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Ethiopian Labour Migration to the Gulf and South Africa

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The major objective of the research is to produce evidence-based knowledge on the social and economic impacts of labour migration by looking at the challenges and opportunities of Ethiopian labour migration to the Gulf and South Africa. On the one hand, international migration from Ethiopia could be considered as an aspect of development problem. The major push factors that forces Ethiopian migrants to the Gulf and South Africa are economic/developmental problems ranging from lack of employment opportunities to wage differentials. On the other hand, international migration could be considered as an important resource that could be tapped for accelerating socio-economic development. At the general level, this research aims to examine the successes and failures of policies and institutions in realising the potentials of international migration for socio-economic development of the country and minimizing its adverse impacts. At the same time, the growing problem of illegal migration will be examined.

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Published 11 May 2016
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EAN13 9789994450596
Language English
Document size 2 MB

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Ethiopian Labour Migration to
the Gulf and South Africa
Asnake Kefale and Zerihun Mohammed
FSS Monograph No. 10
Forum for Social Studies (FSS) Addis Ababa Ethiopia
© 2015 Forum for Social Studies (FSS)
All rights reserved.
Printed in Addis Ababa
ISBN: 978-99944-50-57-2
Forum for Social Studies (FSS) P.O. Box 25864 code 1000 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Email: fss@ethionet.et Web: www.fssethiopia.org.et
This Monograph has been published with the financial support of the Civil Societies Support Program (CSSP). The cont ents of this Monograph ar e the sole responsibilities of the author and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the CSSP or the FSS.
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Contents Aknowldgement ....................................................................................................iv List of Tables ........................................................................................................vi List of Figures ......................................................................................................vi List of Boxes ....................................................................................................... vii List of Acronyms................................................................................................ viii 1 Introduction.................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Objectives of the research ....................................................................... 7 1.2 Methodology and methods of data collection ......................................... 8 2 International Migration, Trafficking, Smuggling and Mixed Migration 11 3 Ethiopian Labour Migration to the Gulf ................................................... 17 3.1 Pull and Push Factors ............................................................................ 29 3.2 Routes to labour migration to the Gulf ................................................. 33 3.3 Working conditions and problems of protection................................... 36 3.4 The 2013 Saudi Shock .......................................................................... 38 3.5 Management of Labour Migration from Ethiopia................................. 41 3.6 Socio-Economic Impacts of Labour Migration..................................... 49 4 Ethiopian Irregular Migration to South Africa ........................................ 57 4.1 Push and Pull factors of migration to South Africa .............................. 57 4.1.1 Push factors.................................................................................................. 58 4.1.2 Pull factors ................................................................................................... 61 4.2 Routes of migration............................................................................... 62 4.3 Brokers and Traffickers/Smugglers ...................................................... 66 4.4 Gender and Age Aspects of Migration.................................................. 68 4.5 How many Ethiopian migrants in South Africa? .................................. 70 4.6 Life in South Africa as Illegal Migrant ................................................. 77 4.7 Xenophobia and attack on migrants in South Africa ............................ 79 4.8 Impact of migration to South Africa ..................................................... 80 5 Conclusion and ways forward .................................................................... 83 5.1 Concluding Remarks............................................................................. 83 5.2 The need for a comprehensive labour migration policy........................ 84 5.3 Policy recommendations ....................................................................... 90 References ............................................................................................................. 93
Aknowledgement
In the course of this study, we r eceived generious support from various organizations and individuals. We would like to extend our gratitude to all these institutions, government offices, and experts. We are partaicularly grateful to Ato Fana Woldesenbet who helped us in collecting and organi zing official data from different organizations. We would also like to saythank youto our informants in the regions and Addis Ababa who candi dely answered our questions duing the fieldwork.
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