Gated Neighbourhoods and privatisation of urban security in Ibadan Metropolis

Gated Neighbourhoods and privatisation of urban security in Ibadan Metropolis

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English

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One of the consequences of the failure of the state to protect life and property of its entire citizens especially in developing countries like Nigeria is the emergences of private alternatives to crime prevention and control. This process of privatisation of security in Nigeria often involves recruitment of corporate and local security guards, vigilantes, night watchmen and the control of access into the neighbourhoods through gates and barriers. The book examines the nature, types, procedures, and administration of these private alternative to security in Ibadan metropolis. It identifies renaissance of primary affiliation among diverse urban residents and the interplay of forces of exclusion and inclusion among residents of gates neighbourhoods in Ibadan metropolis. It also evaluates the spatial pattern, trends and dynamics of gating and the general concern for security in Ibadan metropolis.


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Published 03 April 2013
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EAN13 9791092312027
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Gated Neighbourhoods and privatisation of urban security in Ibadan Metropolis

Oluseyi Fabiyi
  • Publisher : Institut français de recherche en Afrique
  • Year of publication : 2004
  • Published on OpenEdition Books : 3 April 2013
  • Serie : Dynamiques africaines
  • Electronic ISBN : 9791092312027

OpenEdition Books

http://books.openedition.org

Electronic reference:

FABIYI, Oluseyi. Gated Neighbourhoods and privatisation of urban security in Ibadan Metropolis. New edition [online]. Ibadan: Institut français de recherche en Afrique, 2004 (generated 09 November 2013). Available on the Internet: <http://books.openedition.org/ifra/456>. ISBN: 9791092312027.

Printed version:
  • ISBN : 9789788025092
  • Number of pages : xvi-77

© Institut français de recherche en Afrique, 2004

Terms of use:
http://www.openedition.org/6540

One of the consequences of the failure of the state to protect life and property of its entire citizens especially in developing countries like Nigeria is the emergences of private alternatives to crime prevention and control. This process of privatisation of security in Nigeria often involves recruitment of corporate and local security guards, vigilantes, night watchmen and the control of access into the neighbourhoods through gates and barriers. The book examines the nature, types, procedures, and administration of these private alternative to security in Ibadan metropolis. It identifies renaissance of primary affiliation among diverse urban residents and the interplay of forces of exclusion and inclusion among residents of gates neighbourhoods in Ibadan metropolis. It also evaluates the spatial pattern, trends and dynamics of gating and the general concern for security in Ibadan metropolis.

Oluseyi Fabiyi

(Seyi Fabiyi)

Table of contents
  1. List of figure

  2. List of tables

  3. Foreword

  4. Acknowledgment

  5. Preface

  6. Chapter 1. Introduction

    1. 1.0. Background to the study
    2. 1.2. Aim and objectives of the study
    3. 1.3. The Study Area
  7. Chapter 2. Urban neighbourhood characteristics and security issues

    1. Informal control and privatisation of security apparatus
    2. Crime, insecurity and privatisation
    3. Crime rate by state
    4. Crime Landscape in Ibadan metropolis
    5. Crime prevention and control
  8. Chapter 3. Methodology

    1. 3.0 Introduction
    2. 3.1. Data collection
  9. Chapter 4. Privatisation of public space and urban dynamics in Ibadan metropolis

    1. Privatisation of neighbourhood street access
    2. Types of enclosures Crossbars
    3. Gates
    4. Street accessibility levels
  10. Chapter 5. Neighbourhood asociations’ involvement in privatisation of public space and security

    1. Affiliation with sister associations and Police on security matters
    2. Perception on crime
  11. Chapter 6. Crime and security issues in the neighbourhood

    1. Frequency of crime in the neighbourhood
    2. Types of crime
    3. Security measures
  12. Chapter 7. Summary of findings and policy implication

    1. Conclusion
  13. References

  14. Appendices

List of figure

  •  : Map of Nigeria showing Oyo state and Ibadan Metropolis 4
  • Map of Ibadan Metropolis showing land use classification 6
  •  : Neighbourhood , SPOTXS (Adapted from Fabiyil999) 8
  •  : Reported crime pattern by state in Nigeria 22
  •  : Trends in crime rate in some selected neighbourhoods in Ibadan metropolis 24
  •  : Spatial distribution of major police stations in Ibadan metropolis 25
  •  : Location of security points in Ibadan metropolis 32
  •  : Location of active crossbars in Ibadan metropolis 34
  • Location of abandoned crossbarsin Ibadan metropolis 36
  •  : Location of perforated gates in Ibadan metropolis 38
  • Examples of gates and cross bars in the study area 40
  •  : Location of gates with attached guard houses in the study area 42
  •  : Location of manned security gates in the study area 44

List of tables

  •  : The national trend of crime from 1990-1995 13
  •  : Reported crimes in Sango police station between 2001 and 2003 15
  •  : Reported crimes in Mokola police station between 2000 and 2003 16
  •  : Reported crimes in Idi-ape police station between 2000 and 2003 18
  •  : Reported crimes in Yemetu police station between 2000 and 2003 19
  •  : Mean crime rate per annum by police station 21
  •  : Sample distribution by Density zones 31
  •  : Types of cross bars by residential density 35
  •  : Gate types in the study area 37
  •  : Gate wall types in the study area 45
  •  :Gate opening time in the study area 45

Foreword

1The concern for safety is increasing daily in most Nigerian cities, this concern and the emergence of private initiatives in prevention and control of crime is continuously transforming most Nigerian urban residential precincts to the similitude of medieval settlements when accessibilities were highly controlled through city gates and walls.

2Gated communities are not alien to Nigeria, the intra tribal wars and the anarchy that characterised the 16th century brought about a number of gated towns in both Northern and Southern parts of the country ; the kingships and nobles also lived in fortified communities. The colonial rule and the installation of formal government in Nigeria made such city gates irrelevant with time. However a new dimension of gated neighbourhoods emerged in the seventies and eighties which involved fragmentation of residential precincts into smaller informal neighbourhoods through closures of access roads by gates and walls.

3The street gates are constructed by the collective effort of residents through various neighbourhood associations. These neighbourhood associations emerge though informal urban governance structure to enforce popularly agreed norms, forms and social control including the concept of crime.

4The neighbourhood associations develop mechanisms to deal with the threats of crimes m the neighbourhood which include recruitment of private security personnel, control of access to streets and surveillance of streets by selected residents both during the day and at night.

5The research questions from this premise are :

6Why and how do residents erect gates and other forms of control s on the public access roads ?

7What are the modalities of institutionalising privatisation of neighbourhood security in Nigerian cities ?

8What are the success rates of neighbourhood associations’ activities, especially as relates to neighbourhood safety ?

9Do residents grouping and regrouping contribute to social exclusion ?

10What relationship do neighbourhoods socio economic characteristics play in the transformations of neighbourhood morphology and access control ?

11These questions and other research concerns brought about the composition of a research team by IFRA (Ibadan), IFAS (Johannesburg) and IFRA (Nairobi) to explore developing a comparative study of three cities with the intention of understanding urban spatial dynamics and the factors determining gating in Sub-Saharan African cities.

12The aim of the study is to critically examine the nature, trends and types of urban spatial changes in some selected neighbourhoods of Ibadan metropolis(Nigeria) Nairobi(Kenya) and Johannesburg (Republic of South Africa) occasioned by concern for security. The study also analyses the factors that give rise to various strategies adopted by residents to ensure safer neighbourhoods, especially as relates to privatisation of streets and local accesses by residents.

13The objectives include :

  • To examine how neighbourhood associations organise themselves to ensure safer neighbourhoods.
  • To investigate and examine the factors that prompts and determine erection of street gates in the study area.
  • To develop a GIS database on gating and neighbourhood characteristics.
  • To evaluate the level of effectiveness of different crime prevention strategies in the neighbourhoods.
  • To evaluate the evolution of neighbourhood associations and examine the relationship between neighbourhood association activities and crime level in neighbourhood.
  • To compare the experiences and the GIS of gated neighbourhoods in the selected cities of Africa.

14This study is a follow up of the earlier pilot study carried out between January and March, 2003. The report of the pilot study was presented at the Johannesburg workshop in April 2003. The publication represents the observations in Ibadan metropolis.

15This fïeld survey was carried out between April 17th 2004 and August 17th 2004. The methods adopted were divided into three based on the agreed methodology with other researchers on the project in the other two cities ; Johannesburg and Nairobi.

16Three sets of data were used in this study as follows :

(a) Street maps

17Aerial photographs of the city captured in 1992 were obtained. The photographs were used to extract the street maps of the city. The pre-processed photographs were obtained from land and Survey Department of Oyo State in Nigeria. The streets were extracted from the photographs and ground checks were used in areas where tree canopies obscure streets. The extracted street maps were merged and geographically referenced to produce a geographic street map and consequently the GIS database. The street map thus produced was updated through extensive fieldwork and other relevant data. This approach was adopted due to lack of geographically referenced street maps in the study area as at the time of conducting this survey.

b) Security points enumeration

18Using the street maps produced in (a) above a detailed census of all the gates and their geographic locations was carried out with the assistantce of field enumerators who are trained in map reading and GIS. Questionnaire was developed to capture the characteristics of gates and the level of control of accessibility at every enumerated security point. The questionnaire contains questions of the environmental types, type of barrier, type of cross bars, the types and characteristics of protection on gates such as spikes or barbed wires, the gate-wall types and characteristics, the presence of protection on walls, the presence or absence of guard houses and security personnel at gates, the types of accessibility allowed at the gates to non residents and the level of control at the security points. Four teams of field enumerators were formally trained on the gate enumeration and the filling of the attached questionnaire. They were formally trained on how to insert the location of the street gates on the roads and the identification of streets that are enclosed through the erected gates. The measurement of gate height and the classification of gates into different types were also clarified to avoid ambiguity. Each team of two enumerators have an attached vehicle to move around while most of the time, the enumerators had to walk long distances to establish the enclosed streets by an erected gate. Ambiguities were usually resolved with the assistance of a field supervisor. The entire metropolis was divided into study cordons for easy management. Each team of enumerators were assigned some specific areas to cover and contiguous team areas were clearly marked-out to avoid boundary-crossing between two teams. Each team was expected to enter the filed data in a prepared coding sheet at the end of each working day and make return visit in case of doubt about location or characteristics of the gates. The field work for gate enumeration was carried out between April 22nd and June 19th 2004. All the residential streets in Ibadan metropolis were examined and the locations of gates and crossbars identified, consequently a total of eight hundred and sixty two residential streets were captured during the survey.

c) Neighbourhood association survey

19On a separate fieldwork, which started in August 23rd to October 4th 2004 four teams of enumerators were trained for focus group discussions (FGD). The land lord / residents’ association officials were targeted for discussion and interview. The emphases of the topic/ questions for discussion are the activities of the association and the maintenance of security in the neighbourhoods. Though the initial target of this research was to achieve total enumeration of the landlord / residents’ association in Ibadan metropolis, some neighbourhood associations...