128 Pages
English

Federal Presence in Nigeria. The 'Sung' and 'Unsung' Basis for Ethnic Grievance

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Minorities of the oil-producing states are seriously disturbed by the inequity that is apparent from the existing principles of revenue allocation in Nigeria. In taking issues with them and other southern advocates of new revenue allocation criteria, the dominant north's organic intellectuals have always relied on the obvious concentration of economic and commercial activities in southern Nigeria to refute the argument that the north is the greater beneficiary of Nigeria's wealth. Scholarly contribution to the ethno-regional debate on the equity of resource allocation has been anchored to the same popular platform, namely, the criteria for inter-governmental revenue allocation. It is as if they absolutely embody the revelation about equity or inequity of resource allocation in Nigeria where the federal government has retained between 48.5 per cent and 56 per cent of the federation account, let alone revenues unpaid into this account. This study marks a departure from the orthodox focus on Nigeria's ethnic problems, including the contentious demand of the southern minorities for an increase in the weight assigned the principle of derivation, by examining federal expenditures to determine the distribution of federal presence, and thus winners and losers, bearing in mind that the entire country is federal government's coverage.

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Published 15 August 2009
Reads 2
EAN13 9782869783966
Language English
Document size 1 MB

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Federal Presence in Nigeria The ‘Sung’ and ‘Unsung’ Basis for Ethnic Grievance
Festus O. Egwaikhide Victor A. Isumonah Olumide S. Ayodele
Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa
© CODESRIA 2009
Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa Avenue Cheikh Anta Diop, Angle Canal IV P.O. Box 3304 Dakar, 18524, Senegal Website: www.codesria.org
ISBN:978-2-86978-259-4
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage or retrieval system without prior permission from CODESRIA.
Typesetter: Sériane Camara Ajavon Cover Designer: Ibrahima Fofana Printed by Graphiplus, Dakar, Senegal
Distributed in Africa by CODESRIA Distributed elsewhere by African Books Collective, Oxford, UK. Website: www.africanbookscollective.com
The Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA) is an independent organisation whose principal objectives are to facilitate research, promote research-based publishing and create multiple forums geared towards the exchange of views and informa-tion among African researchers. All these are aimed at reducing the fragmentation of research in the continent through the creation of thematic research networks that cut across linguistic and regional boundaries.
CODESRIA publishes a quarterly journal,Africa Development, the longest standing Africa-based social science journal;Afrika Zamani, a journal of history; theAfrican Sociological Review; the African Journal of International Affairs;Africa Review of Booksthe and Journal of Higher Education in Africa. The Council also co-publishes theAfrica Media Review;Identity, Culture and Politics: An Afro-Asian Dialogue;The African Anthropologistand theAfro-Arab Selections for Social Sciences. The results of its research and other activities are also disseminated through its Working Paper Series, Green Book Series, Monograph Series, Book Series, Policy Briefs and the CODESRIA Bulletin. Select CODESRIA publications are also accessible online at www.codesria.org.
CODESRIA would like to express its gratitude to the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA/SAREC), the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Ford Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation, the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD), the Danish Agency for International Development (DANIDA), the French Ministry of Cooperation, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Rockefeller Foundation, FINIDA, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), IIEP/ADEA, OECD, IFS, OXFAM America, UN/UNICEF, the African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF), and the Government of Senegal for supporting its research, training and publication programmes.
Contents
List of Tables/Figures ............................................................................................... v
Notes on Authors ..................................................................................................... vii
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................... 1
2. Ethno-Regional Competition for Resources in Nigeria ................................ 7
3. Fiscal History ....................................................................................................... 31
4. Educational Facilities and their Beneficiaries ................................................. 49
5. Federal Public Service as a Cake to be Shared ............................................. 79
6. The Distribution of Health Benefits ............................................................... 93
7. Federal Expenditure on Roads, Housing and Erosion Control ................ 97
8. Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 105
Bibliography ............................................................................................................ 111
List of Tables
Table 2.1: Students in Training at Intermediate and Higher Levels by Provinces of Origin, 1966 ........................................................... 14 Table 3.1: Vertical Revenue Allocation Scheme in Nigeria (Percentage Share) ............................................................................... 43 Table 3.2: Total Expenditure of Various Governments in Nigeria,  1996-2000 ............................................................................................ 46 Table 4.1: Unit Cost (N) per Student for Science-based and Arts-based Courses, Academic Sessions 1985/86 and 1986/87 .................... 50 Table 4.2: Research Grant Allocations, 1987-1992 (N) .................................. 51 Table 4.3: Capital Allocation to Universities (1976/77-1998) in N ............. 52 Table 4.4: Distribution of Federal Government/Science/Technical Colleges ................................................................................................ 56 Table 4.5: Distribution of Federal Colleges of Education ........................... 56 Table 4.6: Distribution of Federal Polytechnics ............................................... 56 Table 4.7: Distribution of Federal Universities ................................................ 57 Table 4.8: National Universities Commission Executive Secretaries, 1975 to Date ....................................................................................... 59 Table 4.9: JAMB Registrars, 1977 to Date ....................................................... 60 Table 4.10: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Year 1980/81 .. 63 Table 4.11: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Year 1981/82 .. 64 Table 4.12: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Year 1982/83 .. 65 Table 4.13: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Year 1983/84 .. 66 Table 4.14: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Year 1984/85 .. 67 Table 4.15: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Year 1985/86 .. 68 Table 4.16: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Year 1986/87 .. 69 Table 4.17: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Year 1988/89 .. 70 Table 4.18: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Year 1989/90 .. 71 Table 4.19: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Year 1990/91 .. 72 Table 4.20: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Year 1991/92 .. 73 Table 4.21: Enrolment into Federal Universities, Academic Years  1980/81-1991/92 .............................................................................. 74 Table 4.22a: Zonal Share of Federal Expenditure on Education from  1980-1992 Derived from the Summation of per Student  (capita) Shares (N) .............................................................................. 74 Table 4.22b: The Noth-South Share of Federal Expenditure on Education  in 1981-1992 Derived from the Summation of per Student  (capita) Shares ..................................................................................... 75