Leadership Strategies, Economic Activity, and Interregional Interaction: Social Complexity in Northeast China

Leadership Strategies, Economic Activity, and Interregional Interaction: Social Complexity in Northeast China

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English

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An attempt to render Chinese archaeology more accessible to Western readers through a detailed case study of approximately 16,000 years of cultural development in northeastern China. The author addresses prehistoric sociopolitical processes in the Dongbei region through an analysis of both his and other researchers' field data and demonstrates the potential contribution of conducting archaeological research into anthropology-related issues in China.

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Published 01 January 1999
Reads 10
EAN13 0306471647
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Language English

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Chapter
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Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Chapter2DichotomiesReconciling the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Social Evolution, AntiEvolution, and Heterarchy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Indigenous Processes and External Influences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Ideology: Active Factor or EpiPhenomenon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Managerial versus Exploitative Leadership. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Formalist and Substantivist Views on Prehistoric Economy. . . . . . . . .34 Multidimensional Framework for the Study of Sociopolitical Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Chapter 3The Paradigm of Chinese Archaeology and the Archaeology of Northeast China. . . . . . . . . . .47 The Development of Chinese Archaeology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 TheArchaeology of the Chifeng Area and of Northeast China. . . . . . .5 3 The Chifeng Field Research:Theoretical and Methodological Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Methodological Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Methodology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Geographic Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Geography and Climate of the Chifeng Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Geography of the Survey Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Prehistoric Environmental and Climatic Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
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Chapter4Hongshan and Related Cultures (c .4500 2200B.C.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Settlement Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 3 Habitation Sites and Domestic Artifacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Graves, Ritual Sites, and Associated Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Social Complexity of the Hongshan Polities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 3 Xiaoheyan:ATransition Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Chapter 5Lower Xiajiadian Period (c . 2300 1600B.C.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Structures and Artifacts Found at Lower Xiajiadian Sites. . . . . . . . . . .9 1 Walls and Defense Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 1 Internal Site Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Houses and Domestic Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 Artifacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 Burials and Cemeteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Site Locations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Geographic Limits of the Lower Xiajiadian Polity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Economic Base and Craft Specialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Political Organization of the Lower Xiajiadian Polity . . . . . . . . . . 121 Sociolpolitical Synthesis of the Lower Xiajiadian System . . . . . . . 137
Chapter6Upper Xiajiadian Period(c.1000600C.). . . .143 B. Habitation Sites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 Burials and Cemeteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 148 Artifacts of the Upper Xiajiadian Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 Ceramics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 Stone Artifacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153 Bone Artifacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154 Bronze Artifacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 Economic Base. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Social Complexity among Upper Xiajidian Polities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
Chapter7WarringStatesto theHan (5th Century. . B C to3rd CenturyA.D.)o 12thand Liao (10th t CenturyA.D.)Periods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179 General Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 Environmental Changes and Agricultural Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
CONTENTS
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Chapter8Diachronic Analysis of Processes in the Chifeng Area and Northeast China. . . . . . . .185 AnOverview of the Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Ideology and Sociopolitical Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 Population Aggregation and Political Hierarchy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192 The Emergence of Pastoralism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 Interregional Interaction and Social Changes in Northeast China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 Interregional Interaction during the Lower Xiajiadian Period.200 . . . . Interregional Interactions during the Upper Xiajiadian Period. . . .212
Chapter9Conclusion and Suggestions for Future Archaeological Research in the Chifeng Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227 Contributions of the Multidimensional Theoretical Framework for ChineseArchaeology and Research of Anthropological Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227 Multidimensional Conjunction and Types of Sociopolitical Entities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231 Future Research in the Chifeng Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234 Suggestions for Future Research into the Hongshan Period. . . . . .235 Suggestions for Future Research into the Lower Xiajiadian Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236 Suggestions for Future Research into the Upper Xiajiadian Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239
Appendix: Glossary of Chinese Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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