the public to understandjeremy.armstrong@mirror.co.uk
Used with permission: © Mirror Syndication International