Innovative Water Resource Use and Management for Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Anthology

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Like in many parts of the world, water resources in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have been pivotal for human survival, economic growth, social development, and practicing certain religion and cultural ethos. However, in spite of the intrinsic values of water, its use and management in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without limitations. The demand for water resources is increasing mainly due to rapid population growth, industrialization and urbanization and dealing with water-related issues has been complex and challenging for sustainable growth. Whilst there are various efforts by national governments, non-government organizations and communities to effectively and efficiently utilize and manage water resources, there are few comprehensive studies in sub- Saharan Africa that show the impact of the efforts on poverty reduction. Although certain reports indicate that many SSA countries lack clear vision on how water use can be harnessed with pro-poor growth and how poor communities can be capacitated to use water for poverty reduction, there are little exhaustive studies that clearly show familiar and innovative water use and management interventions followed by communities, national governments and other stakeholders, and demonstrate the challenges and successes of the same. Cognizant of the knowledge gap, in 2012 OSSREA launched a research project on ordinary and innovative water use and management patterns and practices in SSA, with a view to generate new knowledge on unexploited opportunities that could enhance the contribution of water resources to poverty reduction. This anthology documents various issues including water use and management in agriculture especially in irrigation projects in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Zimbabwe; water harvesting in Kenya and Uganda; the role of local water use institutions in Ethiopia; and water source maintenance and protection in Uganda.

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Published 02 April 2014
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EAN13 9789994455775
Language English
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effectively and efIciently utilize and manage water resources, there are few comprehensive studies in sub- Saharan
Innovative Water Resource Use and Management for Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa
InnovativeWaterResourceUseandManagementforPovertyReductioninSubǦSaharanAfrica:AnAnthologyWith Introduction by
Paulos Chanie
OrganisationforSocialScienceResearchinEasternandSouthernAfrica(OSSREA)
© 2014 Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA)
OSSREA acknowledges the support of Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida), Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation (NORAD), and Danish Development Agency (DANIDA).
Published 2014
Printed in Ethiopia
ISBN:978-99944-55-75-1
All rights reserved.
Text layout:Alemtsehay Zewde
Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa
P.O. Box 31971, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Fax:
Tel:
251-11-1223921
251-11-1239484
E-mail: info@ossrea.net
Website: www.ossrea.net
Table of Contents
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About the Authors Introduction Water Resources Use and Management for Poverty Alleviation in Gerado Irrigation Scheme, South Wollo, Ethiopia Hassen BeshirInnovative Risk-Reduction Measures and Urban Welfare in Wastewater-Irrigated Agriculture: An Endogenous Switching Regression Approach for Nairobi, Kenya Ezekiel N. Ndunda and Eric D. Mungatana River Based Agricultural Water Use Innovations in UgandaņKabarole District: Opportunities and Challenges Kirungi Jackline Approaches to Agricultural Water Utilization and Management for Poverty Alleviation: A Case of Makonde District, Mashonaland West Province, in Zimbabwe Esther Sigauke and Rumbidza D. Katsaruware Harnessing Water for Poverty Alleviation: Water Resource Use and Management in Informal Irrigation Schemes in Nyamaropa Communal Lands, Zimbabwe KrasposyKujinga and Sunungurai Dominica ChingarandeInnovative but not Feasible: Green Water Saving Schemes at the Crossroad in Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya Chris Allan Shisanya, Cush Ngonzo Luwesi, and Joy Apiyo ObandoDrivers for Adoption of Water Harvesting Technologies Uganda nda With Reference to Lira District in Northern Region Tobias OnwengThe Role of Local Institutions in Water Use Management and its Implications for Poverty Reduction: The Case of Small-Scale Irrigation in Tigray Fredu Nega and Sintayoh Fisseha Assessment of the Impact of Innovations in Water Resource Management on Poverty in Wakiso District, Uganda Jamil Serwanga and Faisal Buyinza
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About the Authors Chris Allan Shisanya holds a PhD in Agroclimatology and is a professor at the Department of Geography. He is Dean of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya. His research works are in the areas of climate change and agriculture, integrated soil fertility management, integrated watershed management, and integrated sanitation management. Cush Ngonzo LuwesiGeography, Economics and Development teaches Studies in Kenyatta University and South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya. He holds a PhD and a MSC in Integrated Watershed Management. His research works focus on economics of water and climate change. Eric Mungatana has a PhD in Environment and Natural Resource Economics. He is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, University of Pretoria, South Africa. His research interests include natural resources accounting, non-market valuation, integrated ecological-economic modeling, water resources economics, and applied agricultural production economics. Esther Sigaukea MSc. in Environmental Policy and Planning. She is has currently a lecturer in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies and Programme Coordinator at Zimbabwe Open University. Her research interest is in the areas of waste management, conservation agriculture techniques, food systems and food security, climate change and variability, as well as water resources use and management Ezekiel N. Ndunda has a PhD in Environmental and Natural Resource Economics and is a lecturer in the Department of Environmental Science, School of Environmental Studies, at Kenyatta University, Kenya. His research interests include environmental economics, resource economics, health economics, production economics and micro-econometrics. Fredu Nega is a research fellow at the Horn Economic and Social Policy Institute (HESPI), Ethiopia. He has a PhD in economics and his research interests include poverty analysis, food security and economic growth. Hassen Beshira PhD in Agricultural Economics. He is an assistant holds professor and Head of the Department of Agricultural Economics at Wollo University, Ethiopia. He has done research on small-holder agriculture, poverty and technology adoption. Jamil Serwanga has a PhD in Economics and is a senior lecturer in the Department of Economics at Zanzibar University, Tanzania. His research interests includepoverty, rural development, as well as Islamic economics finance and banking.
About the Authors
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Faisal Buyinzahas a PhD in Economics and is a lecturer at the School of Economics, Makerere University, Uganda. He has done research on infant and child mortality, education, climate change,performance of manufacturing firms and related areas. Kirungi Jacklineis a PhD fellow at Makerere Institute of Social Research (MISR), Uganda. She has done research on gender and natural resources (land and water) development. Krasposy Kujingaa PhD candidate in Natural Resources Management is at the Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana. He has done research on water governance (policies, laws and institutions), water security, climate change adaptation, land and forests management, poverty and livelihoods and gender mainstreaming. Rumbidzai Debra Katsaruware is a lecturer in the Department of Agricultural Management at Zimbabwe Open University. One of her research interests is low input crop production in smallholder farming. Sintayoh Fisshahas a PhD in International Development Economics and is an assistant professor at Mekelle University. Her research interest is on aid, growth, poverty, gender, land, water, and food security. Sunungurai Chingarande has a PhD in Sociology and is a Pro-Vice Chancellor at Zimbabwe Ezekiel Guti University. Her research interests are in the areas of gender, land reform and livelihoods. Tobias Onweng is a Research Associate, Africa Leadership Institute, Kampala, and Director of the Food and Nutrition Security Directorate, Development Training and Research Centre (DETREC), Northern Uganda. He holds an MA in Rural Development. His research interests include food security, disaster mitigation and indigenous knowledge in agriculture. Paulos Chanie has a PhD in Development Studies (2007) from the International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University, The Hague, Netherlands. During his career life, he has been teaching in Addis Ababa University, doing research and consulting local and international organisations in the areas of public policy and administration, development management, decentralisation and civil service reform. He has published in the areas of public service reform and management, ethnic politics, neo-patrimonialism, and fiscal federalism. He is currently an Assistant Professor at Addis Ababa University and Director of Research at the Organisation for Social Science research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA).
Introduction Paulos Chanie Like in many parts of the world, water resources in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have been pivotal for human survival, economic growth, social development, and practicing certain religion and cultural ethos. Water in this region is used for drinking, keeping hygiene and sanitation, irrigation, energy production, industrial use, transportation, but to mention a few. Water also shapes occupational and gender identities and relations at household and community levels in terms of beliefs, practices and division of labor. In many communities of the region, water use patterns reflect ideology and political beliefs about entitlement systems, rights and structures of communal or individual ownership; and play a significant role in indigenous beliefs, religious practices, rituals, songs and socialization activities. Moreover, water has been very crucial in the region’s history, especially in its use in bridging gaps and contradictions in society, and even in inspiring people in their fight against colonial oppression as in the case of the ‘Maji Maji’ war against the Germans in Tanzania or more recently the ‘Mayi Mayi’ movement against oppressive regimes in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ‘Maji’ and ‘Mayi’ both mean water. However, in spite of the intrinsic values of water, its use and management in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without limitations. In this region, the demand for water resources is increasing from time to time mainly due to rapid population growth, industrialization and urbanization. Dealing with water-related issues— especially with issues such as access to safe drinking water and sanitation; water use for irrigation, aquafarming, hydropower, industrial use, and transportation; water source maintenance and protection; water harvesting; and watershed management— has been complex and challenging for sustainable growth in the region. For instance, many coastal cities in SSA, which are endowed with potential alternative water transport systems, are dependent on road transport and incur heavy costs in terms of fuel, pollution, delays, accidents and environmental degradation. In addition, the abundant fishing resource in many of the countries in the region is exploited by foreign companies with little benefit to local communities. In general, weaknesses in the use and management of water are putting heavy pressure on overall economic and socio-economic development and threatening environmental sustainability. The failure to utilize water resources optimally and the limited contribution of water resources to poverty reduction in SSA is also reflected by the fact that for many poor communities water contributes to diseases and disasters more than to health, wealth creation and livelihoods. In these communities, even some of the destructive water weeds, such as the hyacinth, present a challenge while they should have been used, as is done in Vietnam, as raw material for making furniture or as manure of growing mushrooms and vanilla.
Paulos Chanie. Introduction
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Whilst there are various efforts by national governments, non-government organizations and communities to effectively and efficiently utilize and manage water resources, there are few comprehensive studies in sub-Saharan Africa that show the impact of the efforts on poverty reduction. Although certain reports indicate that many SSA countries lack clear vision on how water use can be harnessed with pro-poor growth and how poor communities can be capacitated to use water for poverty reduction, there are little exhaustive studies that clearly show familiar and innovative water use and management interventions followed by communities, national governments and other stakeholders, and demonstrate the challenges and successes of the same. Cognizant of the knowledge gap, in 2012 OSSREA launched a research project on ordinary and innovative water use and management patterns and practices in SSA, with a view to generate new knowledge on unexploited opportunities that could enhance the contribution of water resources to poverty reduction. The project aimed at making scientific assessments of the challenges and successes of ordinary and innovative water use and management systems in urban and rural communities; examining national and sub-national government policies, programs and projects that are put in place to enhance the use of water resources for poverty alleviation; as well as suggesting potential innovative strategies, policies and projects that can be put in place by communities, national and sub-national governments and other stakeholders to unleash the potential of water to contribute to poverty reduction. In response to the call, 40 research proposals were received and reviewed, of which 12 research proposals were accepted for funding. Subsequently, OSSREA organized a research methodology training workshop on ‘Innovative Water Resources Use and Management for Poverty Reduction in sub-Saharan Africa’ for the 12 research grant winners drawn from 6 countries (Ethiopia: 3; Kenya: 2; Tanzania: 1; Uganda: 3; Zambia: 1; and Zimbabwe: 2). The workshop was organized to help grantees fine-tune their research proposals and refine their data collection and analysis methods. Out of the 12 accepted proposals, 9 were completed and submitted for publication. The authors of the completed research projects were requested to abridge their long research manuscripts and submit a 20 – 25 pages long chapter to be included in this manuscript entitled:Innovative Water Resources Use and Management for Poverty Alleviation in sub Saharan Africa. This anthology documents various issues including water use and management in agriculture especially in irrigation projects in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Zimbabwe; water harvesting in Kenya and Uganda; the role of local water use institutions in Ethiopia; and water source maintenance and protection in Uganda. The anthology constitutes nine chapters, the first five of which deal with water use and management in agriculture. The remaining four chapters