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Gender, Politics and Land Use in Zimbabwe 1980-2012

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The agrarian reform dynamics in southern Africa have to be understood within the framework of colonial land policies and legislation that were designed essentially to expropriate land and natural resource property rights from the indigenous people in favour of the white settlers. Colonial land policies institutionalised racial inequity with regard to land although conditions are not homogeneous there are broad themes that cut across the southern Africa region. Colonialism dispossessed and impoverished the people by taking away the most productive lands. Neoliberal globalization has undermined the people's wellbeing through direct influences on agriculture and rural economies in conjunction with policies promoted by national governments and international agencies. Another shared feature is to be found in the high rates of unemployment, poor returns to small-scale agriculture, lack of access to social services such as health and education all of which serve to erode existing livelihood activities and perpetuate relative and absolute poverty in rural areas.

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Published 10 October 2015
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EAN13 9782869786707
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Gender, Politics and Land Use in Zimbabwe
1980–2012
00- introduction.indd 1 09/07/2015 02:47:47This book is a product of CODESRIA Comparative Research Network.
00- introduction.indd 2 09/07/2015 02:47:47
Gender, Politics and Land Use in Zimbabwe
1980–2012
Onias Mafa
Enna S. Gudhlanga
Norman Manyeruke
Ephraim H.M. Matavire
John Mpofu
Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa
DAKAR
00- introduction.indd 3 09/07/2015 02:47:47© CODESRIA 2015
Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa
Avenue Cheikh Anta Diop, Angle Canal IV
P.O. Box 3304 Dakar, CP 18524, Senegal
Website: www.codesria.org
ISBN: 978-2-86978-590-8
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information storage or retrieval system without prior permission from CODESRIA.
Typesetting: Alpha Ousmane Dia
Cover Design: Ibrahima Fofana
Distributed in Africa by CODESRIA
Distributed elsewhere by African Books Collective, Oxford, UK
Website: www.africanbookscollective.com
The Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA)
is an independent organisation whose principal objectives are to facilitate research,
promote research-based publishing and create multiple forums geared towards the
exchange of views and information among African researchers. All these are aimed
at reducing the fragmentation of research in the continent through the creation of
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research, training and publication programmes.
00- introduction.indd 4 09/07/2015 02:47:47Contents
List of Abbreviations....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ix
List of Tables.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................xi
List of Figures...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................xiii
List of Plates..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................xiv
Notes on Authors..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................xv
Acknowledgements....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................xvii
1. Background to the Study
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1
Background to the Problem.....................................................................................................................................................................................................1
Land Politics in pre-and Independent Zimbabwe.......................................................................................................3
Statement of the Problem..............................................................................................................................................................................................................8
Clarification of Concepts..........................................................................................................................................................................................................12
Method of Investigation..............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

2. Research Methodology
Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23
Research Design.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23
The Study Area.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................24
Geology and Vegetation......................................................................................................26
Field Work........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................29
Ethical Considerations.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................31
Conclusion...................................................................................................................................................................31

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3. The Historical Context of Land in Zimbabwe
The Political Economy of Zimbabwe......................................................................................................................................................33
Land Ownership During the Colonial Era...............................................................................................................................37
Other Oppressive Native Practices...................................................................................................................................................................50
Exploitation of African Labour.................................................................................................................................................................................50
The Rhodesian Front Era.........................................................................................................................................................................................................53
Growth of Trade Unionism 1934–1950s.......................................................................................................................................54
The Liberation War (Second Chimurenga) and its Impact
on the Land Question........................................................................................................................................................................................................................55
The Lancaster Agreement........................................................................................................................................................................................................58
Change of Power Politics.............................................................................................................................................................................................................60
Socio-economic and Political Conditions in the First Decade of
Independence 1980–1990.....................................................................................................................................................................................................61
Reform of Agricultural Institutions...............................................................................................................................................................61
The Economic Background at Independence...................................................................................................................64
Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................64
4. Land Reform Programme
Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................65
Basis for Land Reform Programmes.............................................................................................................................................................67
Goals of the Land Reform Programme................................................................................................................................................68
Resettlement Programme Targets........................................................................................................................................................................69
Resettlement Models.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................69
Agro-ecological Regions...............................................................................................................................................................................................................74
Management of Areas of Origin.............................................................................................................................................................................77
Land Reform Changes......................................................................................................................................................................................................................78
Comments on the First Phase of the Land Reform Programme.......................................................81
The Controller and Auditor General Audit of 1993......................................................................................82
Entry Barriers to the Commercial Agricultural Sector................................................................................87
Second Phase of the Pre-Fast Track Land Resettlement Programme.......................................89
Other Causes of High Demand for Land.....................................................................................................................................93
Fast Track Resettlement Phase.....................................................................................................................................................................................95
Achievements Under Fast Track..............................................................................................................................................................................99
The Impact of HIV/AIDS...................................................................................106
Conclusion.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................107
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5. Gender and Land Politics in Zimbabwe
Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................109
Theories of Land and their Implications on Gender.................................................................................109
Gender-blind Theories...............................................................................................................................................................................................................110
Gender-sensitive Theories.................................................................................................................................................................................................111
Current Debates on Women and Access to Land and
Other Resources.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................112
Conceptualising Gender and Land Reform in Zimbabwe.........................................................113
Gender, Land Tenure and Land Reform in Southern Africa................................................114
Gender and Land Tenure in Zimbabwe.......................................................................................................................................122
Women’s Activism and Land Tenure....................................................................................................................................................133
State Politics, Gender and Land Tenure........................................................................................................................................136
Conclusion.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................137
6. Presentation, Discussion and Interpretation of Findings
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................139
Biodata of Respondents...........................................................................................................................................................................................................139
Research Question 1: What was the Redistributive Nature of
Both Resettlement Phases?..............................................................................................................................................................................................147
Research Question 2: How were Beneficiaries Selected for
Both Phases?..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................151
Research Question 3: What were the Implementation Strategies
in Both Phases?..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................153
Research Question 4: To What Extent were Women Empowered
Through the two Resettlement Phases?.......................................................................................................................................164
Research Question 5(a): What was the Impact of Both Phases
on the Environment and the Ecosystem?................................................................................................................................165
Research Question 5(b): hases on
Food Security at Household Level (Impact on Livelihoods)?..................................................................171
Research Question 6: What were the Problems Faced by
Beneficiaries? ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................177
Research Question 7: How has HIV/AIDS Impacted on Production
in Both Land Reform Phases?................................................................................................................................................................................182
Research Question 8: What has been the Fate of Farm Workers
who were Displaced by the Land Reform Programmes?.................................................................191
Conclusion.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................193
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7. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations.
Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................195
Summary of the Study................................................................................................................................................................................................................195
Conclusions..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................205
Recommendations.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................209
References........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................215
Appendices...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................225
00- introduction.indd 8 09/07/2015 02:47:47List of Abbreviations
AFC Agricultural Finance Corporation
AREX Department of Agricultural Research and Extension
CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
Against Women
CFSAM Crop and Food Assessment
CFU Commercial Farmers Union
COTTCO Cotton Company of Zimbabwe
DDF District Development Fund
DFID Department of International Development
DLA Department of Land Affairs
CESCR Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
EPZ Export Processing Zone
FAO Food and Agricultural Organisation
FTLRP Fast Track Land Reform Programme
GAD Gender and Development
GMB Grain Marketing Board
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
LAMA Legal Age of Majority Act
LRAD Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development
LRRPII eform and Resettlement Programme Phase Two
LSCF Large Scale Commercial Farms
MDC Movement for Democratic Change
NCA National Constitutional Assembly
NGO Non-Governmental Organisation
PFTLRP Pre-Fast Track Land Reform Programme
00- introduction.indd 9 15/07/2015 09:32:53Gender, Politics and Land Use in Zimbabwe, 1980–2012x
PLAS State Purchase for Lease
SAPs Structural Adjustment Programmes
SLAG Settlement African Land Grant
SSCF Small Scale Commercial Farm
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNECA Uations Economic Commission for Africa
WFP World Food Programme
WID Women in Development
WLLG Women and Land Lobby Group
ZANLA Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army
ZANU PF Zimbabwational Union Patriotic Front
ZIC Zimbabwe Investment Centre
ZIPRA Zimbabwe People`s Revolutionary Army
ZWD Zimbabwean Dollar
ZWVA Zimbabwe War Veterans Association
00- introduction.indd 10 09/07/2015 02:47:47List of Tables
Table 3.1 Zimbabwe – History of Land Policy 1889–1979......................................................................38
Table 3.2 Land Distribution under the Land Apportionment Act 1930.........................42
Table 3.3 Livestock Production by Indigenous People...........................................................................................44
Table 3.4 Livestock Concentration in the Reserves 1963................................................................................44
Table 3.5 Rent Arrears by Blacks in 1935..............................................................................................................................................52
Table 3.6 Government Economic Policy 1980 to 2006.....................................................................................62
Table 4.1 Land Purchased for Resettlement 1980/1981 – 1987/1988..........................81
Table 4.2 Farm-size Guidelines for Resettlement.................................................................................................................92
Table 4.3 Farms Gazetted under Fast Track Programme..............................................................................103
Table 4.4 Output Trends for Key Crops FTLRP vs. 1999......................................................................105
Table 6.1 Age Range Distribution by Phase of Resettlement............................................................140
Table 6.2 istribution of Beneficiaries by Resettlement
Phase and by Gender..................................................................................................................................................................................141
Table 6.3 Educational Level of Beneficiaries..............................................................................................................................142
Table 6.4 Some Form of Agriculture Training Before or After
Resettlement...................................................................................................................................................................................................................143
Table 6.5 Status of Occupancy...........................................................................................................144
Table 6.6 Tenure of Beneficiaries............................................................................................................................................................................145
Table 6.7 Origins of Beneficiaries for Pre-Fast Track and
Fast Track Resettlements....................................................................................................................................................................148
Table 6.8 Employment Sector of Beneficiaries.....................................................................................................................150
Table 6.9 Beneficiary Selection Criteria Used in Pre-Fast
Track Resettlement..........................................................................................................................................................................................151
Table 6.10 Beneficiary Selection Criteria Used in Fast Track
Resettlement....................................................................................................................................................................................................................152
Table 6.11 Push Factors from Rural Areas............................................................................................................................................153
Table 6.12 Access to Services – Pre-Fast Track...............................................................................154
Table 6.13 Access to Services – Fast Track..............................................................................................................................................155
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